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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That ground water, unconfined is water in an aquifer that has a water table. synonymous with phreatic ground water [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
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Your search for resuspension (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
Processes controlling colloid composition in a fractured and karstic aquifer in eastern Tennessee, USA, 1998, Mccarthy J. F. , Shevenell L. ,
Groundwater was sampled from a number of wells along recharge pathways between fractured shale and karstic formations to evaluate the chemical and hydrologic mechanisms controlling the nature and abundance of groundwater colloids. The colloids recovered using low flow rate purging and sampling exhibited a composition and abundance consistent with lithology, flow paths, and effects of hydrology and aqueous chemistry on colloid mobilization and stability. In general, the larger-size colloids and Ca-containing colloids were more abundant in the karstic lithologies, while Na-containing colloids were more important in the shales. The composition of the colloids reflected recharge pathways from the fractured shale and dolomite formations on the ridges into the limestone in the valley floor. The Mg-colloids in the limestone reflect the possible contributions from the dolomite, while the Na, K, and Si reflect possible contributions from the shale, However, it was not possible to use the colloid composition as a signature to demonstrate colloid transport from one lithology to another. Mixing of recharge water from the shale with groundwater within the limestone formation and precipitation/dissolution reactions could account for the colloids present in the limestone without invoking transport of specific shale-derived colloids into the limestone formation. The abundance of colloids in groundwater appears to be controlled by both chemical factors affecting colloid stability, as well as physical factors related to hydrology (storm-driven recharge and water velocities). In general, colloids were more abundant in wells with low ionic strength, such as shallow wells in water table aquifers near sources of recharge at the top of the ridges, Increases in cation concentrations due to dissolution reactions along Bow paths were associated with decreases in colloid abundance. However, in spite of elevated ionic strength, colloid concentrations tended to be unexpectedly high in karstic wells that were completed in cavities or water-bearing fractures. The higher levels of colloids appear to be related to storm-driven changes in chemistry or flow rates that causes resuspension of colloids settled within cavities and fractures. Published by Elsevier Science B.V

Transfer of bacteria-contaminated particles in a karst aquifer: evolution of contaminated materials from a sinkhole to a spring, 2003, Dussartbaptista L, Massei N, Dupont Jp, Jouenne T,
The transport of particle-associated bacteria during rain events in karst waters has been investigated. In this aim, we studied the correlations between water turbidity and enumerations of sessile (attached) and planktonic (non-attached) bacteria. We monitored physicochemical, i.e. turbidity, electrical conductivity, size and nature of the transported particles, and bacteriological properties of waters since their infiltration on a karst plateau to their discharge at a karstic spring. Results showed a decrease of the concentration of sessile bacteria at the sinkhole for high turbidities. This phenomenon might be explained by the arrival of lower contaminated material. On the other hand, the amount of sessile bacteria at the spring was not influenced by the turbidity values. These data demonstrated that slightly contaminated larger particles were not recovered, whereas small-size particles, which exhibited a higher bacterial contamination, were directly transferred (i.e. not affected by intra-karstic deposition) through the aquifer. Our study highlighted some significant differences between the bacteriological time series at the sinkhole and at the spring, which characterizes the storage/resuspension function of the considered karst system. Moreover, we show a decrease of the concentration of planktonic bacteria after transport through the system whereas no reduction of the sessile population occur-red. The present data confirm that turbidity does not constitute a good indicator for bacterial contamination: if high turbidity corresponds to high bacterial contamination, low turbidity does not systematically exclude a risk of contamination by sessile organisms. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Assessment of direct transfer and resuspension of particles during turbid floods at a karstic spring, 2003, Massei N. , Wang H. Q. , Dupont J. P. , Rodet J. , Laignel B. ,
Turbid water can be the source of important sanitary problems in karstic regions. It is the case of the Pays de Caux, in Haute Normandie, where the main resource in drinking water is provided by the chalk aquifer. In the case of the typical binary karst of the Pays de Caux, turbidity results from the input in sinkholes of turbid surface water induced by erosion on the plateaus. At some spring tappings, water may be very turbid in period of intense rainfall. The turbidity observed at a karstic spring is a complex signal which contains a part of direct transfer and a part of resuspension of the particles being transported. The aim of this study is turbidigraph separation, which would permit to distinguish the direct transfer and resuspension components of the turbidigraph. These two components are separated by comparing the elementary surface storm-derived water fluxes and elementary turbidity signals at the spring. The procedure takes place in three phases: (i) spring hydrograph separation by means of a two components mixing model (surface water and karstic groundwater) using specific electrical conductivity, (ii) decomposition of storm-derived water flux and turbidity thanks to the second-derivative method, (iii) comparison of the transfer times (approximate tomodal times) of the elementary turbidity and surface water flux signals, respectively. The mass corresponding to direct transfer, computed after signal decomposition, is then used to re-calculate a particle recovery rate, which passes so from 514 to 373%. Relations between particle flux and hydrodynamics show that resuspension can be either the fact of the dynamics of the introduction system, or that of the chalk karstic aquifer in general (case of resuspension not associated to surface water flux). In this sense, evolution of particle flux (and consequently of turbidity) can be also a marker of the karst structure. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Escherichia coli survival in mantled karst springs and streams, northwest Arkansas Ozarks, USA, 2005, Davis Rk, Hamilton S, Van Brahana J,
Recent studies indicate fecal coliform bacterial concentrations, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), characteristically vary by several orders of magnitude, depending on the hydrology of storm recharge and discharge. E. coli concentrations in spring water increase rapidly during the rising limb of a storm hydrograph, peak prior to or coincident with the peak of the storm pulse, and decline rapidly, well before the recession of the storm hydrograph. This suggests E. coli are associated with resuspension of sediment during the onset of turbulent flow, and indicates viable bacteria reside within the spring and stream sediments. E. coli inoculated chambers were placed in spring and stream environments within the mantled karst of northwest Arkansas to assess long term (> 75 days) E. coli viability. During the 75-day study, a 4-log die-off of E. coli was observed for chambers placed in the Illinois River, and a 5-log die-off for chambers placed in Copperhead Spring. Extrapolation of the regression line for each environment indicates E. coli concentration would reach 1 most probable number (MPN)/100 g sediment at Copperhead Spring in about 105 days, and about 135 days in the Illinois River, based on a starting inoculation of 2.5 x 107 MPN E. coli/100 g of sediment. These in situ observations indicate it is possible for E. coli to survive in these environments for at least four months with no fresh external inputs

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