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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That thermal stratification is the stratification of water in reservoirs due to thermal-density differences [16].?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for retention (Keyword) returned 25 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 25
LATE-STAGE DOLOMITIZATION OF THE LOWER ORDOVICIAN ELLENBURGER GROUP, WEST TEXAS, 1991, Kupecz J. A. , Land L. S. ,
Petrography of the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group, both in deeply-buried subsurface cores and in outcrops which have never been deeply buried, documents five generations of dolomite, three generations of microquartz chert, and one generation of megaquartz. Regional periods of karstification serve to subdivide the dolomite into 'early-stage', which predates pre-Middle Ordovician karstification, and 'late-stage', which postdates pre-Middle Ordovician karstification and predates pre-Permian karstification. Approximately 10% of the dolomite in the Ellenburger Group is 'late-stage'. The earliest generation of late-stage dolomite, Dolomite-L1, is interpreted as a precursor to regional Dolomite-L2. L1 has been replaced by L2 and has similar trace element, O, C, and Sr isotopic signatures, and similar cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron images. It is possible to differentiate L1 from L2 only where cross-cutting relationships with chert are observed. Replacement Dolomite-L2 is associated with the grainstone, subarkose, and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies, and with karst breccias. The distribution of L2 is related to porosity and permeability which focused the flow of reactive fluids within the Ellenburger. Fluid inclusion data from megaquartz, interpreted to be cogenetic with Dolomite-L2, yield a mean temperature of homogenization of 85 6-degrees-C. On the basis of temperature/delta-O-18-water plots, temperatures of dolomitization ranged from approximately 60 to 110-degrees-C. Given estimates of maximum burial of the Ellenburger Group, these temperatures cannot be due to burial alone and are interpreted to be the result of migration of hot fluids into the area. A contour map of delta-O-18 from replacement Dolomite-L2 suggests a regional trend consistent with derivation of fluids from the Ouachita Orogenic Belt. The timing and direction of fluid migration associated with the Ouachita Orogeny are consistent with the timing and distribution of late-stage dolomite. Post-dating Dolomite-L2 are two generations of dolomite cement (C1 and C2) that are most abundant in karst breccias and are also associated with fractures, subarkoses and grainstones. Sr-87/Sr-86 data from L2, C1, and C2 suggest rock-buffering relative to Sr within Dolomite-L2 (and a retention of a Lower Ordovician seawater signature), while cements C1 and C2 became increasingly radiogenic. It is hypothesized that reactive fluids were Pennsylvanian pore fluids derived from basinal siliciclastics. The precipitating fluid evolved relative to Sr-87/Sr-86 from an initial Pennsylvanian seawater signature to radiogenic values; this evolution is due to increasing temperature and a concomitant evolution in pore-water geochemistry in the dominantly siliciclastic Pennsylvanian section. A possible source of Mg for late-stage dolomite is interpreted to be from the dissolution of early-stage dolomite by reactive basinal fluids

HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DEFORESTATION OF THE STONE FOREST KARST AQUIFERS OF SOUTH CHINA, 1992, Huntoon P. W. ,
Stone forest aquifers comprise an important class of shallow, unconfined karstic aquifers in the south China karst belt. They occur under flat areas such as floors of karst depressions, stream valleys, and karst plains. The frameworks for the aquifers are the undissolved carbonate spires and ribs in epikarst zones developed on carbonate strata. The ground water occurs within clastic sediments which infill the dissolution voids. The aquifers are thin, generally less than 100 meters thick, and are characterized by large lateral permeabilities and small storage. The result is that the aquifers are difficult to manage because recharge during the rainy season moves rapidly out of the aquifers. Water levels fall sharply as the dry season progresses and the ground-water supply falls off accordingly. The magnitude and duration of the seasonal recharge pulse that replenishes the stone forest aquifers have been severely impacted by massive post-1958 deforestation in the south China karst region. Water that was formerly retained beyond the wet season in the forested uplands, later to be released to the stone forest aquifers under the lowland plains, now passes quickly through the system during the wet season. The loss of this seasonal upland storage has resulted in both a reduction in the volume of recharge to the lowland stone forest aquifers and a shortening of the seasonal recharge event. The result is accelerated water-level declines in the stone forest aquifers as the dry season progresses which, in turn, causes premature dewatering of wells and decreased spring discharges. This response is compounded by increased ground-water withdrawals as the people attempt to offset the declining supply. Management of the total water-supply system requires not only tinkering with the aquifer, but massive reforestation efforts to restore dry season water retention in the upland parts of the watersheds

Morphological affinities of the proximal ulna from Klasies River main site: Archaic or modern?, 1996, Churchill Se, Pearson Om, Grine Fe, Trinkaus E, Holliday Tw,
The Middle Stone Age (MSA) asociated hominids from Klasies River Mouth (KRM) have taken on a key role in debate about the origins of modern humans, with their craniofacial remains seen as either representing the earliest well-dated modern humans in southern Africa or orthognathic late archaic humans. Diagnostic postcranial remains from Klasies are few, but one specimen-a proximal right ulna from the lower SAS member-is useful For assessing the morphological affinities of these hominids. Canonical variates analysis using 14 proximal ulnar dimensions and comparative data from European, west Asian and African archaic humans, and Levantine Mousterian, European Upper Paleolithic, African Epipaleolithic and diverse recent modern human samples (many of recent African descent) were employed to assess the morphological affinities of this specimen. Results suggest an archaic total morphological pattern for the Klasies ulna. Analysis of diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry reveals an ulnar shaft with relatively thick cortical bone, but the specimen cannot be readily distinguished from Neandertals or early anatomically modem humans on the basis of shaft cross-sectional properties. If the isolated ulna from Klasies is indicative of the general postcranial morphology of these hominids, then the MSA-associated humans from KRM may not be as modern as has been claimed from the craniofacial material. It ii: possible also that the skeletal material from KRM reflects mosaic evolution-retention of archaic postcranial characteristics. perhaps indicating retention of archaic habitual behavior patterns, in hominids that were becoming craniofacially modern. (C) 1996 Academic Press Limited

Dedolomitization as a driving mechanism for karst generation in Permian Blaine formation, southwestern Oklahoma, USA, 1997, Raines M. A. , Dewers T. A. ,
Cyclic deposits of Permian shales, dolomites, and halite and gypsum-bearing strata in the Blaine Formation of Southwestern Oklahoma contain abundant karst features. The present study shows that an important mechanism of karst development in these sequences is dedolomitization, wherein gypsum and dolomite in close spatial proximity dissolve and supersaturate groundwaters with respect to calcite. The net loss of mass accompanying this process (dolomite and gypsum dissolution minus calcite precipitation) can be manifest in secondary porosity development while the coupled nature of this set of reactions results in the retention of undersaturated conditions of groundwater with respect to gypsum. The continued disequilibrium generates karst voids in gypsum-bearing aquifers, a mineral-water system that would otherwise rapidly equilibrate. Geochemical modeling (using the code PHRQPITZ, Plummer et al 1988) of groundwater chemical data from Southwestern Oklahoma from the 1950's up to the present suggests that dedolomitization has occurred throughout this time period in evaporite sequences in Southwestern Oklahoma. Reports from groundwater well logs in the region of vein calcite suggest secondary precipitation, an observation in accord with dedolomite formation In terms of the amounts of void space produced by dissolution, dedolomitization can dominate gypsum dissolution alone, especially in periods of quiescent aquifer recharge when gypsum-water systems would have otherwise equilibrated and karst development ceased. Mass balance modeling plus molar volume considerations show that for every cubic cm of original rock (dolomite plus gypsum), there is 0.54 cm(3) of calcite and 0.47 cm(3) of void space produced Only slightly more pore space results if the dedolomitization reaction proceeds by psuedomorphic replacement of dolomite by calcite than in a reaction mechanism based on conservation of bicarbonate

Hydrogeological exploration of the Rjecina river spring in the Dinaric Karst., 1997, Biondic B. , Dukaric F. , Kuhta M. , Biondic R.
The Rjecina spring is one of the major springs in the Dinaric Karst. It appears at the contact between permeable carbonate and impermeable clastic rocks, with a discharge of up to 120 m3/s but it dries up during the dry seasons. The spring occurs close to the town of Rijeka, 325 m above sea level and offers an outstanding opportunity to cover gravitationally the public water demand of a town of about 200 000 inhabitants, and turistic needs of the whole region. This hydrogeological research project is a part of efforts to solve the problems of water deficiency during the dry summer seasons up to a maximum of three months. It was necessary to enter the parts of karst aquifer that are active in time of any outflow from the Rjecina spring by complex geological, hydrogeological and geophysical exploration accompanied with deep exploratory boreholes. During earlier explorations, it was determined that there are no active inflows in the immediate hinterland of the spring and that it is necessary to discover the inflows from other karst structures, that behave as retentions of karst springs in the zones of permanent discharge. The presence of multiple overthrusted structures in the zone around the spring site suggests the existence of deep zones of water retention, which may be reached by an access gallery from the Rjecina canyon. This work represents a substantial change in the exploration methodology for Dinaric Karst aquifers, because it directs the researchers toward deep, unknown retention spaces, which contain large reserves of high-quality groundwater outside urban areas.

Comparison of stormwater management in a karst terrane in Springfield, Missouri - case histories, 1999, Barner Wl,
Control of stormwater in sinkhole areas of Springfield, MO has involved the utilization of several standard approaches: concrete-lined channels draining into sinkholes; installation of drainage pipes into the sinkhole 'eyes' (swallow holes); filling of sinkholes; elaborate drains or pumps to remove stormwater from one sinkhole and discharging into another drainage basin or sinkhole; and enlargement of swallow holes by excavation to increase drainage capacity. Past planning considerations and standard engineering approaches have resulted in flooding of sinkholes and drainage areas, including residential, industrial and commercial developments. Having recognized the inadequacy of existing designs to control flooding and the need to accommodate increased runoff from future development, the City of Springfield adopted an ordinance (effective 19 June 1989 and modified in 1990 and 1993) in response to public pressure and concerns over flooding in sinkholes and sinkhole drainage areas. Three sites were analyzed to examine the effectiveness of contrasting design approaches to stormwater management. These sites differ in vegetation, on-site/off-site considerations, and types of development proposed. All three sites are located within the East Cherry Street Sinkhole Area. The first site, a wooded tract with unmodified sinkholes was cleared and developed for residential use. Discharge of stormwater was directed into sinkholes, and erosion control consisted of hydro-mulching and sedimentation fences in sinkhole areas. East of this location are two parcels which differ in removal of vegetation and off-site drainage relationships. Stormwater design in these sites was adapted for modifications made to sinkholes during railroad and highway construction several decades earlier. Sediment fencing, hydro-mulching and detention berms augment infiltration, restrict erosion, retard discharge to sinkholes, and incorporate off-site considerations. Ongoing observations of stormwater behavior indicate problems of flooding and sediment control at the western site but minimal disruptions of existing drainage patterns at the eastern sites. Design calculation for the western site show adequate volume retention in sinkholes, but different design approaches were implemented to 'soften' the impact of stormwater discharging into these sinkholes, allowing for minimal disruptions in the natural drainage network. The lack of recognition of sinkholes as integral parts of dynamic hydrologic systems may result in problems with on-site/off-site drainage. Standard engineering designs for stormwater detention are not appropriate for the hydraulic characteristics of the shallow karst drainage network. While runoff estimations are conservative, the design calculations fall short of adequately addressing actual stormwater runoff characteristics. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Cave diving explorations in the spring of Rjecina., 1999, Kuhta M.
The spring of Rjecina is one of the biggest springs in the area of Dinaric Karst. It is situated approximately 10 km in the North from the town of Rijeka. As a part of the last hydrogeological explorations cave diving team of SK from Zagreb performed the cave diving investigation of the water covered cave canals of the spring. The total length of the spring karstic system has been increased on 260 m with final reached point on depth of 50.5 m. Based on the results of cave diving exploration as well as on analysis of all the former investigations the major conclusions can be made. First of all, upper and lower inlet canals of the spring are hydraulically quite separated. Further, it can be supposed that in the background, they are in continuation of the separated retention areas. In the dry period both underground canals have no direct connection with the retention areas and the water present in the spring is only the rest of the last flowing out "captured" in the underground caves. It means that the possibilities of obtaining considerable quantities of the groundwater in the spring itself (in the dry period) by overpumping, i.e. by considerably lowering the water level in spring, are very small and the investigations should be directed towards another solutions. Although the mentioned conclusions are based on the data obtained at complete hydrogeological processing, it is important to stress the considerable contribution of the speleologic and cave diving investigations. It has been proved that these investigations are very important in karst areas. With undoubtedly important information concerning morphology of underground, which is the supposition for planning and performing the investigation works and other operations, speleologic and cave diving observations con contribute better understanding of the complex hydrogeological relations.

Drainage-basin-scale geomorphic analysis to determine reference conditions for ecologic restoration--Kissimmee River, Florida, 2000, Warne Andrew G. , Toth Louis A. , White William A. ,
Major controls on the retention, distribution, and discharge of surface water in the historic (precanal) Kissimmee drainage basin and river were investigated to determine reference conditions for ecosystem restoration. Precanal Kissimmee drainage-basin hydrology was largely controlled by landforms derived from relict, coastal ridge, lagoon, and shallow-shelf features; widespread carbonate solution depressions; and a poorly developed fluvial drainage network. Prior to channelization for flood control, the Kissimmee River was a very low gradient, moderately meandering river that flowed from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee through the lower drainage basin. We infer that during normal wet seasons, river discharge rapidly exceeded Lake Okeechobee outflow capacity, and excess surface water backed up into the low-gradient Kissimmee River. This backwater effect induced bankfull and peak discharge early in the flood cycle and transformed the flood plain into a shallow aquatic system with both lacustrine and riverine characteristics. The large volumes of surface water retained in the lakes and wetlands of the upper basin maintained overbank flow conditions for several months after peak discharge. Analysis indicates that most of the geomorphic work on the channel and flood plain occurred during the frequently recurring extended periods of overbank discharge and that discharge volume may have been significant in determining channel dimensions. Comparison of hydrogeomorphic relationships with other river systems identified links between geomorphology and hydrology of the precanal Kissimmee River. However, drainage-basin and hydraulic geometry models derived solely from general populations of river systems may produce spurious reference conditions for restoration design criteria

Mn-Fe deposits in shallow cryptic marine environment: examples in northwestern Mediterranean submarine caves, 2001, Allouc J, Harmelin Jg,
Black coating of hard substrates by Mn and Fe oxides has long been reported from shallow, dark, submarine caves. However, these littoral metallic deposits have never been studied in detail, despite expected analogies with deep-sea polymetallic crusts. Submarine caves are characterized by darkness and low rates of exchanges with the open sea. Lack of primary production and confinement of inner water bodies result in marked oligotrophy and extremely reduced biomass, i.e. conditions close to those prevailing in deep-sea habitats. Field evidences suggested that the formation of Mn-Fe coatings was closely tied to these particular environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the detailed features of Mn-Fe coatings from dark caves with different local conditions, and to try to identify the processes responsible for their deposition. Study sites and methods Three sublittoral, single-entrance, caves were sampled by scuba diving along the coasts of Provence (France, Mediterranean Sea) (fig. 1). The first site is a large karstic cave (Tremies Cave, 16 m depth at entrance floor, 60 m long; Marseille-Cassis area) with an ascending profile which results in a buffered thermal regime and markedly oligotrophic conditions due to warm water trapping in its upper part (fig. 1 and 2). Wall fragments were sampled at 30 m (medium confinement : zone B) and 60 in (strong confinement : zone C) from the cave entrance. The second site is a large tubular cavity open in conglomerate formations (3PP Cave, 15 m depth at entrance floor, 120 m long; La Ciotat) with a descending profile which results in relative permanence of winter temperatures within the inner parts, complex water circulation and presumed greater input of sedimented particles than in the preceding cave (fig.1 and 2). Wall samples were taken at 25 m, 70 in and 100 m from entrance. The third site is a small, horizontal, cave open in quartzite formations (Bagaud Cave, 7 in depth at entrance floor, about 10 m long; WNW of Port-Cros Island, bay of Hyeres). Sampling was performed on walls of a narrow corridor between an anterior room and a smaller inner room. A sporadic outflow of continental waters is located in the inner room. The samples were preserved in 50% ethylic alcohol or studied soon after their sampling. Before carbon coating and SEM examination, or microanalyses with SEM-associated spectrometers, they were treated in a 33% Chlorox solution and thereafter washed in demineralized water and dried. Micromorphology At low-medium magnification (<20,000), the aspect of coatings varies between caves and, especially, between inner-cave locations. All the described structures are made up of Mn and Fe oxides. In Tremies Cave, coatings of walls from zone B are composed of irregular erected constructions (height : 10s to 100s μm) formed by the aggregation of roughly ovoid primary concretions of about 10 μm (fig. 3). The surface of those primary concretions displays numerous lacunose to reticulate films (pores, about 0.5 μm in diameter, are often subrounded). Remnants of these films and organomorphic corpuscles occur also within the primary concretions (fig. 4). On younger substrates (broken wall exposed since 1970), primary concretions are poorly developed and no prominent construction is visible (fig. 5). In more confined conditions (zone C), the erected constructions of ancient coatings are smaller and less numerous than in zone B but are well individualized (fig. 6). In this zone: C, besides some remnants of lacunose to reticulate films (fig. 7), there is an appearance of filaments and ovoid corpuscles (height/width : 10-30/5-15 μm), which seem to be linked to filaments by a short stalk (fig. 8). In 3 PP Cave, at 25-70 m from entrance, wall coatings present porous heaps of primary concretions (fig. 9). The surface and the inside of the latter comprise remnants of lacunose to reticulate films that evoke those observed in Tremies Cave (fig. 10 and 11). On younger substrates (hard parts of sessile invertebrates), coatings are restricted to micrometric organomorphic corpuscles with some remnants of lacunose or fibrous films (fig. 12). At 100 in from the entrance, coatings are shaped by numerous erected constructions, more or less coalescing (fig. 13). Besides remnants of lacunose films, the primary concretions contain interlacing filaments (diameter : 0.2-0.3 μm) forming cords or veils (fig. 14). In Bagaud Cave, the primary concretions are aggregated in irregular heaps (fig. 15). Lacunose films are particularly frequent and tend to form three-dimensional mamillated structures that were not observed in the other caves (fig. 16). In particular, there is an appearance of tubular structures (fig. 17) and of numerous hemispheroidal structures (diameter : 4-5 μm) with an upper orifice (fig. 18 and 19). At higher magnification (20,000), whatever the cave and inner-cave location, the aspect of oxide deposits is rather smooth or, especially, microgranular (fig. 20). Mineral composition The composition of coatings is different between caves and according to their inner-cave location. In both large caves (Tremies and 3 PP), the Mn/Fe ratio increases with the distance from the cave entrance, i.e. when exchanges with the open sea diminish (fig. 21a). This trend is particularly clear in Tremies Cave, where the confinement gradient is strongly marked. Besides, the Mn/Fe ratio also seems to increase when films are present in the analysed volume (some cubic micrometers) (fig. 21b). In Bagaud Cave, the Mn/Fe ratio reaches high values despite the small size of this cave and its low confinement level. Discussion and conclusions SEM observations suggest that in each studied cave, the Mn-Fe coatings are biosedimentary deposits. Genesis of these deposits is assumed to result mainly from the replacement of biofilms (composed of cells and slime, i.e, of extracellular polymeric substance produced by microorganisms) generated by microbial populations colonizing the cave walls. Considering the darkness of the cave-locations, microbes consist mainly in bacteria, but fungi are probably responsible for the filaments and ovoids corpuscules (evoking sporocysts) occurring in innermost parts. Observations at different scales of the morphological features of oxide deposits reveal a structured organisation which varies along the strong environmental gradients (particularly the confinement level) that occur from the entrance to the innermost parts : erected constructions made up of primary concretions become more and more defined and acquire a pseudo-columnar shape. The aspect of biofilms appears to be controlled by the same environmental parameters. In open or relatively open environments, they frequently show a three-dimensional development (with frequent skullcape-like shapes), while in more confined conditions they exhibit a planar layout. These changes reflect either the adaptation of the slime-producing bacteria to the local trophic resources (correlated to the rate of exchange with the open sea) and water movements, or spatial replacement of taxa. It is assumed that slime (mainly composed of water and exopolysaccharides) induces a local increase of the concentration in dissolved Mn and acts as an ion exchange resin that allows the retention of Mn on the functional groups of EPS. These conditions promote the nucleation of Mn oxide crystallites in the slime. Then. the anionic character of Mn oxides in seawater, and their capacity to catalyse the oxydation of Mn2 to Mn4, allow the process to go on without any other biological intervention; thus, the process of crystal growth becomes possible. In caves where Mn is only supplied by seawater (Tremies and 3 PP), the average value of the Mn/Fe ratio of coatings is negatively correlated to the local availability of nutrients. This trend is probably linked to changes in the selectivity of slimes towards the processes of retention of cations, because this ratio is clearly influenced by the occurrence of biofilms. However, independently from trophic resources, the Mn/Fe ratio can be notably increased when additional Mn is provided by the seeping or flowing of continental waters (Bagaud Cave)

Hydrology, Hazards, and Geomorphic Development of Gypsum Karst in the Northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, 2001, Epstein, J. B.

Dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite in four stratigraphic units in the Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, has resulted in development of sinkholes and has affected formational hydrologic characteristics. Subsidence has caused damage to houses and water and sewage retention sites. Substratal anhydrite dissolution in the Minnelusa Formation (Pennsylvanian and Permian) has produced breccia pipes and pinnacles, a regional collapse breccia, sinkholes, and extensive disruption of bedding. Anhydrite removal in the Minnelusa probably dates back to the early Tertiary when the Black Hills was uplifted and continues today. Evidence of recent collapse includes fresh scarps surrounding shallow depressions, sinkholes more than 60 feet deep, and sediment disruption and contamination in water wells and springs. Proof of sinkhole development to 26,000 years ago includes the Vore Buffalo Jump, near Sundance, WY, and the Mammoth Site in Hot Springs, SD. Several sinkholes in the Spearfish Formation west of Spearfish, SD, which support fish hatcheries and are used for local agricultural water supply, probably originated 500 feet below in the Minnelusa Formation. As the anhydrite dissolution front in the subsurface Minnelusa moves down dip and radially away from the center of the Black Hills uplift, these resurgent springs will dry up and new ones will form as the geomorphology of the Black Hills evolves. Abandoned sinkholes and breccia pipes, preserved in cross section on canyon walls, attest to the former position of the dissolution front. The Spearfish Formation, mostly comprising red shale and siltstone, is generally considered to be a confining layer. However, secondary fracture porosity has developed in the lower Spearfish due to considerable expansion during the hydration of anhydrite to gypsum. Thus, the lower Spearfish yields water to wells and springs making it a respectable aquifer. Processes involved in the formation of gypsum ka 


Conditioning factors in flooding of karstic poljes - the case of the Zafarraya polje (South Spain), 2002, Lopezchicano A. , Calvache M. L. , Martinrosales W. , Gisbert J. ,
The Zafarraya polje undergoes periodical flooding, of which the last episode (1996-1997) was analysed in detail on this paper. On the basis of the retention curves of the two lakes that formed in the northwestern and southwestern sectors, we calculated the total infiltration capacity of the polje to have a maximum value of 3 - 3.5 m(3)/s and so we infer that when the flow of the Arroyo de la Madre exceeds this figure, there will be a risk of flooding in the polje. We also propose a model for the 1996 flood that can be extended to other similar occurrences in this and other poljes where we can establish the role played by groundwater and surface water during this flood. In response to the heavy precipitation, the flow of the Arroyo de la Madre rose abruptly, exceeding the infiltration capacity of the main swallow holes on the polje, causing first the northern lake and then the southern lake to form with only surface water supply. The water table of the karst aquifer rose sharply, reaching a situation of equilibrium between the level in the lakes and the water table in this sector of the karst aquifer that prevented infiltration through the swallow holes. In the case of the southern lake, there were even cases of swallow holes that began to operate as estavelles. During this phase of maximum flooding, one single lake was present, which was divided into two once more when the water table of the karst aquifer in the polje sector began to fall and surface supply also began to decrease. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Stable Isotope Values of Bone Organic Matter: Artificial Diagenesis Experiments and Paleoecology of Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming, 2002, Mcnulty T. H. O. M. , Calkins A. N. D. E. , Ostrom P. E. G. G. , Gandhi H. A. S. A. , Gottfried M. I. C. H. , Martin L. A. R. R. , Gage D. O. U. G. ,
The presence of original organic matter and retention of an indigenous isotopic signal in fossils have been disputed for years. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of diagenesis on bone-protein isotope values, analyses were conducted on Holocene and Pleistocene fossils from Natural Trap Cave (NTC), Wyoming. Modern cow, Bos taurus, bone was heated with and without excess water for up to 195 hours at 100{degrees}C in an inert atmosphere. Collagen and non-collagenous proteins (NCP) were extracted and analyzed isotopically. Under dry conditions, carbon and nitrogen isotope values change by less than 0.4{per thousand} during the 0 to 195 hour interval. In the presence of excess water, carbon and nitrogen isotope values change by no more than 1.0{per thousand} and 0.5{per thousand}, respectively, over 192 hours. The relative abundance of amino acids of collagen from heated bone differs by less than 10% from that of unheated collagen. Protein preservation is indicated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) that strongly indicates a portion of the original osteocalcin exists intact in samples heated for 195 hours. Good preservation of collagen in NTC fossils is implied by high collagen yields, C:N, and realistic trophic structures based on isotope values. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values of ancient collagen increase with trophic level, allow dietary assessments to be made, and differentiate between ruminant and non-ruminants. The results indicate that isotope values are resilient during simulated diagenesis and suggest that an indigenous isotopic signal can exist in well-preserved fossils such as those from NTC

Karst and vaucluse springs from the Polish Tatra Mts. Results of long-term stationary investigations, 2003, Barczyk, Grzegorz

Karst (vaucluse) springs, transporting water from fissure-karst systems, result from karst development in the area. At the same time, they are the main source of information on the hydrography of the investigated karst area. Continuous monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters in the Tatra Mountains in Poland takes place for a long time. In the mid-70-ties, the team of Prof. D. Malecka organized an observation network, with water marks along the main Tatra streams right to their outlets from the massif, and with observation points of the largest springs and vaucluse springs. Readings from water marks were collected several times each month by the observers (usually Tatra National Park employees). In 1998 the National Committee for Scientific Research approved a three-year research project entitled: "Determination of retention abilities and the dynamics of denudation in the karst areas of the Polish Tatra Mountains basing on stationary investigations of vaucluse springs". In accordance with this project, between November and December 1998 automatic limnimeters were installed in selected vaucluse (five) springs.


Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 2005, Beck B. F.

Conference Proceedings

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Contains over 70 papers addressing karst topography which impacts water resources, waste disposal, foundation stability, and a multitude of other geotechnical and environmental issues. These papers were presented at the 10th Multidisciplinary Conference held September 24-28, 2005 in San Antonio, Texas and Sponsored by the Geo-Institute of ASCE, P. E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc. and Edwards Aquifer Authority. The goal of this conference was to share knowledge and experience among disciplines by emphasizing practical applications and case studies. This proceedings will benefit environmental and geotechnical engineers, and others involved in water resources, water disposal, and foundation stability issues.

Contents:

Application of Geophysical Logging Techniques for Multi-Channel Well Design and Installation in a Karst Aquifer (by Frank Bogle, ...)

Case Studies of Massive Flow Conduits in Karst Limestone (by Jim L. Lolcama)

A Case Study of the Samanalawewa Reservoir on the Walawe River in an Area of Karst in Sri Lanka (by K. Laksiri, ...)

Characterization and Water Balance of Internal Drainage Sinkholes (by Nico M. Hauwert, ...)

Characterization of Desert Karst Terrain in Kuwait and the Eastern Coastline of the Arabian Penninsula (by Waleed Abdullah, ...)

Characterization of a Sinkhole Prone Retention Pond Using Multiple Geophysical Surveys and Closely Spaced Borings (by Nick Hudyma, ...)

Combining Surface and Downhole Geophysical Methods to Identify Karst Conditions in North-Central Iowa (by J. E. Wedekind, ...)

Complexities of Flood Mapping in a Sinkhole Area (by C. Warren Campbell, P.E.)

Conceptualization and Simulation of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio Region, Texas (by R. J. Lindgren, ...)

Database Development and GIS Modeling to Develop a Karst Vulnerability Rating for I-66, Somerset to London, KY (by Michael A. Krokonko, ...)

Design and Construction of the Foundations for the Watauga Raw Water Intake Facility in Karstic Limestone near the City of Johnson City, TN (by Tony D. Canale, P.E., ...)

Detection of Three-Dimensional Voids in Karstic Ground (by Derek V. Morris, P.E., ...)

Development and Evolution of Epikarst in Mid-Continent US Carbonates (by Tony L. Cooley, P.E.)

Dye Tracing Sewage Lagoon Discharge in a Sandstone Karst, Askov, Minnesota (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr., ...)

The Effectiveness of GPR in Sinkhole Investigations (by E. D. Zisman, P.E., ...)

Effects of Anthropogenic Modification of Karst Soil Texture on the Water Balance of ?Alta Murgia? (Apulia, Italy) (by F. Canora, ...)

Environmental Isotope Study on Recharge and Groundwater Residence Time in a covered Ordovician Carbonate Rock (by Zhiyuan Ma, ...)

Error and Technique in Fluorescent dye Tracing (by Chris Smart)

Essential Elements of Estimating Engineering Properties of Karst for Foundation Design (by Ramanuja Chari Kannan, P.E., Fellow, ASCE)

Estimating Grout Quantities for Residential Repairs in Central Florida Karst (by Larry D. Madrid, P.E., ...)

Evaluation of Groundwater Residence Time in a Karstic Aquifer Using Environmental Tracers: Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (by Lewis Land)

Experience of Regional Karst Hazard and Risk Assessment in Russia (by A. L. Ragozin, ...)

Experimental Study of Physical Models for Sinkhole Collapses in Wuhan, China (by Mingtang Lei, ...)

Fractal Scaling of Secondary Porosity in Karstic Exposures of the Edwards Aquifer (by Robert E. Mace, ...)

The Geological Characteristics of Buried Karst and Its Impact on Foundations in Hong Kong, China (by Steve H. M. Chan, ...)

Geophysical Identification of Evaporite Dissolution Structures Beneath a Highway Alignment (by M. L. Rucker, ...)

Geotechnical Analysis in Karst: The Interaction between Engineers and Hydrogeologists (by R. C. Bachus, P.E.)

The Gray Fossil Site: A Spectacular Example in Tennessee of Ancient Regolith Occurrences in Carbonate Terranes, Valley and Ridge Subpovince, South Appalachians U.S.A. (by G. Michael Clark, ...)

Ground-Water Basin Catchment Delineation by Bye Tracing, Water Table Mapping, Cave Mapping, and Geophysical Techniques: Bowling Green Kentucky (by Nicholas C. Crawford)

Groundwater Flow in the Edwards Aquifer: Comparison of Groundwater Modeling and Dye Trace Results (by Brian A. Smith, ...)

Grouting Program to Stop Water Flow through Karstic Limestone: A Major Case History (by D. M. Maciolek)

Highway Widening in Karst (by M. Zia Islam, P.E., ...)

How Karst Features Affect Recharge? Implication for Estimating Recharge to the Edwards Aquifer (by Yun Huang, ...)

Hydrogeologic Investigation of Leakage through Sinkholes in the Bed of Lake Seminole to Springs Located Downstream from Jim Woodruff Dam (by Nicholas C. Crawford, ...)

The Hydrologic Function of the soil and Bedrock System at Upland Sinkholes in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone of South-Central Texas (by A. L. Lindley)

An Integrated Geophysical Approach for a Karst Characterization of the Marshall Space Flight Center (by Lynn Yuhr, ...)

Integrated Geophysical Surveys Applied to Karstic Studies Over Transmission Lines in San Antonio, Texas (by Mustafa Saribudak, ...)

Judge Dillon and Karst: Limitations on Local Regulation of Karst Hazards (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr.)

Karst Groundwater Resource and Advantages of its Utilization in the Shaanbei Energy Base in Shaanxi Province, China (by Yaoguo Wu, ...)

Karst Hydrogeology and the Nature of Reality Revisited: Philosophical Musings of a Less Frustrated Curmudgeon (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr.)

Karst in Appalachia ? A Tangled Zone: Projects with Cave-Sized Voids and Sinkholes (by Clay Griffin, ...)

Karstic Features of Gachsaran Evaporites in the Region of Ramhormoz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwest Iran (by Arash Barjasteh)

Large Perennial Springs of Kentucky: Their Identification, Base Flow, Catchment, and Classification (by Joseph A. Ray, ...)

Large Plot Tracing of Subsurface Flow in the Edwards Aquifer Epikarst (by P. I. Taucer, ...)
Lithology as a Predictive Tool of Conduit Morphology and Hydrology in Environmental Impact Assessments (by George Veni)

Metadata Development for a Multi-State Karst Feature Database (by Yongli Gao, ...)

Micropiling in Karstic Rock: New CMFF Foundation Solution Applied at the Sanita Factory (by Marc Ballouz)

Modeling Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer Using MODFLOW-DCM (by Alexander Y. Sun, ...)

Multi-Level Monitoring Well Completion Technologies and Their Applicability in Karst Dolomite (by Todd Kafka, ...)

National-Scale Risk Assessment of sinkhole Hazard in China (by Xiaozhen Jiang, ...)

New Applications of Differential Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Time Domain Reflectometry to Modeling Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Agricultural Sinkholes (by B. F. Schwartz, ...)

Non-Regulatory Approaches to Development on Karst (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr., ...)

PA State Route 33 Over Bushkill Creek: Structure Failure and Replacement in an Active Sinkhole Environment (by Kerry W. Petrasic, P.E.)

Quantifying Recharge via Fractures in an Ashe Juniper Dominated Karst Landscape (by Lucas Gregory, ...)

Quantitative Groundwater Tracing and Effective Numerical Modeling in Karst: An Example from the Woodville Karst Plain of North Florida (by Todd R. Kincaid, ...)

Radial Groundwater Flow at Landfills in Karst (by J. E. Smith)

Residual Potential Mapping of Contaminant Transport Pathways in Karst Formations of Southern Texas (by D. Glaser, ...)

Resolving Sinkhole Issues: A State Government Perspective (by Sharon A. Hill)

Shallow Groundwater and DNAPL Movement within Slightly Dipping Limestone, Southwestern Kentucky (by Ralph O. Ewers, ...)

Sinkhole Case Study ? Is it or Isn?t it a Sinkhole? (by E. D. Zisman, P.E.)

Sinkhole Occurrence and Changes in Stream Morphology: An Example from the Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania (by William E. Kochanov)

Site Characterization and Geotechnical Roadway Design over Karst: Interstate 70, Frederick County, Maryland (by Walter G. Kutschke, P.E., ...)

Soil Stabilization of the Valley Creek Trunk Sewer Relief Tunnel (by Jeffrey J. Bean, P.E., ...)

Some New Approaches to Assessment of Collapse Risks in Covered Karsts (by Vladimir Tolmachev, ...)

Spectral Deconvolution and Quantification of Natural Organic Material and Fluorescent Tracer Dyes (by Scott C. Alexander)

Springshed Mapping in Support of Watershed Management (by Jeffrey A. Green, ...)

Sustainable Utilization of Karst Groundwater in Feicheng Basin, Shandong Province, China (by Yunfeng Li, ...)

Transport of Colloidal and Solute Tracers in Three Different Types of Alpine Karst Aquifers ? Examples from Southern Germany and Slovenia (by N. Göppert, ...)

Use of the Cone Penetration Test for Geotechnical Site Characterization in Clay-Mantled Karst (by T. C. Siegel, ...)

The Utility of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry in Monitoring Sinkhole Subsidence: Subsidence of the Devil?s Throat Sinkhole Area (Nevada, USA) (by Rana A. Al-Fares)

Void Evolution in Soluble Rocks Beneath Dams Under Limited Flow Condition (by Emmanuel S. Pepprah, ...)


Tracing of the stream flowing through cave Ferranova bua, Central Slovenia, 2006, Staut Miha, Auersperger Primo
The article discusses the characteristics of the recently discovered ground water stream in the cave Ferranova bu?a and its possible karstic hydrological system. Its upstream connections have been narrowed to few possible springs by means of logical exclusion and have yet to be confirmed. For the purpose of establishing its linkage to the downstream springs around Vrhnika a water tracing experiment has been performed. Uranine was used as a tracer and sampled in intervals of eight hours at Primcs spring, Be?kajs spring and Ko?uhs spring. The connection was proved in all three observation points, with Ko?uhs spring draining the largest quantity of the tracer. The tracer experiment evidenced that the dye was completely flushed downward in single transition curve almost without any retention.

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