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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That line of seepage is see seepage line.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for rock dissolution (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 23
Karstification without carbonic acid; bedrock dissolution by gypsum-driven dedolomitization, 1994, Bischoff Jl, Julia R, Shanks Wc, Rosenbauer Rj,
Aggressive karstification can take place where dolomite and gypsum are in contact with the same aquifer. Gypsum dissolution drives the precipitation of calcite, thus consuming carbonate ions released by dolomite. Lake Banyoles, in northeastern Spain, is a karst lake supplied by sublacustrine springs, and karstic collapse is occurring in the immediate vicinity of the lake. Lake water is dominated by Mg-Ca and SO 4 -HCO 3 , and is supersaturated with calcite that is actively accumulating in lake sediments. Water chemistry, sulfur isotope composition, local stratigraphy, and mass-balance modeling suggest that the primary karst-forming process at Lake Banyoles is dedolomitization of basement rocks driven by gypsum dissolution. Karstification takes place along the subsurface contact between the gypsiferous Beuda Formation and the dolomitic Perafita Formation. This process is here recognized for the first time to cause karstification on a large scale; this is significant because it proceeds without the addition of soil-generated carbonic acid. Gypsum-driven dedolomitization may be responsible for other karstic systems heretofore attributed to soil-generated carbonic acid

KARSTIFICATION WITHOUT CARBONIC-ACID - BEDROCK DISSOLUTION BY GYPSUM-DRIVEN DEDOLOMITIZATION, 1994, Bischoff Jl, Julia R, Shanks Wc, Rosenbauer Rj,
Aggressive karstification can take place where dolomite and gypsum are in contact with the same aquifer. Gypsum dissolution drives the precipitation of calcite, thus consuming carbonate ions released by dolomite. Lake Banyoles, in northeastern Spain, is a karst lake supplied by sublacustrine springs, and karstic collapse is occurring in the immediate vicinity of the lake. Lake water is dominated by Mg-Ca and SO4-HCO3, and is supersaturated with calcite that is actively accumulating in lake sediments. Water chemistry, sulfur isotope composition, local stratigrapy, and mass-balance modeling suggest that the primary karst-forming process at Lake Banyoles is dedolomitization of basement rocks driven by gypsum dissolution. Karstification takes place along the subsurface contact between the gypsiferous Beuda Formation and the dolomitic Perafita Formation. This process is here recognized for the first time to cause karstification on a large scale; this is significant because it proceeds without the addition of soil-generated carbonic acid. Gypsum-driven dedolomitization may be responsible for other karstic systems heretofore attributed to soil-generated carbonic acid

MESSINIAN (LATE MIOCENE) KARST ON GRAND-CAYMAN, BRITISH-WEST-INDIES - AN EXAMPLE OF AN EROSIONAL SEQUENCE BOUNDARY, 1994, Jones B. , Hunter I. G. ,
The Cayman Unconformity, which separates the Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene) from the underlying Cayman Formation (Miocene), is a sequence boundary that developed during the Messinian, when sea level was at a lowstand due to glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere. By the end of the Messinian, Grand Cayman was an atoll-like island that had an elevated peripheral rim that was up to 41 m above the central depression. The Cayman Formation contains paleocaves and paleosinkholes that were linked to the Cayman Unconformity. The topography on the Cayman Unconformity is attributed to erosional processes, because (1) there is no evidence of carbonates that formed by constructional processes (i.e., reefs, dunes) in the elevated peripheral rim, and (2) there is ample evidence of dissolutional features in the Cayman Formation. The topography developed on the interior of Grand Cayman during the Messinian was uneven. A deep, basin-like depression, with its base as much as 50 m below the peripheral rim, formed on the western part of the island. By comparison, the floor of the depression on the eastern part of the island was 20-30 m higher. The difference in the topography, which is a reflection of the amount of bedrock dissolution, suggests that the effective rainfall was highest over the western part of the island. The relief on the Cayman Unconformity and associated structures shows that base level during the Messinian karst development was at least 41 m below present-day sea level. This is also provides an estimate of the Messinian lowstand position because the base level in oceanic karst settings is usually controlled by sea level

An investigation, using the chalk karst of Haute-Normandie (France), as an example of the relationships between the surface and endokarst using a granulometric method, 1998, Lacroix M. , Leboulanger T. , Wang H. Q. , Feeny V. , Dupont J. P. , Meyer R. ,
Karst, by definition, is the result of rock dissolution. Ii the rock is not completely soluble, residues will remain ('acquired' particles). This insoluble material, present in the springs issuing From the karst body after some time lag, provides information regarding karst processes taking place within the rock body. The presence of pathways between the surface and the endokarst is reflected by an increase in the suspended particulate material (SPM) that may be considered to be 'inherited' from outside of the karst system, By the study of microgranulometric spectra the origins of the particles are differentiated and, on this basis, a classification of karst systems is proposed. The technique was applied to the chalk karat of Haute Normandie (France) by obtaining characterisations of the microgranulometric fraction of the main surface formations (clay-with-flints and loess) and that produced by dissolution of the chalk. By the comparison of these spectra with those of the SPM contained in ten karst springs, it was possible to define two types of karsts ('open' and 'closed') and their intermediates. In 'closed' karst a majority of the particles originated from the dissolution of the chalk itself, while in the 'open' karst, the majority of the particles are derived from the surface formations. This notion of 'aperture' is quite different from the conventional allogenic/authigenic karst classification which implies the formation of an impermeable residual soil that focuses surface water inputs

Mise en evidence des relations surface-endokarst par la microgranulometrie, exemple du karst crayeux haut-normand, 1998, Lacroix Michel, Leboulanger Thierry, Wang Huaqing, Feeny Veronique, Dupont Jean Paul, Meyer Robert,
Karst, by definition, is the result of rock dissolution. If the rock is not completely soluble, residues will remain ('acquired' particles). This insoluble material, present in the springs issuing from the karst body after some time lag, provides information regarding karst processes taking place within the rock body. The presence of pathways between the surface and the endokarst is reflected by an increase in the suspended particulate material (SPM) that may be considered to be 'inherited' from outside of the karst system. By the study of microgranulometric spectra the origins of the particles are differentiated and, on this basis, a classification of karst systems is proposed. The technique was applied to the chalk karst of Haute Normandie (France) by obtaining characterisations of the microgranulometric fraction of the main surface formations (clay-with-flints and loess) and that produced by dissolution of the chalk. By the comparison of these spectra with those of the SPM contained in ten karst springs, it was possible to define two types of karsts ('open' and 'closed') and their intermediates. In 'closed' karst a majority of the particles originated from the dissolution of the chalk itself, while in the 'open' karst, the majority of the particles are derived from the surface formations. This notion of 'aperture' is quite different from the conventional allogenic/authigenic karst classification which implies the formation of an impermeable residual soil that focuses surface water inputs

Influence of Pedo-chemical Field on Epi-karstification in Subtropical Humid Region-Field Monitoring and Laboratory Experiment , 1998, Pan Genxing, Tao Yuxiang, Teng Yogzhong, Xu Shenyou, Sun Yuhua, Han Fushun

The influence of pedo-chemical conditions on epi-karstification in a karst hydrogeochemical experiment site near Guilin was studied. The dissolution of limestone, and pH, CO2, HCO3- in soil and karst water under soil cover conditions was monitored by using filter tubes containing reference rock plate, and by using portable pH meter, CO2 gas meter and Aqumerck Kit. Laboratory experiments of dissolution under different soil conditions were also conducted by using leaching cylinders. In addition, 13C tracing was carried out on the samples of plant- litter- SOM-soil CO2-spring water-travertine-rock in the karst system. Soil pH, SOM status (subsequently CO2 concentration) and Ca+2 saturation constitutes a pedo-chemical field vigorously affecting the rock dissolution. The carbon in the form of HCO3- in the spring water and of CaCO3 in the travertine was closely related with the soil CO2 gas. Thus, soil carbon through the transferring pathway of air CO2-plant carbon-SOC-soil CO2 was involved in the epi-karstification process, and interface exchange of soil Ca+2, HCO3- with karst water existed in the karst hydrogeochemical flow. A modified model for epi-karstification in the studied area was suggested.


Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA, 2000, Adamski Jc,
Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict how and increase water-rock interactions. As a result, springs tend to be more susceptible to surface contamination than wells. The results of this study have important implications for the geochemical and hydrogeological processes of similar carbonate aquifers in other geographical locations. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

The suitability of carbon isotope composition as natural tracer in karst aquifer investigations, 2000, Trč, Ek Branka, Veselič, Miran, Urbanc Janko

This isotopic research is ongoing in the catchment area of the karstic spring Hubelj in the area of the Trnovsko-Banjška plateau. Changes in water chemistry and carbon isotope composition are monitored from the aquifer recharge area in precipitation water, through the unsaturated zone to the outflow from the aquifer. Special attention is given to the unsaturated zone. The results confirm that the sampled water is equilibrated with the carbonate rock and that the process of carbonate rock dissolution can be described as an open dissolution system.


Dissolution of deep carbonate rocks by fluid mixing: a discussion based on reactive transport modeling, 2003, Corbella M, Ayora C, Cardellach E,
The geochemical processes proposed until now to explain the formation of cavities in deep carbonates are difficult to reconcile with observations. We propose a mixing model of hydrothermal solutions equilibrated with carbonate. Through numerical reactive transport simulations, we observe that chemical mixing of hydrothermal solutions can generate a zone of host:rock dissolution and another of minor calcite precipitation. Variations in relative fluid velocities, pH or S content may result in the growth of the precipitation zone with respect to the dissolution one. This explains the finding of dissolution cavities in carbonate rocks with subsequent filling by carbonate minerals. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Seasonal isotopic imprint in moonmilk from Caverne de l'Ours (Quebec, Canada): implications for climatic reconstruction, 2004, Lacelle D. , Lauriol B. , Clark I. D. ,
Moonmilk, which is often seen coating walls in temperate caves, is a porous secondary calcite deposit composed of an aggregate of microcrystalline calcite and water. This study, based on moonmilk deposits found in Caverne de l'Ours, Ottawa Valley region, proposes a model for its formation based on the calcite and water isotope chemistry and evaluates its use as a climatic proxy. In Caverne de l'Ours, non-calcitic mineral inclusions protrude from the bedrock (Grenville marble) into the moonmilk, while others are entirely enclosed within the moonmilk. This observation suggests a mechanism of bedrock dissolution and reprecipitation for the formation of moonmilk, which is controlled by the changing seasonal climate in the cave. The delta(18)O of the moonmilk interstial water indicates that the condensation of water vapour occurs mostly in winter and spring. The condensation of water vapour on the surface of the walls allows for the dissolution of the Grenville marble and releases ions necessary for the precipitation of moonmilk. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C of calcite and delta(18)O of the moonmilk interstitial water indicate that precipitation of moonmilk occurs during summer and fall. During these seasons, the relative humidity in the cave decreases resulting in moonmilk growth through the slow evaporation of calcite-saturated water. A comparison of the delta(18)O record of moonmilk from caves in Gaspesie (Canada) and from Aven d'Orgnac (France) shows that this material retains temperature information valuable for paleoclimatic reconstructions

Sediment entrainment and transport in fluviokarst systems, 2004, Dogwiler T, Wicks Cm,
The primary geomorphic process active in the development of karst stream systems is generally regarded as bedrock dissolution. However, physical erosional processes may also be an important geomorphic agent in karst development. The objectives of this study were to determine the sediment transport threshold in two fluviokarst streams. The source of the sediment was internal to the karst basins. The approach used was to calculate basal and critical shear stresses from streams in two karst systems to determine if, and how frequently, storm-induced flows are capable of mobilizing stream sediment. The fluviokarst systems investigated as a part of this research are capable of transporting 50-85% of their stream substrates during bankfull discharge conditions. Based on the discharge and precipitation frequency, stream flows capable of entraining d(50) and d(85) particles occur at intervals of 2.4 and 11.7 months (0.98 yr), respectively. Thus, the sediment transport threshold in fluviokarst streams is exceeded by relatively common discharge events. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Bats and bell holes: The microclimatic impact of bat roosting, using a case study from Runaway Bay Caves, Jamaica, 2009, Lundberg J And Mcfarlane D A

The microclimatic effect of bats roosting in bell holes (blind vertical cylindrical cavities in cave roofs) in Runaway Bay Caves, Jamaica, was measured and the potential impact of their metabolism on dissolution modelled. Rock temperature measurements showed that bell holes with bats get significantly hotter than those without bats during bat roosting periods (by an average of 1.1C). The relationship is clearest for bell holes with more than about 300g aggregate bat body mass and for bell holes that are moderately wide and deep, of W:D ratio between 0.8 and 1.6. Measurement of temperature decay after abandonment showed that rock temperature returns to normal each day during bat foraging periods. Metabolic activity from a typical population of 400g bat (10 individuals) yields 41g of CO2, 417.6kJ of heat, and 35.6g of H2O in each 18hour roost period, and could produce a water film of ~0.44mm, that is saturated with CO2 at ~5%. The resultant rock dissolution is estimated at ~0.005cm3 CaCO3 per day. The metabolic heat ensures that the focus of dissolution remains vertical regardless of geological controls. A typical bell hole 1m deep may be formed in some 50,000years by this mechanism alone. Addition of other erosional mechanisms, such as direct bacterial bio-erosion, or the formation of exfoliative organo-rock complexes, would accelerate the rate of formation. The hypothesis is developed that bell holes are initiated and formed by bat-mediated condensation corrosion and are governed by geographic distribution of clustering bats and their roosting behaviour.





Coastal cave in Bahamain eolian calcarenites: Differentiating between sea caves and flank margin caves using quantitative morphology, 2010, Waterstrat, Willapa J. , Mylroie, John E. , Owen, Athena M. And Mylroie, Joan R.

Coastal areas on carbonate islands commonly contain two types of caves: sea caves developed by wave erosion processes, and flank margin caves developed by dissolution at the edge of the fresh-water lens. Differentiating sea caves and flank margin caves in coastal settings is important, but can it be done reliably and quantitatively? Current methods use the degree of intricate wall-rock dissolution and the presence or absence of dense calcite speleothems to separate the two cave types. This study reports how analysis of cave maps creates three separate tools to differentiate coastal caves: area to perimeter ratio, entrance width to maximum width ratio, and rectangle short axis to long axis ratio. The study also presents some of the first sea cave data from eogenetic carbonate islands, specifically eolian calcarenites. The morphological and geometrical comparisons between Bahamian flank margin cave and sea cave maps using the three tools allows the two cave types to be statistically differentiated. The Bahamian sea cave data were also compared to sea cave data from California and Maine to demonstrate that Bahamian sea caves have a unique quantitative signature based on the youth and homogeneity of the host eolian calcarenite rock. The Bahamian sea cave data also indicate that sea cave formation may not be solely determined by differential rock weaknesses, as reported in the literature, but may also be a result of wave dynamics such as constructive interference.


Submarine and coastal karstic groundwater discharges along the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, 2010, Bayari Serdar C. , Ozyurt Nur N. , Oztan Mehmet, Bastanlar Yalin, Varinlioglu Guzden, Koyuncu Hayati, Ulkenli Haldun, Hamarat Serdar

A 120 km-long part of the southwestern coast of Turkey, with well-developed karst terrain in contact with the sea, has been investigated by systematic diving surveys to determine the submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs). The physical, chemical and isotopic data have been used to determine the rate of the fresh groundwater end member (FEM) and its temporal dynamics. About 150 SGDs have been detected by diving
surveys employed mostly up to a depth of 30 m below sea level (bsl). Among those, 15 SGDs are in the form of coastal or submarine caves with entrances ranging between sea surface and 40 m bsl. The FEM contribution in SGDs ranges from a few percent to more than 80%. Stable isotope data suggest a range of mean recharge area elevations extending from the coast to more than 1,000 m inland. In many of the SGDs, the FEMs are characterized by tritium-based residence times ranging from recent to several decades. Hypothetical geochemical calculations of mixing between freshwater and seawater end members reveal that more than 45% of freshwater contribution is required for karst development in the SGDs. Models suggest a threshold pH of 7.6 or lower for the carbonate
rock dissolution.


Submarine and coastal karstic groundwater discharges along the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, 2011, Bayari C. Serdar, Ozyurt N. Nur, Oztan Mehmet, Bastanlar Yalin, Varinlioglu Guzden

A 120 km-long part of the southwestern coast of Turkey, with well-developed karst terrain in contact with the sea, has been investigated by systematic diving surveys to determine the submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs). The physical, chemical and isotopic data have been used to determine the rate of the fresh groundwater end member (FEM) and its temporal dynamics. About 150 SGDs have been detected by diving surveys employed mostly up to a depth of 30 m below sea level (bsl). Among those, 15 SGDs are in the form of coastal or submarine caves with entrances ranging between sea surface and 40 m bsl. The FEM contribution in SGDs ranges from a few percent to more than 80%. Stable isotope data suggest a range of mean recharge area elevations extending from the coast to more than 1,000 m inland. In many of the SGDs, the FEMs are characterized by tritium-based residence times ranging from recent to several decades. Hypothetical geochemical calculations of mixing between freshwater and seawater end members reveal that more than 45% of freshwater contribution is required for karst development in the SGDs. Models suggest a threshold pH of 7.6 or lower for the carbonate rock dissolution. 


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