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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That evapotranspiration is 1. the combined loss of water from a given area and during a specified period of time, by evaporation from the land and transpiration from plants [22]. 2. the return of water in vapor form to the atmosphere through the combined actions of evaporation, plant transpiration, and sublimation [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for salinization (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
Sea water intrusion in coastal karst springs: Example of the Blaz spring (Croatia), 1997, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
Brackish karst springs are common along every karstic sea shore consisting of limestone and dolomite. On the Croatian sea coast there are more than 300 permanent or temporary brackish karst springs. From the standpoint of water supply, the problem of karst spring water salinization is quite significant because large quantities of high quality fresh water are not available to be used either as drinking water or for industrial and agricultural purposes. The salinity of brackish karst springs situated along the Adriatic coast varies from 10 to more than 18 000 mg Cl 1(-1) with an unfavourable distribution during the year. In the wet winter period, when water quantities in the region are abundant, the salinity is exceedingly low. In the warm and dry summer period the chloride concentration is high. At that season, when a shortage of flesh water in the region occurs, especially due to tourism, karst spring water is so salty that it cannot be used at all. The mechanism of sea water intrusion is relatively well known but the problem of karst springs desalinization has not been solved in practice. The Ghyben-Herzberg relationship is formulated exclusively on the basis of hydrostatic equilibrium, and its use under dynamic conditions is limited. The dynamics of fresh water circulation towards karst spring exits are very specific for each individual spring. Using numerous hydrological, hydrometric, hydrogeological and speleological investigations of the brackish Blaz (Croatia) karst spring, this paper gives the plausible position and dimensions of the main karst conduits through which sea water penetrates into the spring exit

Coastal and submarine karstic discharges in theGokova Bay, SW Turkey, 2002, Bayari Cs, Kurttas T,
Hydrochemical, stable isotopic (18O and 2H) and thermal infrared data of LANDSAT 5 TM for sea surface temperature anomalies have been used to determine the extent and spatial variation of salinization in coastal and submarine karstic groundwater discharges in the Gokova Bay area, located in the SW Turkey. The bay is an active graben extending in an east-west direction. An artesian aquifer in the eastern tidal plain is the only source of fresh groundwater, whereas Tertiary and Mesozoic carbonates contacting with sea along the northern coastline provide abundant but saline water. Physical properties, major ion chemistry and stable isotope composition indicate a westward increase in the salinity of the karstic springs. The temporal variation of salinity in groundwater is either related to variations in sea level or in seasonal recharge rates, while some springs have time-invariant salinity. Submarine groundwater discharges were determined successfully from satellite images and verified by ground measurements of pH, temperature and electrical conductivity. Some of these discharges are also characterized by the existence of a halocline, as observed during Scuba diving. The westward-increasing salinity appears to be related to decreasing groundwater discharge in this direction

Modeling the salinity of an inland coastal brackish karstic spring with a conduit-matrix model, 2004, Arfib B, De Marsily G,
[1] The salinity of an inland coastal brackish karstic spring is modeled on the basis of a simple concept of fluid exchange through head differences between a continuous porous matrix and a karst conduit. The coastal aquifer is reduced to an equivalent porous medium ( matrix) naturally invaded by seawater, crossed by a single karst conduit where fresh water and brackish water mix in variable proportions and flow up into the spring. A new numerical model with an upwind explicit finite difference scheme, called salt-water intrusion in karst conduits (SWIKAC), was developed and successfully applied to the Almyros spring of Heraklio ( Crete, Greece). The good fit of the model to the observed salinity in the spring validates the proposed conceptual model of salinization. It provides a quantitative description of the seawater intrusion inside the karst conduit. The results open up new perspectives for managing the fragile and precious fresh water resources in karstic coastal zones

Pantan area is situated in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast near town Trogir. It presents inseparable unit consisting of Pantan spring, river course with surrounding swamp area and sea coast. Particularity of the area is swamp which is unique example in this part of the eastern Adriatic coast mostly characterized by dry karst areas. Main characteristic of the spring is periodical salinity during the year with the highest salinity during summer months. Spring presents potential drinking water source under consumption that salinization problem is solved. Unfortunately due to bed watershed management water quality of Pantan spring and environment of Pantan area is highly devastated. Today Pantan area presents an example of not preserving balance between natural resources on karst and human interventions in watershed area. All future measures should be directed on rehabilitation and further protection of this valuable karst environment. Paper gives overview of the state of the spring as well as proposed measures of sustainable management directed to the preservation of this distinct karst ecosystem. As the basis for analyzing the inter-related factors that impact on the environment, DPSIR framework is used. This framework provide rational and clear guideline for analyzing the influence of pressures derived from human activities on natural environment, and the way they are changing state of the environment. Results of the analyses showed that DPSIR framework is adequate tool to shape and implement sustainable development strategy for the Pantan area. It is evident that in this process is extremely important to take into the consideration vulnerability of the karst.

Analysis of drivers governing temporal salinity and temperature variations in groundwater discharge from Altug Submarine Karst Cave (Kas-Turkey), 2007, Ozyurt N. Nur
Salinity and temperature variations in groundwater discharge from the Altug submarine karst cave have been observed at 28 m below sea level for every 10 min between November 2004 and August 2005 to determine the drivers that govern the salinization. Comparisons between temporal trends of salinity and temperature with those of precipitation, air pressure, sea level and wind velocity revealed an apparent dominance of precipitation regime on the salinity and temperature variations. Spectral analyses applied to observations showed that the air pressure and sea level oscillations are affected by sun and moon tides which do not have an appreciable impact on the salinity and temperature variations. Annual rate of salinization in Altug cave seems inversely related to the inland groundwater head so that the maximum and minimum fresh water contributions occur at mid-spring and late-summer, respectively.

Karst and artificial recharge: Theoretical and practical problems: A preliminary approach to artificial recharge assessment, 2011, Daher Walid, Pistre Severin, Kneppers Angeline, Bakalowicz Michel, Najem Wajdi

Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is an emerging sustainable technique that has already generated successful results and is expected to solve many water resource problems, especially in semi-arid and arid zones. It is of great interest for karst aquifers that currently supply 20–25% of the world’s potable water, particularly in Mediterranean countries. However, the high heterogeneity in karst aquifers is too complex to be able to locate and describe them simply via field observations. Hence, as compared to projects in porous media, MAR is still marginal in karst aquifers.
Accordingly, the present work presents a conceptual methodology for Aquifer Rechargeability Assessment in Karst – referred to as ARAK. The methodology was developed noting that artificial recharge in karst aquifers is considered an improbable challenge to solve since karst conduits may drain off recharge water without any significant storage, or recharge water may not be able to infiltrate. The aim of the ARAK method is to determine the ability of a given karst aquifer to be artificially recharged and managed, and the best sites for implementing artificial recharge from the surface. ARAK is based on multi-criteria indexation analysis modeled on karst vulnerability assessment methods. ARAK depends on four independent criteria, i.e. Epikarst, Rock, Infiltration and Karst. After dividing the karst domain into grids, these criteria are indexed using geological and topographic maps refined by field observations. ARAK applies a linear formula that computes the intrinsic rechargeability index based on the indexed map for every criterion, coupled with its attributed weighting rate. This index indicates the aptitude for recharging a given karst aquifer, as determined by studying its probability first on a regional scale for the whole karst aquifer, and then by characterizing the most favorable sites. Subsequently, for the selected sites, a technical and economic feasibility factor is applied, weighted by the difficulties that could occur when trying to undertake a recharge operation at a selected site from the surface. Each site is finally rated by its rechargeability index – the product of two factors, the intrinsic rechargeability and the feasibility index. ARAK was applied to the region of Damour, Lebanon, on the Mediterranean coast where uncontrolled exploitation of public and private wells led to its partial salinization by seawater. A MAR system in Damour region represents an interesting solution to cope with salinization and the insufficiency of the resource

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