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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydrophobic is the repelling of water [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for saturated conduit (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
River water intrusion to the unconfined Floridan Aquifer, 1998, Kincaid Todd R. ,
Rapid infiltration of river water into unconfined parts of the Floridan aquifer represents a significant component of subsequent ground-water discharge in regions where the aquifer is dissected by surface streams. A two-year investigation of the Devil's Ear cave system, an extensive saturated conduit network in the Floridan aquifer which underlies a 1.5-km reach of the Santa Fe River in north-central Florida, revealed that there is an appreciable and rapid exchange of water between the river and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Natural tracers Radon-222 ( 222 Rn) and delta 18 O were used to quantify these exchanges. Cave diving was employed to collect 50 water samples which were analyzed for tracer content and to observe water clarity conditions within the saturated karst conduits as far as 1.2 km from the cave entrance. 222 Rn concentrations measured in the cave system revealed three distinct zones where river water is rapidly intruded into the Floridan aquifer. A two-component mixing model was used to quantify the intruded river water that was found to account for as much as 62 percent of the discharge at Devil's Ear spring. Observations of diminished water clarity in the cave system following large precipitation events in the highland provinces of the Santa Fe River basin indicate that river water intrusion to the aquifer can occur in as little as one or two days. The results of this investigation imply that, in regions such as the western Santa Fe River basin, there can be no clear distinction between ground and surface waters and intruded river water provides a significant vehicle for contamination of the unconfined Floridan aquifer

Variability of karstic permeability between unconfined and confined aquifers, Grand Canyon region, Arizona, 2000, Huntoon P. W. ,
Most of the ground water in the Grand Canyon region circulates to springs in the canyon through the thick, deeply buried, karstified Cambrian-Mississippian carbonate section. These rocks are collectively called the lower Paleozoic carbonates and comprise the Redwall-Muav aquifer where saturated. The morphologies of the caves in the Grand Canyon are primarily a function of whether the carbonates are unconfined or confined, a distinction that has broad significance for ground-water exploration and which appears to be generally transferable to other carbonate regions. Caves in unconfined high-gradient environments tend to be highly localized, partially saturated, simple tubes, whereas those in confined low-gradient settings are saturated 2- or even 3-dimensional mazes. The highly heterogeneous, widely spaced conduits in the unconfined settings make for difficult drilling targets, whereas the more ubiquitously distributed mazes in confined settings are far easier to target. The distinctions between the storage characteristics within the two classes are more important. There is minimal ground-water storage in the unconfined systems because cave passages tend to be more widely spaced and are partially drained. In contrast, there is maximum storage in the saturated mazes in the confined systems. Consequently, system responses to major storm recharge events in the unconfined systems are characterized by flow-through hydraulics. Spring discharge from the unconfined systems tends to be both flashy and highly variable from season to season, but total dissolved solids are small. In contrast, the pulse-through hydraulics in the artesian systems cause fluctuations in spring discharge to be highly moderated and, in the larger basins, remarkably steady. Both total dissolved solids and temperatures in the waters from the confined aquifers tend to be elevated because most of the water is derived from storage. The large artesian systems that drain to the Grand Canyon derive water from areally extensive, deep basins where the water has been geothermally heated somewhat above mean ambient air temperatures. Karst permeability is created by the flow system, so dissolution permeability develops most rapidly in those volumes of carbonate aquifers where flow concentrates. Predicting where the permeability should be best developed in a carbonate section involves determining where flow has been concentrated in the geologic past by examining the geometry and hydraulic boundary conditions of the flow field. Karstification can be expected to maximize in those locations provided enough geologic time has elapsed to allow dissolution to adjust to the imposed boundary conditions. The rate of adjustment in the Grand Canyon region appears to be related to the degree of saturation. The artesian systems are far better adjusted to hydraulic gradients than the unconfined systems, a finding that probably implies that there is greater contact between the solvent and rock in the saturated systems. These findings are not arcane distinctions. Rather, successful exploration for ground water and management of the resource is materially improved by recognition of the differences between the types of karst present. For example, the unsaturated conduit karsts in the uplifts make for highly localized, high risk drilling targets and involve aquifers with very limited storage. The conduits have highly variable flow rates, but they carry good quality water largely derived from seasonal flow-through from the surface areas drained. In contrast, the saturated basin karsts, with more ubiquitous dissolutional permeability enhancement, provide areally extensive low risk drilling targets with large ground-water storage. The ground water in these settings is generally of lesser quality because it is derived mostly from long term storage

Modeling flow in phreatic and epiphreatic karst conduits in the Holloch cave (Muotatal, Switzerland), 2001, Jeannin P. Y. ,
The Holloch cave is a site where the hydrodynamic behavior of a karst conduit network can be observed with a high degree of precision. Observed heads. discharge rates, conduit sizes, and conduit lengths have been compiled into a simple hydrodynamic model in order to check their consistency. It was possible to calibrate and satisfactorily fit the observed data. Model results show the following: (1) Flow models which are able to simulate turbulent flow in variably saturated conduit networks can adequately model conduit flow-dominated karst systems. (2) Karst systems may be strongly nonlinear, especially because of the presence of epiphreatic conduits. (3) Under certain circumstances, storage in the epiphreatic conduits and in the fissured limestone matrix can be neglected. (4) The typical effective hydraulic conductivity of karst conduits ranges between 1 and 10 m s(-1), and the Louis Formula is adequate to calculate head losses in those conduits. (5) Indirect measurements of flow velocity using scallop size indicate values of similar to 30-40% of the maximal annual discharge, and velocity derived from pebble size indicates values of similar to 150% of the maximal annual discharge

Effects of dynamically variable saturation and matrix-conduit coupling of flow in karst aquifers, 2011, Reimann T. , Geyer T. , Shoemaker W. B. , Liedl R. , Sauter M.

Well-developed karst aquifers consist of highly conductive conduits and a relatively  low permeability fractured and/or porous rock matrix and therefore behave as a dualhydraulic  system. Groundwater flow within highly permeable strata is rapid and transient  and depends on local flow conditions, i.e., pressurized or nonpressurized flow. The  characterization of karst aquifers is a necessary and challenging task because information  about hydraulic and spatial conduit properties is poorly defined or unknown. To investigate  karst aquifers, hydraulic stresses such as large recharge events can be simulated with hybrid  (coupled discrete continuum) models. Since existing hybrid models are simplifications of  the system dynamics, a new karst model (ModBraC) is presented that accounts for unsteady  and nonuniform discrete flow in variably saturated conduits employing the Saint-Venant  equations. Model performance tests indicate that ModBraC is able to simulate (1) unsteady  and nonuniform flow in variably filled conduits, (2) draining and refilling of conduits with  stable transition between free-surface and pressurized flow and correct storage  representation, (3) water exchange between matrix and variably filled conduits, and (4)  discharge routing through branched and intermeshed conduit networks. Subsequently,  ModBraC is applied to an idealized catchment to investigate the significance of free-surface  flow representation. A parameter study is conducted with two different initial conditions:  (1) pressurized flow and (2) free-surface flow. If free-surface flow prevails, the systems is  characterized by (1) a time lag for signal transmission, (2) a typical spring discharge pattern  representing the transition from pressurized to free-surface flow, and (3) a reduced conduitmatrix  interaction during free-surface flow.

Hydraulic boundary conditions as a controlling factor of water exchanges between a saturated karstic conduit and its surrounding rock, 2013, Binet Stphane, Joigneaux Emmanuelle, Albric Patrick, Pauwels Helene, Bruand Ary

Hydraulic boundary conditions as a controlling factor of water exchanges between a saturated karstic conduit and its surrounding rock, 2013, Binet Stphane, Joigneaux Emmanuelle, Albric Patrick, Pauwels Helene, Bruand Ary

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