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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That podzol is a light colored soil, usually found in forest regions [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for scallop (Keyword) returned 45 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 45
Scallops and Flutes, 1966,
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Curl R. L.

On the origin of cave flutes and scallops by the enlargement of inhomogeneities, 1972,
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Allen J. R. L.

Deducing Flow Velocity in Cave Conduits from Scallops, 1974,
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Curl, Rane L.

Scalloped and planar erosion surfaces, Middle Ordovician limestones, Virginia; analogues of Holocene exposed karst or tidal rock platforms, 1977,
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Read J. F. , Grover G. A. ,

Statistical Symmetry Analysis of Scallops, 1981,
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Lauritzen, Steinerik

Mean Annual Runoff and the Scallop Flow Regime in a Subarctic Environment: Preliminary Results from Svartisen, Norway, 1983,
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Lauritzen Se. , Ive A. , Wilkinson B.

Une marmite remarquable du trou qui Souffle (Vercors, France), 1987,
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Lismonde, B.
A REMARKABLE GIANT POT IN "TROU QUI SOUFFLE " (VERCORS, FRANCE) - In the cave of " Trou qui Souffle " (Maudre, Vercors), the SGCAF team of Grenoble has discovered a remarkable giant pot (5.4 m deep and 1.2 m diameter). His wall is covered with scallops, and thus, it is possible to determine the velocity field in the giant pot by means of the Curls law.

Les vagues d'rosion, 1987,
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Lismonde B. , Lagmani A.
CURRENT MARKINGS OR SCALLOPS - The scallops pattern on the wall of limestone cave result from the interaction of a soluble surface and a turbulent flow. The main results of Curl, particularly, the dependence of the velocity flow on the scallops length are presented.

GEOLOGY AND KARST GEOMORPHOLOGY OF SAN-SALVADOR ISLAND, BAHAMAS, 1995,
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Mylroie J. E. , Carew J. L. ,
The exposed carbonates of the Bahamas consist of late Quaternary limestones that were deposited during glacio-eustatic highstands of sea level. Each highstand event produced transgressive-phase, stillstand-phase, and regressive-phase units. Because of slow platform subsidence, Pleistocene carbonates deposited on highstands prior to the last interglacial (oxygen isotope substage 5e, circa 125,000 years ago) are represented solely by eolianites. The Owl's Hole Formation comprises these eolianites, which are generally fossiliferous pelsparites. The deposits of the last interglacial form the Grotto Beach Formation, and contain a complete sequence of subtidal intertidal and eolian carbonates. These deposits are predominantly oolitic. Holocene deposits are represented by the Rice Bay Formation, which consists of intertidal and eolian pelsparites deposited during the transgressive-phase and stillstand-phase of the current sea-level highstand. The three formations are separated from one another by well-developed terra-rossa paleosols or other erosion surfaces that formed predominantly during intervening sea-level lowstands. The karst landforms of San Salvador consist of karren, depressions, caves, and blue holes. Karren are small-scale dissolutional etchings on exposed and soil-covered bedrock that grade downward into the epikarst, the system of tubes and holes that drain the bedrock surface. Depressions are constructional features, such as swales between eolian ridges, but they have been dissolutionally maintained. Pit caves are vertical voids in the vadose zone that link the epikarst to the water table. Flank margin caves are horizontal voids that formed in the distal margin of a past fresh-water lens; whereas banana holes are horizontal voids that developed at the top of a past fresh-water lens, landward of the lens margin. Lake drains are conduits that connect some flooded depressions to the sea. Blue holes are flooded vertical shafts, of polygenetic origin, that may lead into caves systems at depth. The paleokarst of San Salvador is represented by flank margin caves and banana holes formed in a past fresh-water lens elevated by the last interglacial sea-level highstand, and by epikarst buried under paleosols formed during sea-level lowstands. Both carbonate deposition and its subsequent karstification is controlled by glacio-eustatic sea-level position. On San Salvador, the geographic isolation of the island, its small size, and the rapidity of past sea level changes have placed major constraints on the production of the paleokarst

Role of Speleology in Karst Hydrology and Hydrogeology., 1997,
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Bonacci O.
Technology of speleological investigations enables special measurements of features of underground conduits, caves, pits, jamas, shafts and the other solutional sculpturings such as scallops and cave rocky relief. Speleologic investigations can reveal the positions, dimensions and interactions of underground and surface karst features and water flow in the karst and on its surface. Speleologists are capable of investigating the hydraulic conditions under which laminar or turbulent flows occur in conduits and small and narrow karst fractures. From such investigations crucial parameters for hydraulic, hydrologic and hydrogeologic modelling such as dissolution-bedform and hydraulically-transported sediment, can be obtained. For these reasons, the role of speleology in karst hydrology and hydrogeology should (and undoubtedly will) in future be given much more importance. This paper briefly explains the main theoretical aspects and gives some practical examples and experiences from Dinaric and others karst regions.

Reconstruction of paleocurrents in caves of the Bystra Valley (Tatra Mountains, Poland), on the basis of scallops and deposits analyses., 1997,
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Kicinska D.

Symposium Poster: Scallop morphology in relation to cave passage development, 1998,
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Brookes J.

Anomalous scallop distributions in Joint Hole, Chapel-le-Dale, North Yorkshire, 2000,
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Murphy P. J. , Hall A. M. , Cordingley J. N.

Solutional and erosional morphology, 2000,
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Lauritzen Se. , Lundberg J.
Caves are produced through the action of speleogenetic agents acting under various constraints to produce speleogenetic facies. These facies, expressed at the meso- and micro-scale, reflect the major and minor speleogenetic agents that operated on that cave; they also reflect the history of the cave, both during speleogenesis proper and during the post-speleogenetic phase, in particular the most recent history. Geological control is evident through the association of caves with guiding voids (the singularities that govern permeability) and passage shape with rock chemistry (solubility). Hydrological control guides the locus and direction of dissolution; phreatic conditions support omnidirectional dissolution and thus hydraulically controlled tubular forms, while vadose conditions allow only unidirectional dissolution and thus gravity-controlled canyon forms and karren-like features. Of the micro-forms, scallops are specific flow indicators that yield both directional and quantitative information like flow rates and various hydraulic parameters specific to the cave passages. The presence of a sediment fill may further direct corrosion; in the phreatic zone this causes paragenesis; in the vadose zone, sediments cause lateral undercutting and eventually collapse. Vadose streams display many of the forms of surface streams, such as migrating meanders, entrenchment, rock-mill pot-holes, and waterfalls. Vadose shafts, dome-pits and condensation-corrosional forms are perhaps specific to the cave enviroment. The various vadose, phreatic and certain water-table-specific forms are, in combination, powerful methods for reconstructing phases of speleogenesis as well as external base levels. Combined with speleothem dating techniques, they become important methods for determining erosion rates and landscape evolution.

The fossilized tubes from the roofless cave - probably the oldest known remains of the cave worm Marifugia (Annelida: Polychaeta), 2000,
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Mihevc, Andrej

The paper is a report on the discovery of tubes of a fossilized cave serpulid in a roofless cave in the quarry above Črni Kal village. The site and shape of the fossilized tubes are described. The animals lived attached to the scallops in the wall of the passage. The passage was later filled with clay deposits, followed by a layer of flowstone several metres thick. The roof of the passage has been removed by karst denudation and flowstone now reaches to the surface. Fragments of tubes of animals of various sizes have been preserved, attached to the rock wall; those tubes which grew at a right angle to the wall have broken off but have been preserved in the sediment. In terms of their dimension and shape the tubes remind one of the tubes of the more recent cave serpulid Marifugia cavatica Absolon and Hrabe. The positions of the preserved tubes and the dating of the nearby sediments by palaeomagnetic method indicate that the remains of the serpulids are from the Pliocene epoch or older.


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