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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That rainfall excess is that portion of rain fall that contributes directly to runoff [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for sediment transport (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Dynamics of Sediment Transport in Limestone Caves, 1968, White Elizabeth L. , White William B.

FORMATION OF REGOLITH-COLLAPSE SINKHOLES IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS - INTERPRETATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ASSOCIATED BURIED CAVITIES, 1994, Panno S. V. , Wiebel C. P. , Heigold P. C. , Reed P. C. ,
Three regolith-collapse sinkholes formed near the Dongola Unit School and the Pentecostal Church in the southern Illinois village of Dongola (Union County) during the spring of 1993. The sinkholes appeared over a three-month period that coincided with development of a new municipal well. The new well was drilled through clay-rich, valley-fill sediment into karstified limestone bedrock. The piezometric surface of the limestone aquifer is above land surface, indicating the presence of an upward hydraulic gradient in the valley and that the valley fill is acting as a confining unit. Pumping during development of the well lowered the piezometric surface of the limestone aquifer to an elevation below the base of the valley fill. It is hypothesized that drainage of water from the sediments, the resulting loss of hydrostatic pressure and buoyant force in overlying sediments, increased intergranular pressure, and the initiation of groundwater flow toward the well resulted in rapid sediment transport, subsurface erosion, and collapse of the valley-fill sediment. The sinkholes follow an approximately east west alignment, which is consistent with one of the two dominant alignments of passages of nearby joint-controlled caves. A constant electrode-separation resistivity survey of the school playground was conducted to locate areas that might contain incipient sinkholes. The survey revealed a positive resistivity anomaly trending N75E in the southern part of the study area. The anomaly is linear, between 5 and 10 m wide. and its trend either intersects or is immediately adjacent to the three sinkholes. The anomaly is interpreted to be a series of pumping-induced cavities in the valley-fill sediments that formed over a preexisting crevice in the karstified bedrock limestone

The Lower Triassic Montney Formation, west-central Alberta, 1997, Davies Gr, Moslow Tf, Sherwin Md,
The Lower Triassic Montney Formation was deposited in a west-facing, arcuate extensional basin, designated the Peace River Basin, on the northwestern margin of the Supercontinent Pangea, centred at about 30 degrees N paleolatitude. At least seasonally arid climatic conditions, dominance of northeast trade winds, minimum fluvial influx, offshore coastal upwelling, and north to south longshore sediment transport affected Montney sedimentation. Paleostructure, particularly highs over underlying Upper Devonian Leduc reefs and lows associated with graben trends in the Peace River area, strongly influenced Montney depositional and downslope mass-wasting processes. A wide range of depositional environments in the Montney is recorded by facies ranging from mid to upper shoreface sandstones, to middle and lower shoreface HCS sandstones and coarse siltstones, to finely laminated lower shoreface sand and offshore siltstones. and to turbidites. Dolomitized coquinal facies occur at seven stratigraphic horizons in the Montney. Some coquinas are capped by karst breccias and coarse-grained aeolian deflation lag sand residues indicating subaerial exposure. The Montney has been divided into three informal members that have been dated by palynology and compared with global Early Triassic sequences. The subdivisions are: the Lower member, of Griesbachian to Dienerian age, correlated with a third-order cycle; the Coquinal Dolomite Middle member, of mixed Dienerian and Smithian ages; and the Upper member, of Smithian to Spathian age, correlative with two, shorter-duration third-order cycles. A forced regressive wedge systems tract model is adopted for deposition of the Coquinal Dolomite Middle member and for turbidites in the Valhalla-La Glace area of west-central Alberta. With this model, coquinas and turbidites accumulated during falling base level to lowstand, with a basal surface of forced regression at the base of the coquina and a sequence boundary at the top of the coquinal member. This is supported by the evidence for subaerial exposure and maximum lowstand at the top of the coquina. Very limited grain size distribution in the Montney, dominantly siltstone to very fine-grained sandstone, but often very well sorted, is interpreted to reflect an aeolian influence on sediment source and transport, High detrital feldspar and detrital dolomite in the Montney are consistent with (but not proof of) aeolian source from an arid interior, as is high detrital mica content in finer size grades. Extensive and often pervasive dolomitization, and early anhydrite cementation within the Montney, are also consistent with an arid climatic imprint. As new exploratory drilling continues to reveal the wide range of facies in the Montney, it adds to both the complexity and potential of this relatively unique formation in western Canada

Hydrological response of small watersheds following the Southern California Painted Cave Fire of June 1990, 1997, Keller E. A. , Valentine D. W. , Gibbs D. R. ,
Following the Painted Cave Fire of 25 June 1990 in Santa Barbara, California which burned 1214 ha, an emergency watershed protection plan was implemented consisting of stream clearing, grade stabilizers and construction of debris basins. Research was initiated focusing on hydrological response and channel morphology changes on two branches of Maria Ygnacio Creek, the main drainage of the burned area. Research results support the hypothesis that the response of small drainage basins in chaparral ecosystems to wildfire is complex and flushing of sediment by fluvial processes is more likely than by high magnitude debris flows. During the winter of 1990-1991, 35-66 cm of rainfall and intensities up to 10 cm per hour for a five-minute period were recorded with a seasonal total of 100% of average (normal) rainfall (average = 63 cm/year). During the winter of 1991-1992, 48-74 cm of rainfall and intensities up to 8 cm per hour were recorded with a seasonal total of 115% of normal. Even though there was moderate rainfall on barren, saturated soils, no major debris flows occurred in burned areas. The winter of 1992-1993 recorded total precipitation of about 170% of normal, annual average intensities were relatively low and again no debris flows were observed. The response to winter storms in the first three years following the fire was a moderate but spectacular flushing of sediment, most of which was derived from the hillslopes upstream of the debris basins. The first significant storm and stream flow of the 1990-1991 winter was transport-limited resulting in large volumes of sediment being deposited in the channel of Maria Ygnacio Creek; the second storm and stream flow was sediment-limited and the channel scoured. Debris basins trapped about 23 000 m(3), the majority coming from the storm of 17-20 March 1991. Sediment transported downstream during the three winters following the fire and not trapped in the debris basins was eventually flushed to the estuarine reaches of the creeks below the burn area, where approximately 108 000 m(3) accumulated. Changes in stream morphology following the fire were dramatic as pools filled with sediment which greatly smoothed longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles. Major changes in channel morphology occur following a fire as sediment derived from the hillslope is temporarily stored in channels within the burned area. However, this sediment may quickly move downstream of the burned region, where it may accumulate reducing channel capacity and increasing the flood hazard. Ecological consequences of wildfire to the riparian zone of streams in the chaparral environment are virtually unknown, but must be significant as the majority of sediment (particularly gravel necessary for fish and other aquatic organisms) entering the system does so in response to fires. (C) 1997 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Lanthanide-labeled clay: A new method for tracing sediment transport in karst, 1998, Mahler B. J. , Bennett P. C. , Zimmerman M. ,
Mobile sediment is a fundamental yet poorly characterized aspect of mass transport through karst aquifers. Here the development and field testing of an extremely sensitive particle tracer that may be used to characterize sediment transport in karst aquifers is described. The tracer consists of micron-size montmorillonite particles homoionized to the lanthanide form; after injection and retrieval from a ground water system, the lanthanide ions are chemically stripped from the clay and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography, The tracer meets the following desired criteria: low detection limit; a number of differentiable signatures; inexpensive production and quantification using standard methods; no environmental risks; and hydrodynamic properties similar to the in situ sediment it is designed to trace. The tracer was tested in laboratory batch experiments and field tested in both surface water and ground water systems. In surface water, arrival times of the tracer were similar to those of a conservative water tracer, although a significant amount of material was lost due to settling. Two tracer tests were undertaken in a karst aquifer under different flow conditions. Under normal flow conditions, the time of arrival and peak concentration of the tracer were similar to or preceded that of a conservative water tracer. Under low flow conditions, the particle tracer was not detected, suggesting that in low flow the sediment settles out of suspension and goes into storage

The role of high-energy events (hurricanes and/or tsunamis) in the sedimentation, diagenesis and karst initiation of tropical shallow water carbonate platforms and atolls, 1998, Jan F. G. B. L. ,
Karst morphology appears early, even during carbonate sediment deposition. Examples from modern to 125-ka-old sub-, inter- and supratidal sediments are given from the Bahamas (Atlantic Ocean) and from Tuamotuan atolls (southeastern Pacific Ocean), with mineralogical and hydrological analyses. Karstification is favoured by the aragonitic composition of bioclasts coming from the shallow marine bio-factory. Lithification by aragonite cements appears as a rim around carbonate deposits and dissolution and non-cementation start at the same time on modern supratidal deposits (Andros micrite or atoll coral rudite) and provoke the formation of a central depression on small or large carbonate platforms. In fact, this early solution of the centre of platforms is closely related to the location of each of the studied examples on hurricane tracks. High-energy events, such as hurricanes and tsunamis, affect sediment transport but hurricanes also affect diagenesis as a result of the enormous volume of freshwater carried and discharged along their paths. This couple, lithification- solution, is localised at sea level and accompanies sea-level fluctuations along the eustatic curve. Because of the precise location of hurricane action all around the Earth, early karstification by aragonite solution, cementation and supratidal carbonate sediment accumulations thigh-energy trails) act together on all the platforms and atolls located inside the Tropics (23 degrees 27') between roughly 5 degrees-10 degrees and 25 degrees on both hemispheres. However, early karstification acts alone on shallow carbonate platforms including atolls along the equatorial belt between 5 degrees-10 degrees N and 5 degrees-10 degrees S. These early steps of karstification are linked to the ocean-atmosphere interface due to the bathymetrical position of shallow carbonate platforms, including atolls. They lead to complex karstified emerged platforms, called high carbonate islands, where carbonate diagenesis, together with the development of bauxite- and/or a phosphate-rich cover and phreatic lens, will occur. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Muddy waters: temporal variation in sediment discharging from a karst spring, 1999, Mahler B. J. , Lynch F. L. ,
Karst aquifers are capable of transporting and discharging large quantities of suspended sediment, which can have an important impact on water quality. Here we present the results of intensive monitoring of sediment discharging from a karst spring in response to two storm events, one following a wet season and the other following a dry season; we describe temporal changes in total suspended solids (TSS), mineralogy, and particle size distribution. Peak concentrations of suspended sediment coincided with changes in aqueous chemistry indicating arrival of surface water, suggesting that much of the discharging sediment had an allochthonous origin. Concentrations of suspended sediment peaked 14-16 h after rainfall, and the bulk of the sediment (approximately 1 metric ton in response to each storm) discharged within 24 h after rainfall. Filtered material included brightly colored fibers and organic matter. Suspended sediments consisted of dolomite, calcite, quartz, and clay. Proportions of each mineral constituent changed as the aquifer response to the storm progressed, indicating varying input from different sediment sources. The hydraulic response of the aquifer to precipitation was well described by changes in parameters obtained from the particle size distribution function, and corresponded to changes seen in TSS and mineralogy. Differences between storms in the quantity and mineralogy of sediment transported suggest that seasonal effects on surface sediment supply may be important. The quantity of sediment discharging and its potential to sorb and transport contaminants indicates that a mobile solid phase should be included in contaminant monitoring and contaminant transport models of karst. Temporal changes in sediment quantity and characteristics and differences between responses to the two storms, however, demonstrate that the process is not easily generalized. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Karst hydrology: recent developments and open questions, 2002, White W. B. ,
Karst aquifers are those that contain dissolution-generated conduits that permit the rapid transport of ground water, often in turbulent flow. The conduit system receives localized inputs from sinking surface streams and as storrn runoff through sinkholes. The conduit system interconnects with the ground water stored in fractures and in the granular permeability of the bedrock. As a conceptual framework, the basic components of karstic aquifers seem to be generally accepted. Progress in the decade of the 1990s has focused mainly on quantifying the conceptual model. The equilibrium chemistry of the limestone and dolomite dissolution has been reliably established, and there are formal models for the kinetics of dissolution. Kinetic models have been used to calculate both fracture enlargement to protoconduits (0.01-m aperture) and the enlargement of protoconduits to the size of typical cave passages. Modeling of ground water flow in karstic aquifers has been less successful. Progress has been made in the use of water budgets, tracer studies, hydrograph analysis and chemograph analysis for the characterization of karstic aquifers. Topics on which progress is needed include (a) the construction of models that describe the complete aquifer including the interactions of all components, (b) models for elastic sediment transport within the aquifer, and (c) working out processes and mechanisms for contaminant transport in karst aquifers. An optimistic assessment at the end of the millennium is that a complete model for karstic aquifers is visible on the horizon.

THE EXPERIMENTAL MONITORING OF WATER REGIME IN THE REKA RIVER, 2002, Brilly M. , Mikoš, M. , Petkovš, Ek G. , Š, Raj M. , Kogovš, Ek J. , Drobne D. , Š, Travs L.

The river Reka, with 422 square kilometres of drainage area sinks into the Škocijan Cave system, which was proclaimed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1986. In the seventies, the Reka river was one of most polluted rivers in Slovenia. During floods in 1999 and 2000, experimental measurements of velocity, water level, suspended sediment transport, chemical parameters and toxicity tests were conducted. The main tasks in the first stage of the investigation: check the equipment in field conditions and test the toxicity of water in particular cross sections. In the paper, the measurements and some discussion of the results and applicability of equipment are presented.


Metal transport to karst springs during storm flow: an example from Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA, 2003, Vesper D. J. , White W. B. ,
Low levels of heavy metals were investigated in a series of springs discharging from the Mississippian limestone aquifer underlying the Fort Campbell Army Base in western Kentucky/Tennessee. Springs were sampled at short time intervals through periods of storm discharge. Unfiltered samples were digested and analysed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Metals detected at the mug/l level included As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Metal concentrations exhibited a pronounced maximum coincident with the peak of the storm hydrograph in contrast to carbonate species (Ca, Mg) which dipped to a minimum at the peak of the storm hydrograph. Metal concentrations track with aluminium and iron suggesting that the metal transport is mainly by adsorption onto suspended particulates which are mobilized during storm flow.

The Barremian-Aptian Evolution of The Eastern Arabian Carbonate Platform Margin (Northern Oman), 2003, Hillgartner Heiko, Van Buchem Frans S. P. , Gaumet Fabrice, Razin Philippe, Pittet Bernard, Grotsch Jurgen, Droste Henk,
Carbonate platform margins are sensitive recorders of changes in sea level and climate and can reveal the relative importance of global and regional controls on platform evolution. This paper focuses on the Barremian to Aptian interval (mid Cretaceous), which is known for climatic and environmental changes towards more intensified greenhouse conditions. The study area in the northern Oman mountains offers one of the very few locations where the Cretaceous carbonate margin of the Arabian Plate can be studied along continuous outcrops. Our detailed sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic model of the platform margin demonstrates how major environmental and ecological changes controlled the stratigraphic architecture. The Early Cretaceous platform margin shows high rates of progradation in Berriasian to Hauterivian times followed by lower rates and some aggradation in the Late Hauterivian to Barremian. High-energy bioclastic and oolitic sands were the dominant deposits at the margin. Turbidites were deposited at the slope and in the basin. The Early Aptian platform margin shows a marked change to purely aggradational geometries and a welldeveloped platform barrier that was formed mainly by microbial buildups. The sudden dominance in microbial activity led to cementation and stabilization of the margin and slope and, therefore, a decrease of downslope sediment transport by turbidites. In the Late Aptian, large parts of the Arabian craton were subaerially exposed and a fringing carbonate platform formed. Seven Barremian to Early Albian large-scale depositional sequences reflecting relative sea-level changes are identified on the basis of time lines constrained by physical correlation and biostratigraphy. The reconstruction of the margin geometries suggests that tectonic activity played an important role in the Early Aptian. This was most likely related to global plate reorganization that was accompanied by increased volcanic activity in many parts of the world. Along the northeastern Arabian platform the associated global changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation are recorded with a change in platform-margin ecology from an ooid-bioclast dominated to a microbial dominated margin. Time-equivalent argillaceous deposits suggest an increase in rainfall and elevated input of nutrients onto the platform. This process contributed to the strongly diminished carbonate production by other organisms and favored microbial activity. The platform margin may thus represent a shallow-marine response to the Early Aptian global changes, commonly associated with an oceanic anoxic event in basinal environments

Numerical analysis of conduit evolution in karstic aquifers. PhD Thesis, 2003, Annable, W. K.

Fractured and solutionally enhanced carbonate aquifers supply approximately 20 percent of the Worlds potable water supply. Although in rare cases these geologic settings can geochemically evolve into conduits which are of sufficient size to be explored and interpreted by researchers, the majority of the solutionally enlarged networks providing fresh water supplies remain too small to be directly measured. As such, we rely upon indirect hydraulic testing and tracer studies to infer the complexity and size of such aquifers. Because solutionally enhanced (karstic) aquifers have multiple scales of porosity ranging from matrix flow, fracture flow and open channel conduit flow, they are particularly vulnerable to contamination due to the high rates of chemical transport. In this study, a numerical model which solves for the variably-saturated flow, chemically-reactive transport and sediment transport within fractured carbonate aquifers has been developed to investigate the evolution of proto conduits from discrete fractures towards the minimum limits of caves which can be explored. The model results suggest that, although potentiometric surfaces can be of assistance in forecasting the possible locations of proto conduits at depth, many conduits are never detected using conventional observation wells relying upon hydraulic head data. The model also demonstrates the strong dependence in the pattern of vertical jointing on how conduits may evolve: fractures oriented similar to the mean groundwater flow direction show conduits evolving along the vertical fracture orientation; however, vertical fractures that differ significantly from the mean groundwater flow direction have vastly more complex dissolution networks. The transport of fine-grained sediments within the fractures has been shown to reduce the rates of conduit development in all but the highest velocity regions, resulting in simplified conduit networks, but at accelerated dissolution rates. The fully-coupled advective-dispersive and reactive chemistry equations were employed strictly with equilibrium reactions to simulate calcite dissolution. This study further shows that higher order kinetics in the form of the kinetic trigger effect of White (1997) are not required if diffusion between the rock matrix and the fracture surfaces account for multi-component matrix diffusion effects between the evolving conduits and the carbonate rock matrix according to the diffusional characteristics of the fractured rock system at hand.


Factors controlling exokarst morphology and sediment transport through caves: comparison of carbonate and salt karst, 2003, Bruthans Jirí, , Zeman Ondrej

In salt karst, very large amounts of sediment load could be permanently trapped underground, due to the high solubility of NaCl. Specific karst forms which have no equivalents in carbonate karst, occur there (huge underground alluvial fans, inlet caves). In a carbonate karst, on the other hand, only small portion of sediment carried by an allochthonous stream could be deposited permanently in the cave, otherwise the cave will become clogged (because of the very low solubility of CaCO3). Three carbonate karst areas with long-lasting development and fundamental differences in endokarst and exokarst forms were studied from many different aspects in the Czech Republic. The authors believe that there is only one primary difference between the Moravian Karst and diffuse recharge karst areas (Czech and Chynov karsts): the frequency and orientation of fissures penetrable by groundwater. All other differences in exokarst and endokarst forms and hydrology are the results of primary difference and its influence on speleogenesis, especially on sediment transport and gradational features. In areas where only bathyphreatic and deep phreatic caves occur, blind valleys and common exokarst morphology never develop, due to the very low velocity of flow in karst conduits, which precludes transport of sediment load.


Sediment entrainment and transport in fluviokarst systems, 2004, Dogwiler T, Wicks Cm,
The primary geomorphic process active in the development of karst stream systems is generally regarded as bedrock dissolution. However, physical erosional processes may also be an important geomorphic agent in karst development. The objectives of this study were to determine the sediment transport threshold in two fluviokarst streams. The source of the sediment was internal to the karst basins. The approach used was to calculate basal and critical shear stresses from streams in two karst systems to determine if, and how frequently, storm-induced flows are capable of mobilizing stream sediment. The fluviokarst systems investigated as a part of this research are capable of transporting 50-85% of their stream substrates during bankfull discharge conditions. Based on the discharge and precipitation frequency, stream flows capable of entraining d(50) and d(85) particles occur at intervals of 2.4 and 11.7 months (0.98 yr), respectively. Thus, the sediment transport threshold in fluviokarst streams is exceeded by relatively common discharge events. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Geomorphic history of Crystal Cave, Southern Sierra Nevada, California., 2005, Despain J. D. , Stock G. M.
Cave development in mountainous regions is influenced by a number of factors, including steep catchments, highly variable allogenic recharge, large sediment fluxes, and rapid rates of canyon downcutting. Caves can help to quantify this latter process, provided their ages are determined. Here we investigate the history of 4.8 km long Crystal Cave, a complex, multiple level cave in the Sierra Nevada, through detailed geomorphic and geochronologic investigations. Crystal Cave is composed of six major levels spanning 64 m in elevation. The levels are comprised of large, low gradient conduit tubes, and are connected by numerous narrow, steeply descending canyon passages. Passages in the upstream end of the cave are significantly modified by collapse, while in the downstream section they are intact with an anastomotic maze overprinting. Dye tracing confirms that the cave stream originates from partial sinking of Yucca Creek to the north. Passage gradients, wall scallops, and sediment imbrication indicate that groundwater flowed consistently southeast through time, forming cave levels as bedrock incision of Cascade Creek lowered local base level. Although modern cave stream discharges are restricted to ~0.03 m3 s?1, likely due to passage collapse near the sink point ca. 0.5 million years ago (Ma), bedrock scallops and coarse clastic sediment in upper levels indicate paleodischarges as much as three orders of magnitude greater prior to that time. Infrequent high discharge flood events played an important role in passage development and sediment transport. Cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating of sediment suggest that the majority of Crystal Cave formed rapidly between ca. 1.2 and 0.5 Ma; rates of cave development approach theoretical maximums, presumably due to a combination of allogenic recharge highly under-saturated with respect to calcite, and physical erosion by transported sediment.

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