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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That residual hill is see emergence.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for settlement (Keyword) returned 47 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 47
Controversy over the great flood hypotheses in the Black Sea in light of geological, paleontological, and archaeological evidence, , Yankohombach Valentina, Gilbert Allan S. , Dolukhanov Pavel,
Legends describing a Great Flood are found in the narratives of several world religions, and the biblical account of Noah's Flood is the surviving heir to several versions of the ancient Mesopotamian Flood Myth. Recently, the story of the biblical deluge was connected to the Black Sea, together with the suggestion that the story's pre-Mesopotamian origins might be found in the Pontic basin [Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, III, W.C., 1998. Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History. Simon and Schuster, New York]. Based on the significance of this flood epic in the Judeo-Christian tradition, popular interest surged following publication of the idea.Currently, two Great Flood scenarios have been proposed for the Black Sea: (1) an Early Holocene event caused by catastrophic Mediterranean inflow at 7.2 ky BP (initial hypothesis of [Ryan et al., 1997. An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea shelf. Marine Geology 138, 119-126]) or 8.4 ky BP (modified hypothesis of [Ryan et al., 2003. Catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 31, 525-554.); and (2) a Late Pleistocene event brought on by Caspian influx between 16 and 13 ky BP [Chepalyga, A.L., 2003. Late glacial Great Flood in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. GSA Annual Meeting and Exposition, 2-5 November 2003, Seattle, USA, p. 460]. Both hypotheses claim that the massive inundations of the Black Sea basin and ensuing large-scale environmental changes had a profound impact on prehistoric human societies of the surrounding areas, and both propose that the event formed the basis for the biblical Great Flood legend.This paper attempts to determine whether the preponderance of existing evidence sustains support for these Great Floods in the evolution of the Black Sea. Based upon established geological and paleontological data, it finds that the Late Pleistocene inundation was intense and substantial whereas the Early Holocene sea-level rise was not. Between 16 and 13 ky BP, the Late Neoeuxinian lake (the Late Pleistocene water body in the Pontic basin pre-dating the Black Sea) increased rapidly from ~-14 to -50 m (below the present level of the Black Sea), then rose gradually to ~-20 m by about 11 ky BP. At 11-10 ky BP (the Younger Dryas), it dropped to ~-50 m. When the Black Sea re-connected with the Sea of Marmara at about 9.5 ky BP, inflowing Mediterranean water increased the Black Sea level very gradually up to ~-20 m, and in so doing, it raised the salinity of the basin and brought in the first wave of Mediterranean immigrants. These data indicate no major drawdown of the Black Sea after the Younger Dryas, and they do not provide evidence for any catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea in the Early Holocene.In addition, available archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidence from the Pontic region reveal no recognizable changes in population dynamics between 14 and 6 ky BP that could be linked to an inundation of large magnitude [Dolukhanov, P., Shilik, K., 2006. Environment, sea-level changes, and human migrations in the northern Pontic area during late Pleistocene and Holocene times. In: Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P.M. (Eds.), The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 297-318; Stanko, V.N., 2006. Fluctuations in the level of the Black Sea and Mesolithic settlement of the northern Pontic area. In: Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P.M. (Eds.), The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 371-385]. More specifically, Mesolithic and early Neolithic archaeological data in southeastern Europe and Ukraine give no indications of shifts in human subsistence or other behavior at the time of the proposed catastrophic flood in the Early Holocene [Anthony, D., 2006. Pontic-Caspian Mesolithic and Early Neolithic societies at the time of the Black Sea Flood: A small audience and small effects. In: Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P.M. (Eds.), The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 345-370; Dergachev and Dolukhanov, 2006. The Neolithization of the North Pontic area and the Balkans in the context of the Black Sea Floods. In: Yanko-Hombach, V., Gilbert, A.S., Panin, N., Dolukhanov, P.M. (Eds.), The Black Sea Flood Question: Changes in Coastline, Climate, and Human Settlement. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 489-514]

The Discovery, Exploration and Scientific Investigation of the Wellington Caves, New South Wales, 1963, Lane Edward A. , Richards Aola M.

Although research has been unable to establish a definite date of discovery for the limestone caves at Wellington, New South Wales, documentary evidence has placed it as 1828. The actual discovery could have been made earlier by soldiers or convicts from the Wellington Settlement, which dated from 1823. Whether the aborigines knew of the cave's existence before 1828 is uncertain, but likely, as in 1830 they referred to them as "Mulwang". A number of very small limestone caves were also discovered about the same time in the nearby Molong area. The Bungonia Caves, in the Marulan district near Goulburn, were first written about a short time later. On all the evidence available at present, the Wellington Caves can be considered to be the first of any size discovered on the mainland of Australia. The Wellington Caves are situated in a low, limestone outcrop about six miles south by road from the present town of Wellington, and approximately 190 miles west-north-west of Sydney. They are at an altitude of 1000 feet, about half a mile from the present bed of the Bell River, a tributary of the Macquarie River. One large cave and several small caves exist in the outcrop, and range in size from simple shafts to passages 200 to 300 feet long. Mining for phosphate has been carried out, resulting in extensive galleries, often unstable, at several levels. Two caves have been lit by electricity for the tourist trades; the Cathedral Cave, 400 feet long, maximum width 100 feet, and up to 50 feet high; and the smaller Gaden Cave. The Cathedral Cave contains what is believed to be the largest stalagmite in the world, "The Altar", which stands on a flat floor, is 100 feet round the base and almost touches the roof about 40 feet above. It appears that the name Cathedral was not applied to the cave until this century. The original names were "The Great Cave", "The Large Cave" or "The Main Cave". The Altar was named by Thomas Mitchell in 1830. See map of cave and Plate. Extensive Pleistocene bone deposits - a veritable mine of bone fragments - were found in 1830, and have been studied by palaeontologists almost continually ever since. These bone deposits introduced to the world the extinct marsupials of Australia, and have a special importance in view of the peculiar features of the living fauna of the continent. The names of many famous explorers and scientists are associated with this history, among the most prominent being Sir Thomas Mitchell and Sir Richard Owen. Anderson (1933) gives a brief outline of why the Wellington Caves fossil bone beds so rapidly attracted world-wide interest. During the 18th and early 19th Century, the great palaeontologist, Baron Georges Cuvier, and others, supposed that the earth had suffered a series of catastrophic changes in prehistoric times. As a result of each of these, the animals living in a certain area were destroyed, the area being repopulated from isolated portions of the earth that had escaped the catastrophe. The Bilical Deluge was believed to have been the most recent. Darwin, during the voyage of the Beagle around the world (1832-37), was struck by the abundance of Pleistocene mammalian fossils in South America, and also by the fact that, while these differed from living forms, and were in part of gigantic dimensions, they were closely related to present-day forms in that continent. Darwin's theory of descent with modification did not reconcile with the ideas of Cuvier and others. As the living mammalian fauna of Australia was even more distinctive than that of South America, it was a matter of importance and excitement to discover the nature of the mammals which had lived in Australia in the late Tertiary and Pleistocene.


Remarks about the psammic Asellid Proasellus walteri (Chappuis, 1948) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota)., 1976, Henry Jean Paul
P. walteri, an eyeless species of tiny size and thin body, shows numerous original characters. By its general morphology, it is one form of Asellid best adapted to the phreatic waters where it exists in large settlements. It is also able to live in the psammic biotope in a manner similar to Microparasellids. The females lay only 6 to 10 normal sized eggs. There is no indication of oostegits outside the breeding period. In some populations, the small number of eggs, correlated with the small size, seems to be compensated by a sex-ratio favorable so the females.

Remarks on the biology and ecology of Stenasellus virei Dollfus (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of subterranean waters)., 1976, Magniez Guy
Recent observations indicate that a laying season seems to exist, in karstic as well as in phreatic populations. Nevertheless, a single female cannot lay each year, because the reproductive intermolt averages 15-16 months and is always followed by one (9-10 months) or several non-reproductive intermolts. So, the minimum laying rhythm of female St. virei is biennial. The cavernicolous population (St. v. virei) of the Padirac swallow-hole is not a relict, but a colony separated from the main settlement of the alluvial waters of the Dordogne river. On the contrary, it is possible to find, close to each other, karstic and phreatic populations which belong to different subspecies (St. v. hussoni and St. v. boui) and live independently.

The adaptations to volvation of the external cephalic skeleton of Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus, a subterranean waters Isopod., 1976, Marvillet Claude
The study of the cephalic capsule of Caecosphaeroma burgundum, a subterranean waters Isopod, demonstrates improved adaptations to volvation; these concern in a similar manner the other regions of the body, particularly the pleotelson. From a primitive aquatic Isopod structure, the head of this blind Spheromid has been completely fashioned by many mechanical factors: posterior margin of pleotelson providing support on the head, relation of anterior angles of the second pereionit and, above all, the mandibular palps and antennae which retract into two deep grooves of the face. The comparative study of the head of other volvational Isopods shows the importance of that "antennary factor", e.g. in Oniscoids, epigean Spheromids and some other subterranean waters Isopods (two Spheromids and one Cirolanid). This comparison shows that Caecosphaeroma burgundum is certainly the most specialized of all; it approaches perfection in volvation for it is the only one which rolls up into a hermetic sphere without outwards projections. Volvation seems to play a two-fold role. It is a mean of defence against predators used by single specimens and by copulating pairs, males and females being then associated in two concentric spheres. Furthermore, it is a very important way for passive dissemination allowing settlement of these Crustacea in distant subterranean waters.

Biogeographical and Paleobiogeographical Problems in Stenasellids (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of Underground Waters)., 1981, Magniez Guy
Considering their systematic isolation among present Asellota, their strong burrowing behaviour, their aptitude for interstitial life and their wide north-tropical present distribution, the history of Stenasellid Crustaceans seems to be marked by the antiquity of their settlements in continental groundwaters (Middle Cretaceous period?) and a long stage of life in phreatic waters on permanently emerged paleotropical continents during the Cenozoic Era. The resemblance between some forms of the Guinean shield and Mexico sets the problem of the anteriority of their continental conquest to South Atlantic drift. The repartition of Mediterranean European forms appears as a consequence of paleogeographical changes in Tertiary Times. The distribution of continental European forms has been marked by Quaternary climatic alterations: severe curtailment of settlements, endemicity in Glacial periods but wide Holocene expansion for the forms adapted to new climatic conditions.

Phreatische Fauna in Ljubljansko polje (Ljubljana-Ebene, Jugoslavien); ihre oekologische Verteilung und zoogeographische Beziehungen., 1981, Sket Boris, Velkovrh Franci
The phreatic basin of Ljubljansko polje (polje = plain, field) recharges its water supply mainly from the Sava river-bed and at a few other locations where connections with karstic subterranean waters might exist and only up to 15% from precipitation. An important zone of infiltration in the river-bed is the bottom and not the bank which is to a large extent watertight due to organic debris (rests of Sphaerotilus e.g.). The main water-body moves about 10 m/day, there are however some local jets with far higher speeds. Yearly amplitudes of water temperatures are high near the river but in the centre of the plain only a couple of centigrades. Oxygen saturation is in the open river-water 100%, dropping to 40-60% just 1 m into the phreatic. True stygopsammal animals are represented here only by a few species and specimen in spite of the fact, that the interstices in the gravel are mostly filled with finer sediments. Remarkable is also the scarcity of Nematodes and the near absence of Acarina (compare with Danielopol 1976). Only a few specimen of the river benthos (Chironomidae, Tipulidae, Leuctra supp., Baets spp.) penetrate the interstitial water (compare with Ruffo 1961, Danielopol 1976) and only Naididae are more frequent there. However, many epigean animals occur in interstitial waters in the periodically flooded gravel-banks; one can explain this with oscillations of the water level. Some epigean animals (creno- and troglophilic) are quite regularly represented in the phreatic near the river, but have not been found in the river-bed. The distribution of phreatic species within the studied water-body seems to be controlled mainly by the presence of food supplies and the consequent competition among species. The same is true for the speed of the water current and some other factors which are less easily defined. The characteristics of the substratum as well as O2-saturation and other characteristics of the water seem to have little influence on the fauna. The energetically (food-) rich neighbourhood of the river is inhabited by a number of species in quite dense populations while the central parts of the phreatic water body exhibit a great poverty of species and of specimen. However, some species live here, which don't occur in the presence of larger food supplies and of greater competition (Niphargus serbicus). The higher current speed seems to prevent settlement of some species (Cyclopoida, Proasellus deminutus) while some are bound to such habitats (Proasellus vulgaris). Some species exhibit a high degree of euryvalency inside the stygopsephale habitats (Niphargus longidactylus e.g.), while some are highly specialized. Some of them form dense populations (comparatively dense even in energetically poor places) while others exhibit even in most favourable conditions very low densities (Niphargus jovanovici multipennatus). The present fauna is zoogeographically very diverse. Some species are distributed throughout Europe; some reach from Central Europe to the borders of Dinaride Karst (Bogidiella albertimagni) and some even penetrate it (Trichodrilus pragensis, Acanthocyclops kiefer). Bogidiella semidenticulata. Niphargus pectinicauda, Hadziella deminuta seem to be limited to the higher reaches of the Sava River. All of the above mentioned animals live regularly in interstitial waters and only sporadically in karstic hypogean waters. Niphargus stygius is here the only animal of a certainly karstic provenience; inside the plain it is limited to a completely special habitat. It is very likely that the entire Proasellus-deminutusgroup has developed in interstitial waters of larger plains which are in contact with karstic areas; some species penetrated from the plains into the karst rather than the reverse. To the contrary (judging from the distribution of the genera) karstic waters seem to be the cradle of Hauffenia and Hadziella. Such a sharp delimitation between cave- and interstitial fauna resp. in this area is very noteworthy. Both faunas live here in abundance and in close contact. It is very probable that particularly high competition and specialization of both faunas, caused by their richness and diversity, prevent mixing of species.

Themes in Prehistory of the Nullarbor Caves, Semi-Arid Southern Australia, 1986, Davey, Adrian

The 200,000 square kilometre Nullarbor Plain is a largely and relatively inhospitable tract of semi-arid land on the southern coast of Australia. It is also one of the world's largest and probably oldest karst landscapes. It contains a substantial number of caves, some of them very large. The sheer size of the plain together with its lack of surface water have made it a powerful ecological, physical and psychological barrier to the dispersal of evolving plants and animals and to human trade, settlement and communications. Because the plain is otherwise easily perceived as featureless, the more obvious of the caves have played an unusually prominent part in human exploration and occupation of the region. Aboriginal prehistory of cave exploration and use extends over many millenia. Two themes are especially interesting: quarrying underground as one of the earliest, and the role of water and shade in an inhospitable environment as the most persistent. The advent of European, Afghan and other cultures on this part of the southern coastline during the last four centuries has diversified the relevant historic themes. Victorian British discovery and exploration is the first stage in modern recognition of the caves, although long after the region was first discovered. The next and perhaps most remarkable phase brings together developments in Australian aviation and the adaptation of a grounded mariner to the land and air. Eventually the action moves on to the development of organised speleology. Other sub-themes in human interactions with the caves in this large waterless area include what may turn out to be either art or vandalism. They also include attempted grand solutions to the problem of water, by improbable engineering, as well as adventures of tourism, recreation and science.


Ulva Cave and the Early Settlement of Northern Britain, 1989, Bonsall C. , Sutherland D. G. , Lawson T. J.

VEGETATION OF VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN THE BOHEMIAN KARST .2. ECOLOGY, 1992, Pysek P. ,
In the second part of the study on vegetation of village settlements at the territory of the Bohemian Karst, ecological and successional characteristics of communities are given. Ellenberg indicator values for temperature, moisture, nitrogen and soil reaction were used to investigate habitat conditions. Successional relations of communities are presented. Quantitative data on the composition of vegetation cover were obtained which made it possible to compare the study area with other regions

INFLUENCE OF KARST HYDROLOGY ON WATER-QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHEAST SOUTH-AUSTRALIA, 1994, Emmett Aj, Telfer Al,
Southeast South Australia has large reserves of potable groundwater, generally close to the surface. European settlement has had a major impact on groundwater quality due to the presence of extensive karst in the unconfined aquifer. Historically, industries such as cheese factories were often sited close to karst features (e.g. caves and sinkholes) because they provided a convenient means of waste disposal. Although most have long since closed, they have left a legacy of pollution plumes of varying sizes. In Mount Gambier, the main regional centre, the presence of both exposed and subterranean karst features provided a ''perfect system'' for the disposal of stormwater. Prior to the provision of a sewerage system within Mount Gambier, all toilet and household wastewaters were disposed to ground. These activities and the subsequent problems that began emerging in the 1960s have led to a concerted effort over the last 20 years to change the philosophy of waste disposal and to generate an understanding and responsibility by those who live in the region and depend on groundwater for the major part of their water supply. Mount Gambier's water supply comes from the Blue Lake. Groundwater inflow from a highly karstic Tertiary limestone aquifer provides 90% of the recharge to the Blue Lake. The lake is a high-value resource in a high-risk environment and in order to minimize this risk, a water-quality management plan for the lake is currently being developed

Middle Holocene environmental change determined from the salt caves of Mount Sedom, Israel, 1994, Frumkin, A. , Carmi, I. , Zak, I. And Magaritz, M. , 1994
Paleoclimatic sequence for the Middle Holocene was constructed, based on Mount Sedom salt caves, and other evidence. Mount Sedom is a salt diapir, on the southwestern shore of the Dead Sea, which has been rising above the local base level throughout the Holocene. Allogenic karst development has kept pace with the rising, forming vadose caves. Wood fragments found embedded in flood sediments that were deposited in sub-horizontal cave passages yielded 14C ages from 7090 to 200 YBP. The paleoclimatic sequence is based on parameters that include: relative abundance of plant types or floral communities, the elevations of the corresponding relict cave passages and the ratio of their width to present passage width. Moister climatic stages are indicated by relatively abundant wood remains, by wide cave passages and by higher-level outlets, indicating high Dead Sea levels. Arid periods are marked by a scarcity of wood remains, by narrow cave passages and by low-level outlets. The results were correlated to other middle-Holocene evidence and temporal settlement changes. The Early Bronze period in Israel was the moistest period during the last 6000 years and as such it encouraged cultural development. It was followed by a considerable desiccation that caused a cultural deterioration.

Predicting the settlements of a columnar foundation on a bed weakened by a karst cavity, 1995, Bartolomei L,

Deforestation in the Dominican Republic: a village-level view, 1997, Brothers Ts,
Deforestation is still rapid in some parts of the Caribbean, though it has attracted much less attention than deforestation in mainland Latin America. This paper examines the history and causes of the recent rapid deforestation of a lowland karst region of the Dominican Republic in the light of models derived from studies in Central America and the Amazon. Investigation was limited to the vicinity of a single village (Los Limones). Information was drawn from interviews, questionnaires and ground reconnaissance, in addition to archival information and aerial photographs. Deforestation at Los Limones involved many of the same elements seen in mainland deforestation, including construction of access roads, spontaneous agricultural colonization, and pasture conversion, but it followed no single mainland model. Logging, not normally emphasized as a cause of Latin American deforestation, played an important role in opening up the forest to agricultural settlement. Pasture conversion was not a matter of aggregation of large ranches by wealthy absentee landowners, as in the Amazon, but apparently a local response to the economic and ecological advantages of cattle raising. Government actions strongly influenced deforestation, but not via colonization schemes or economic subsidies for cattle ranching; the rhythm of deforestation at Los Limones was tied to the monopolistic practices of the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo and the social disorganization following his assassination. The national government in fact bears the primary responsibility for deforestation of Los Haitises, a conclusion that contradicts the government's own suggestion that the destruction was largely carried out by poor farmers. Prospects for rehabilitation of the deforested area are gloomy because of the extent of ecological damage and the continued adversarial relationship between the government and the rural population

Role and evaluation of settlements on karst in Slovenia , 1998, Kladnik, Drago

The article discusses demographic, social, economic and infrastructural indicators of Slovenian settlements. It focuses on reciprocal comparison of different types of settlements on karstic land, and on their comparison to other settlements that are also divided into characteristic types. The main criterion for their enlistment as karstic is not their position on carbonate minerals but the stony surface and the minute karstic dissection of the land in individual settlements that enables machine cultivation and adaptation of the landownership structure to modern agro-technical principles.


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