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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That inject, to is 1. the introduction of pressurized fluids into a porous subsurface formation [16]. 2. the introduction of tracer materials (e.g. fluorescent dyes) into the subsurface.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for show caves (Keyword) returned 38 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 38
British Show Caves, 1952, Bamber H. A.

The Lampen-Moss flora of the BeatusHohle and comparison with other European caves., 1967, Bernasconi Reno
The Bryological flora on the lamps of the St- Beatus Hohle is analysed. A statistic comparison of lampenflora from other 18 European caves shows the composition and the type of this flora is related to the humidity and to the difference in substratum. Ten species can be referred to as typical flora of show caves.

Le point des recherches karstologiques en URSS, 1986, Kisselov V. , Klimchouk A. , Dubliansky V.
KARST RESEARCHES IN USSR - Karst researches in USSR have obtained a further development during these last years. Numerous regional investigations have been realised, especially in Crimea, Western Caucasus, Podolia, Ural, Central Asia and Southern Siberia. Some works on caves sedimentology have permitted to develop the knowledge on speleogenesis. Interesting studies are performed on speleoclimatology and ice caves (thermo-karst). Several contributions on the modern practical speleology are underlined: speleo-medicine, speleological techniques on steel cables, surveying, morphometry, applied speleology, show caves.

Problems of Show caves in Bohemia and Moravia., 1994, Dusan Milka
In the last years the show caves in Bohemia and Moravia were administrated by the Ministry of Culture with the status of a state assisted organization. That means that they were considered as those organizations not self-sufficient, without connections with tourism. Presently, the management of the show caves in Bohemia and Moravia is at a crossroad: to remain under the administration of the Ministry of Culture or move under the newly formed Ministry of Environment. In the latter case the cave management should change into a business organization similar to a private body. We believe that these problems can be fairly solved by the newly formed National Show Caves Association.

Tourist problems of Grotta Gigante in the Trieste karst, 1994, Forti Fabio
The paper reports the tourist evolution of the Grotta Gigante (Giant Cave), near Trieste (Italy) during 80 years (1908; 1989) of its opening to the public. At the beginning it entered in competition with some other local show caves, even much more famous (like Postojna and Stocjan), after the II World War on account of the change of the state boundaries it remained the sole show cave in that part of Italy. Then the Grotta Gigante succeeded, even if slowly, to cope with the changing tourist demands, improving more and more its facilities to follow the increasing tourist flows. In recent years the visitors decreased slowly but steadily. Such a decrease is due to reasons independent of the management of the Grotta Gigante; these facts are reported and analyzed and the cooperation of other show caves is asked in order to establish a common strategy when similar factors are present.

Management of some unusual features in the show caves of the United States., 1994, Gurnee Jeanne
Protection of the unusual features in some of the 200 show caves of the U.S. have required innovative management. The sea caves of both the east and west coasts present the need for special preservation methods. Throughout the nation sometimes glass enclosures, vehicles and boats are used to separate visitors from sensitive cave features. Lighting and cleaning techniques have been studied and altered to discourage growth of algae. Some show caves are protected by double glass entrance and exit doors. Many caves, particularly on public lands, are closed during the hibernation period of endangered bats. In a number of caves, Native Americans have left artifacts and other evidences of their early visits. which have either been preserved in situ or relocated at appropriate archival sites. The paper gives in more details specific caves and methods for the preservation of particular unique features.

Short note on the problems of the Yugoslav show caves, 1994, Habe France
In the frame of the IUS, the activities concerning the Yugoslav show caves are reported and the most relevant problems are emphasized.

Die Slowakischen Shauhohlen und ihre probleme., 1994, Racko Ivan
In 1960 the Slovak Caves Administration, which managed twelve Slovak Caves was founded. It was controlled by the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Socialist Republic and comprised also the Museum of Slovak Karst and the Slovak Speleological Society; a free speleological organisation. In 1981 such an Administration became part of the State Centre for the Protection of Nature. The main task of this centre was obviously the protection of nature in Slovakia but unfortunately many problems remained unsolved. The social movement in November 1989 accelerated the process to solve such problems and the Forum of Professional Workers of Show Caves was set up in Slovakia. Thanks to a very hard work, the first objectives were achieved on July 1, 1990 when the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic signed the Document of Establishment and the Statute of the Slovak Caves Administration. The task of this administration is to ensure a good management of the show caves together with their suitable protection. In cooperation with UNESCO, a sort of Chart for the protection of the karst areas should be developed in order to acknowledge Karst as a natural heritage of Earth because Karst is one of the most important ecosystems. Show caves can play a relevant role in the development of these feelings in the public opinion.

Les grottes amnages et l'Union Internationale de Splologie (1965-1990)., 1994, Trimmel Hubert
The initiatives of the International Union of Speleology concerning the show caves, approved during various International Congresses of Speleology are here reported. Among other things, an attempt of having a list of show caves is also recalled but only recently such an attempt produced successfully a document. An example of it is also given.

Book Review: ''Proceedings of the International Symposium - Show Caves and Environmental Monitoring'' by A.A. Cigna (Editor), 1997, Craven S. A.

The potential corrosion of speleothems by condensation water , 1998, Linhua Song, Jingrong Yang, Laihong Wang

Because of the development of tourist activities and facilities in show caves, the closed system of the caves has been changed into complicated open system. The visitor flow and the high energy of landscape lights give a great deal of thermoenergy to the show cave system, which makes the temperature rise and reduces the humidity very fast. After the visitors leave and the lights are switched off, the temperature goes down and humidity increases even up to saturation, condensation takes place. The humidity of Yaolin cave reaches 97%-100% throughout the year. The visitors give average CO2 content of 13000-15000 ppm by breathing and one visitor breathes 40 litre of CO2 per hour. The visitors strongly influence the CO2 content of the cave atmosphere.


Development, management and economy of show caves, 2000, Burri Ezio, Cigna Arrigo A.
The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

The influences of cave tourism on CO2 and temperature in Baiyun cave, Hebei, China, 2000, Liang Fuyuan, Song Linhua, Wei Xiaoning
Baiyun Cave in Hebei Province is one of the main show caves in North China. The speleothem landscape is wonderful, but strongly weathered. In order to set up the relationship between visitor flow and CO2 content and temperature, these parameters were measured at observation sites No. 1 and No. 2 in the tourist peak period of May Day Holiday from May 1 to May 7, 2000. and general tourist season August and October, 2000. The results show that visitor flow strongly affects the fluctuations of cave CO2 content and temperature, that the cave topography and dimensions affect the accumulation and diffusion of CO2. Variation of air temperature in the cave has shown to be attributable to the visitors.

Radon Hazards, Geology, and Exposure of Cave Users: A Case Study and Some Theoretical, 2000, Gillmore Gavin K. , Sperrin Malcom, Phillips Paul, Denman Antony
The concerns over the risks to human health from radon in underground caves are poorly documented, unlike in workplace or domestic environments where exposures are relatively well known. In U.K. caves, radon has been identified as occurring at elevated levels; but with the exception of major show caves, its impact and risk to the many groups who use the caves have thus far received inadequate attention. This paper presents a survey performed in a relatively ?low-risk? geographical area of the United Kingdom and quantifies the risk of exposure in this cave environment. Radon levels up to 12,552 Bq m−3 were measured: Such concentrations are very high but are likely to underestimate the levels in many other parts of the cave system, for reasons associated with cave architecture and meteorology. This study confirms previous workers' conclusions that long-term users of deep caves, as opposed to rock shelters, are at risk. Annual doses to certain groups of cave users have been calculated to be as high as 120 mSv, a very high value. The study also demonstrates that there is variation both within and between caves as a result of subtleties of the bedrock geology, fault patterns, and weathering. This paper sets out a theoretical model.

Intrudaction: Monitoring of carst caves, 2002, Kranjc, Andrej

The monitoring, a regular, continuous observation aimed to establish the state and eventual changes is an extremely important activity for protection and safeguarding of karst caves, in particular show caves. Obtained data gained by a suitable monitoring are essential for protection and conservation of natural conditions underground. For planning the tourist exploitation and appropriate management in show caves a detailed and integral knowledge of a cave is essential, knowing the natural properties and capacity of regeneration of certain natural characteristics and impact which is caused or could be caused by human activity, in a case of a show cave, by visitors mostly. These questions cannot be solved without an appropriate monitoring. Obviously a protection and conservation of a cave listed in the UNESCO World Natural Heritage is even more important, as this is not only "our" but "world" heritage. In the course of the 17th and the 18th centuries the caves have been looked upon as a very remarkable phenomenon of the Trieste surroundings. A real show cave they have become already in 1819. They have been an important starting point for Lindner's investigations for the water supply sources for Trieste, as proved by Svetina's exploration in 1839. In spite of this the major part of the caves have not been surveyed until the Caving Department of the Littoral Section of the German-Austrian Mountaineering Society has been founded in 1884. Their members reached the final siphon in 1891 and another 100 years were needed before the cave divers passed through it. In pace with exploration the tourist interest and visit grew too as well as the consciousness of safeguarding the precious natural phenomenon. Therefore Škocjanske jame have been one of the first caves being inscribed in the list of World's natural heritage of UNESCO in 1986. This fact requires much more attention oriented towards the protection and safeguarding of natural phenomenon itself than to its economic exploitation. To fulfil this the knowledge of natural state and recording of its changing is necessary. To achieve this the appropriate monitoring has to be established. At the 15th anniversary of the inscription of Škocjanske jame into the UNESCO's list, in November 2001 an international workshop on monitoring in karst caves has been organised. The initiator and the organiser too, together with Karst Research Institute from Postojna and Park Škocjanske jame, has been the Slovenian National Commission for the UNESCO. Professional papers of the workshop are very interesting and important not only for Škocjanske jame, but for the protection of caves in general. So the Editorial Board of Acta carsologica accepted with pleasure to publish the papers of the workshop in this journal.


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