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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That wetted area is the cross sectional area of that portion of a channel that is filled with water [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for slip (Keyword) returned 46 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 46
Summaries of papers read at The Engineering Group Regional Meeting-Cardiff 1977: Engineering Geology of Soluble Rocks, 1978,
Engineering Geology of the South Wales Coalfield and its margins--with particular reference to the Carboniferous Limestone. By J. G. C. Anderson. The stratigraphical succession of the Cardiff district ranges from Silurian to Lower Jurassic, while structurally the rocks have been affected by Caledonian, Hercynian and Alpine movements. Caledonian folding is relatively weak but powerful Hercynian (Asturian) folding and faulting took place about the end of the Westphalian; the elongate South Wales Coalfield Basin being formed at this time. Mesozoic strata, up to the Liassic, are also folded and faulted by movements which may have been as late as the Miocene. Silurian rocks which occur in the Usk and Rumney Inliers consist of sandstones, siltstones and shales (often calcareous) as well as some limestones. The argillaceous rocks often weather deeply and degenerate to clay with rock lithorelicts, consequently they pose problems in foundations and cuttings, e.g. on the east side of Cardiff. The Old Red Sandstone, both Lower and Upper divisions are present, is made up of marls, sandstones and conglomerates. Some of the sandstones are aquifers and provide water in commercial quantities. The marls, especially where steeply inclined are liable to slipping, as happened for example, in the Brynglas (M4) Tunnel at Newport. The Carboniferous Limestone surrounds the coalfield and consists mainly of limestone and dolomite (see also below). The Millstone Grit does not contain the gritty sandstones of the Pennines and is made up mainly of strong siliceous sandstones and shales. The Coal Measures show the usual lithology; a ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Problems of engineering-geomorphological mapping on impermeable surface materials and in karst regions, 1979, Lang S. ,
The author outlines the type of information which should be presented on engineering-geomorphological maps, and stresses the need to show the relationship between this data and the possibility of natural catastrophes. For example, it is proposed that a system of maps covering areas where there is a high probability of landslipping should be devised, with priority to be given to populated tropical and equatorial regions. The mapping of other problem' areas (e.g. arid, polar, and karst regions) is also discussed. However, it is concluded that, in all areas, an overall evaluation of climatic, morphological, and lithological factors is essential for engineering-geomorphological mapping

Detailed tectonic trends on the central part of the Hellenic Outer Ridge and in the Hellenic Trench System, 1982, Kenyon N. H. , Belderson R. H. , Stride A. H. ,
Extensive new sonograph coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean allows a re-assessment of the complex relief outside the Hellenic Arc. The trenches to the SE and SW of Crete are similar in their plan view appearance, each having predominantly sinuous or curved structures that are interpreted as the surface expression of major thrusts. Thrusting, possibly imbricate, is also suggested on the central, shallowest part of the Hellenic Outer Ridge where interlocking convex-outward, curved structures occur, along with other faults and folds. These are thought to relate to decollement-type displacement within or beneath evaporite sediments. The structural style deduced from the morphology is consistent with a continuing outward radial push of the Hellenic Arc to the SW, S and SE, rather than with a migration to the SW and strike-slip on the SE side of the arc as proposed by other workers

Problemas de Fugas a Traves dei Karst en la Presa de Tous (Espana) (Anlisis estructural, prevision del comportamiento y recomendeciones)., 1983, Bermejo Fernando, Pablo Cano Juan, Del Val Joaquin, Eraso Adolfo, Navarro Jos Vicente, Parra Felix, Ribelles Jesus, Saintaubin Julia, Valdes Consuelo
In the present work, the problems of leakages happened in Tous's dam (Valencia-Spain) are studied. Tous's dam is built on karstic terrains with the existence of caverns and strike-slip faults that at the same time become karstic. In this study the techniques of structural geology are applied, so, we deduct the karstic drainage directions, by using determined hypothesis of work. The confirmation of these hypotheses in the course of our fieldwork has permitted to quantify the probability of those leakages for each direction we found. This circumstance has permitted to foretell the places where it would be possible to expect leakages with the increase of the height of the dam foreseen for a second phase of building.

Un haut plateau jurassien : le plateau des Molunes (Jura), 1984, Neyroud, M.
LARGE KARSTIC DEPRESSIONS AND ANTICLINAL STRUCTURES ON A HIGH JURASSIC TABLE-LAND: THE SOUTH OF THE PAYS MOLUNOIS (JURA, FRANCE) - On a high Jurassic table-land, the Pays molunois, close to the Monts Jura (Crt de la Neige, 1717m), large karstic depressions are studied in connection with anticline structures. Along a single anticline crest, a great diversity of forms is explained by the character of strike-slip faults (direct tectonic control), the glacial heritage (regional ice-cap), the tardiglacial evolution (peat-bogs or molunes), the lithological context (minor morphology) and at last unequal anthropic action. The morphogenesis of an original type of small anticlinal valleys, the closed anticline valleys-poljes is considered dating from geomorphologic evolution of the area and particular tectonic context.

Geophysical mapping techniques in environmental planning, 1987, Culshaw Mg, Jackson Pd, Mccann Dm,
Geophysical information can be used to identify geological features, some of which may be a problem during the planning, design or construction of a new development. The location of magnetic dykes, the investigation of buried channels, or of landslips, the determination of the thickness of drift deposits or the identification of natural or man-made cavities are all problems which can be studied by geophysical surveying methods on both a regional or local scale. The information obtained can then be incorporated into factual or interpreted engineering geological maps for use by planners or engineers. In this paper, the contribution that geophysical surveying methods can make at the planning, design, construction and monitoring stages of a development is examined and illustrated with a number of case histories

Analyses and interpretation of an industrial multi-channel seismic grid, a 2.3 km-deep industrial well (NMA-1) and two ODP (Sites 715 and 716), have generated new insights into the evolution of the Maldives carbonate system, Equatorial Indian Ocean. The present physiography of the Maldives Archipelago, a double chain of atolls delineating an internal basin, corresponds only to the latest phase of a long and dynamic evolution, far more complex than the simple vertical build-up of reef caps on top of thermally subsiding volcanic edifices. Through the Cenozoic evolution of the Maldives carbonate system, distinct phases of vertical growth (aggradation), exposure, regional or local drowning, and recovery of the shallow banks by lateral growth (progradation) have been recognized. The volcanic basement underlying the Maldives Archipelago is interpreted to be part of a volcanic ridge generated by the northern drift of the Indian plate on top of the hotspot of the island of Reunion. The volcanic basement recovered at well NMA-1 and ODP Site 715 has been radiometrically dated as 57.2 1.8 Ma (late Paleocene) by 40Ar-39Ar. Seismic and magnetic data indicate that this volcanic basement has been affected by a series of NNE-SSW trending subvertical faults, possibly associated with an early Eocene strike-slip motion along an old transform zone. The structural topography of the volcanic basement apprears to have dictated the initial geometry of the Eocene and early Oligocene Maldives carbonate system. Biostratigraphic analyses of samples, recovered by drilling in Site 715 and exploration well NMA-1, show that the Maldives shallow carbonate system was initiated during the early Eocene on top of what were originally subaerial volcanic edifices. The Eocene shallow carbonate sequence, directly overlying the volcanic basement at NMA-1, is dolomitized and remains neritic in nature, suggesting low subsidence rates until the early Oligocene. During this first phase of the Maldives carbonate system evolution, shallow carbonate facies aggraded on top of basement highs and thick deep-water periplatform sediments were deposited in some central seaways, precursors of the current wider internal basins. In the middle Oligocene, a plate reorganization of the equatorial Indian Ocean resulted in the segmentation of the hotspot trace and the spreading of the Maldives away from the transform zone. This plate reorganization resulted in increasing subsidence rates at NMA-1, interpreted to be associated with thermal cooling of the volcanic basement underlying the Maldives carbonate system. This middle Oligocene event also coincides with a regional irregular topographic surface, considered to represent a karst surface produced by a major low-stand. Deep-water carbonate facies, as seen in cuttings from NMA-1, overlie the shallow-water facies beneath the karst surface which can, therefore, be interpreted as a drowning unconformity. In the late Oligocene, following this regional deepening event, one single central basin developed, wider than its Eocene counterparts, and the current intraplatform basin was established. Since the early to middle Miocene, the shallow carbonate facies underwent a stage of local recovery by progradation of neritic environments towards the central basin. The simultaneous onset in the early middle Miocene of the monsoonal wind regime may explain the development of bidirectional slope progradations in the Maldives. During the late Miocene and the early Pliocene, several carbonate banks were locally drowned, whereas others (i.e. Male atoll) display well-developed lateral growth through margin progradations during the same interval. Differential carbonate productivity among the atolls could explain these diverse bank responses. High-frequency glacialeustatic sea-level fluctuations in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene resulted in periodic intervals of bank exposure and flooding, and developed the present-day physiography of atolls, with numerous faros along their rims and within their lagoons

Several kinds of base metal deposits occur in the lower Paleozoic of southwest Sardinia (Iglesiente-Sulcis mineral district). This paper deals with those deposits which are generally referred to as Permo-Triassic, because they accompany and postdate the Hercynian orogeny and are related to magmatic activity. A large number of previously published geochemical data, integrated with additional new data (Sr, Pb, O, C, and S isotopes), are reviewed and discussed in the frame of the late to post-Hercynian geologic evolution of southwest Sardinia. According to geological and mineralogical characteristics, three types of deposits can be distinguished: (1) skarn ores related to late Hercynian leucogranitic intrusions, (2) high-temperature veins, and (3) low-temperature veins and karst filling. Pervasive epigenetic dolomitization phenomena are geochemically related to the low-temperature deposits. Sr and Pb isotopes of the first and second types (0.7097-0.7140 Sr-87/Sr-86; 17.97-18.29 Pb-206/Pb-204; 38.11-38.45 Pb-208/Pb-204) are distinctly more radiogenic than those of the third type (0.7094-0.7115 Sr-87/Sr-86; 17.86-18.05 Pb-206/Pb-204; 37.95-38.19 Pb-208/Pb-204) which, in turn, are closer to Paleozoic ores and carbonates. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the fluids responsible for mineralization of the first and second types of deposits were hot and dilute (T(h)= 370-degrees-140-degrees-C; <5 wt % NaCl equiv). In contrast, relatively colder and very saline fluids (T(h)= 140-degrees-70-degrees-C; >20 wt % NaCl equiv) were responsible for the third type of mineralization, as well for epigenetic dolomitization of the Cambrian host rocks. O isotopes measured in minerals from the first two types (deltaO-18SMOW = 12.8-18.9 parts per thousand) are O-18 depleted with respect to the third type (deltaO-18SMOW = 15.9-22.1 parts per thousand). These data, coupled with fluid inclusion formation temperatures, indicate that the fluids responsible for the first two types of mineralization were O-18 enriched with respect to those of the third type and related hydrothermal phenomena. The deltaS-34CDT in sulfides of the first two types vary between 3.7 and 10.73 per mil, whereas the values of the third type range from 12.0 to 17.9 per mil. Late to post-Hercynian mineralization is thus explained as the result of three distinct, though partly superimposed, hydrothermal systems. System 1 developed closer to the late Hercynian leucogranitic intrusions and led to the formation of the first and subsequently the second type of mineralization. The relatively hot and diluted fluids had a heated meteoric, or even partly magmatic, origin. Metals were leached from an external, radiogenic source, represented either by Hercynian leucogranites or by Paleozoic metasediments. Sulfur had a partly magmatic signature. System 2 was characterized by very saline, colder fluids which promoted dolomitization, silicification, and vein and karst mineralization. These fluids share the typical characteristics of formation waters, even though their origins remain highly speculative. The hydrothermal system was mainly rock dominated, with only a minor participation of the external radiogenic source of metals. Sulfur was derived by recirculation of pre-Hercynian strata-bound ores. System 3 records the invasion of fresh and cold meteoric waters which precipitated only minor ore and calcite gangue. It may represent the further evolution of system 2, possibly spanning a time well after the Permo-Triassic. The timing of all these phenomena is still questionable, due to the poor geologic record of the Permo-Triassic in southwest Sardinia. Nevertheless, the hypothesized scenario bears many similarities with hydrothermal processes documented throughout the Hercynian in Europe and spanning the same time interval. A comparison with the latter mineralization and hydrothermal activities leads to the hypothesis that the first two types of mineralization are linked to late Hercynian magmatic activity, whereas the third type may be related to either strike-slip or tensional tectonics which, throughout Europe mark the transition from the Hercynian orogeny to the Alpine cycle

SEDIMENT-HOSTED GOLD MINERALIZATION IN THE RATATOTOK DISTRICT, NORTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA, 1994, Turner S. J. , Flindell P. A. , Hendri D. , Hardjana I. , Lauricella P. F. , Lindsay R. P. , Marpaung B. , White G. P. ,
The Ratatotok district in the Minahasa Regency of North Sulawesi, Indonesia is an area of significant gold mineralisation. Gold has been mined in the district since at least the 1850s, and intensively by the Dutch between 1900 and 1921 with a recorded production of 5,060 kg of gold. Newmont began exploring the district in 1986, and has delineated a major sediment-hosted replacement-style deposit at Mesel, and other smaller deposits in an 8 X 5 km area. A total drill-indicated resource of over 60 metric tonnes of gold ( 2 Moz) is reported for Mesel, and three of the smaller deposits. Approximately 80% of this resource is refractory. Silver grades are usually low (< 10 g/t). The Mesel deposit is similar to many Carlin-type deposits in carbonate hostrocks, alteration, geochemical signature and ore mineralogy, but is distinct in tectonic setting. The discovery of replacement-style mineralisation at Mesel, in an impure limestone within a Tertiary island arc environment, demonstrates that deposits with outward characteristics similar to Carlin-type mineralisation are not restricted to a continental setting. Carbonate sediments in the Ratatotok district were deposited in a Late Miocene restricted basin. Later compressional tectonics caused uplift that resulted in karst development in the limestone and erosion of the adjacent volcanic arc with deposition of a thick epiclastic unit. This was followed by intrusion of shallow level pre-mineral andesite into the sequence. Mineralisation at Mesel, and probably elsewhere in the district, is synchronous with the late-stage reactivation of strike-slip faults. Mineralising fluids at Mesel were focussed along steep structures sympathetic to these faults, and trapped below a relatively impermeable andesite cap rock. Hydrothermal fluids caused decalcification of the silty, more permeable carbonate units with the formation of secondary dolomite, deposition of fine arsenian pyrite, silica veinlets and gold. Volume loss due to decalcification and dolomite formation caused collapse brecciation which enhanced fluid flow and further mineralisation. This locally culminated in total decarbonation and deposition of massive silica. Late-stage stibnite occurs in structural zones within the ore deposit, whereas arsenic (as realgar and orpiment) and mercury (as cinnabar) are concentrated on the periphery. Elsewhere in the Ratatotok district, gold mineralisation is restricted to replacement-style mineralisation in permeable zones along limestone-andesite contacts, open-space-filling quartz-calcite veins and stockworks, and residual quartz-clay breccias. The residual breccias are developed in-situ, and are interpreted to form by dissolution of the wallrock limestone from around pre-existing mineralisation. This has resulted in widespread eluvial gold occurrences

Enregistrement des mouvements dun versant par les splothmes de la grotte du chemin du Castelleras (Le Tignet, Alpes-Maritimes, France), 1995, Gilli E. , Mangan C. , Delange P. , Larre P. , Evin J.
The study of speleothems in a subcutaneous cave developed between a scree and its bedrock, shows the slope movements. All the speleothem couples (stalactite facing a stalagmite) are displaced. Among the speleothems, a 50cm long thin stalac-tite (soda-straw type) has recorded the movements that have affected the slope. Every slope movement is shown in a speleothem axis variation. Radiocarbon datings help define growth speed and make clear the movement history over a 30,000 years period. This analysis confirms the possibility of using speleothem as verticality gauges to define an area stability.

Evaluating hillslope stability in tropical karst , 1998, Gillieson, David

Residential development in the tower karst of the Kinta valley, Malaya is proceeding at a rapid pace, and many developments have been subject to damage and loss of life from landslides and rockfalls. Study was conducted at Gunung Tempurung- Gajah, a 600-metre high limestone tower. The evaluation of hillslope stability was made by geomorphological mapping including the parameters: type of slope, activity of landslides and rock stability. Over geological timescales, periodic landslides and rockfalls are a normal and expectable part of the geomorphological processes in the tower karst of the Kinta valley. The expected frequency of landslides today is difficult to determine but recourse can be made to data on the frequency of high-intensity rainfall, and examination of revegetation on landslip debris. From these data, it seems probable that minor landslides can be triggered every 2-3 years in the area, with major phases of landslide activity occurring every 20 years.

Brittle tectonics and major dextral strike-slip zone in the Buda karst (Budapest, Hungary), 1999, Benkovics L, Obert D, Bergerat F, Mansy Jl, Dubois M,
Three large (kilometric-scale) caves were studied in the Buda hills and the main directions of cave corridors, fault planes and mineralized veins were measured. Different stages of mineralizations are recognised: calcite scaleno-hedrons, baryte, silica, gypsum. New investigations of fluid inclusions in the baryte suggest a crystallization temperature of 50 degrees C and a freshwater fluid source. Microtectonic analysis allows the reconstruction of the successive tectonic events: (1) a NE-SW extensional phase at the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene limit (phase I), (2) a strike-slip phase with NW-SE compression and NE-SW extension during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene (phase II), (3) a NW-SE transtensional phase (phase III) and finally (4) a NE-SW extensional phase of Quaternary age (phase IV). The major phase is the strike-slip one, characterized by an important dextral strike-slip zone: the Ferenc-hegy zone. (C) Elsevier, Paris

Speleogenesis of Castleguard Cave, Rocky Mountains, Alberta, Canada, 2000, Ford D. , Lauritzen S. E. , Worthington S.
Castleguard Cave is located in the Main Ranges of the Rocky Mountains of Canada. It is a relict upper level cave that is ~20 km in length, formed in massive, regularly bedded platform limestones of Middle Cambrian age. For a distance of eight km it passes beneath Castleguard Mountain, with up to 800 m of Upper Cambrian-Ordovician cover rocks preserved above it today. The cave is a good example of State 2 multi-loop phreatic conduit development, with a vadose canyon entrenched in the upstream (higher) end of each loop. The looping in the headward and central sectors of the cave (7 km) is guided by one master bedding plane and long vertical fractures that intersect it; the master plane was slightly opened by crushing associated with differential slip of a few cm during tectonic uplift. Downstream, a phreatic lift of 24 m conveyed the groundwater into a similar, stratigraphically higher, bedding plane that guides most of the passages there. When initiated, the cave may have been a single deep loop with a vertical amplitude of ~370 m; once enlarged by dissolution and with stabilized springs the greatest amplitude in the multiple loops was the 24 m required to gain the downstream controlling bedding plane. The cave became a hydrologic relict more than 780,000 years ago but has since been invaded and modified by alpine and sub-glacial waters on several ocasions. Modern groundwater (including water sinking beneath the greatest icefield remaining in the Rocky Mountains) passes through one or more lower level cave systems that are inaccessible; the hydrological behavior suggests that the morphology of these caves is similar to that of the known cave. The largest meltwater floods today impose a hydrostatic head >300 m on to the base flow springs, temporarily rejuvenating the downstream end of the relict cave.

Speleogenesis in the Ljubljanica river drainage basin, 2000, Sustersic F.
The Ljubljanica is a typical sinking river, disappearing and reappearing on the surface seven times. Data from 1534 surveyed caves in the central part of the basin have been processed statistically. Fragments of horizontal caves are grouped in clearly expressed clusters. At least two of the clusters appear to have been separated apart along the Idrija strik-slip fault and displaced about 12 km. The spatial orientation of the clusters only vaguely fits the present hydrogeological situation, and it is suggested that the caves are relict or re-occupied voids that formed originally in circumstances different from those of today. Most of the caves have typical phreatic shapes, which are further modified into epiphreatic channels only where there has been considerable input of mechanically transported material. The general genetic pattern is: initiation along bedding planes; penetration into joints; expansion by collapse of crushed zones and along faults; filling of lower parts of the system with sediments and transformation into epiphreatic tunnels.

Karst hydrogeology of Kusluk-Dilmetas karst springs, Van-Eastern Turkey, 2001, Ozler H. M. ,
Permian marbles and recrystallised limestone nappes outcrop in the Artos Mountain range and comprise an aquifer with a small storage reservoir. Carbonate units are underlain by the impervious Yuksekova ophiolites. Between the marble and ophiolites, there is a transition zone by the northward thrusting, which varies between 500-1,000 m thickness. Fissures and fractures systems are well-developed in this transition zone because of the effects of tectonic movement, and extensive karstification has resulted in a high infiltration although its storage capacity is low. Because of the impermeable ophiolites at the base, groundwater discharges as springs flowing from the plane of the thrust faults. Numerous karst springs (48 springs) issue from this fissured and fractured zone, which are characterised by small discharge rates, a long residence time, and well-regulated spring flows. In addition, a selective enlargement is observed from west to east, which is greatly effected by strike-slip faults. All these springs are mostly fed by snowmelt during 6 months of the year

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