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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That reservoir lake is a lake obtained by the impoundment of water for storage purposes [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Search in KarstBase

Your search for slopes (Keyword) returned 106 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 106
Predicting travel times and transport characterization in karst conduits by analyzing tracer-breakthrough curves, , Morales Tomas, De Valderrama Inigo, Uriarte Jesus A. , Antiguedad Inaki, Olazar Martin,
SummaryThis paper analyzes data obtained in 26 tracer tests carried out in 11 karstic connections following solutional conduits in karst aquifers in the Basque Country. These conduits are preferential drainage pathways in these aquifers and so they confer a marked anisotropy and high vulnerability to them. Consequently, their consideration in protection and management studies and projects is a priority.The connections studied cover a wide hydrogeological spectrum (a wide range of sizes, slopes, geomorphic and hydrologic types) and the tests have been carried out at different hydrodynamic states. It is noteworthy that they all follow a similar trend, which has allowed for the development of a statistical approximation for the treatment of the whole information.Relationships have been established involving velocity, solute time of arrival, attenuation of peak concentration and time of passage of tracer cloud. These relationships are a valuable tool for management and supporting decision-making and allow for making estimates in connections in which the information available was scarce. This information is especially useful, given that the complexity of transport in karst conduits gives way to important deviations between real data (empirical observations) and the data obtained by simple approaches based on the Fickian-type diffusion equation

The Clastic Sediments of Douglas Cave, Stuart Town, New South Wales, 1969, Frank, R.

Douglas Cave is on the western slopes of central New South Wales about five miles south-west of Stuart Town. The cave was first discovered in 1896 by R. J. Wilson (Leigh, 1897). At the time of discovery, the accumulation of fossil bone in the Bone Room was noted and shortly afterwards some bone was collected by W. S. Leigh. Thylacinus spelaeus, Dasyurus sp. and Macropus sp. were included in the collection (Dun, 1897). The cave was not named when it was discovered, though Trickett does refer to it as "the Stuart Town Caves" in a later report (Trickett, 1898, p. 205). It will be referred to hereafter as the Douglas Cave in honour of the present owner.


Further Caves of Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua, 1971, Ollier C. D. , Holdsworth D. K. , Heers G.

In a previous paper (Ollier and Holdsworth, 1970) we described the island of Kitava and many of the caves on the island. This note supplements that account and describes caves and related features discovered during a brief expedition to the south of the island (Figure 1) in 1971. Kitava is a coral island with a number of terraces and reaches a height of 466 feet. There is a central depression in the top of the island, the site of the lagoon before the reef was uplifted. Some caves are associated with the rim of the island, a few occur on mid-slopes, and others are found along the sea cliffs. Many of the caves have been used for burial of human remains, sometimes associated with pots, clam shells or canoe prows. Canoe prow burials are reported here for the first time. Some caves are associated with megalithic structures and legends of the origin of the various sub-clans (dala) of the island.


Observations on hillslopes erosion in tower karst topography of Belize, 1975, Mcdonald Roy Charles,

Hydrological and chemical investigations of running waters of the Schlitzerland (Western Germany). A. Springs, I. Survey., 1976, Brehm Jorg
In a Triassic sandstone woodland (Schlitzerland in Hesse, Western Germany) 17 springs were hydrologically and hydrochemically investigated throughout one year (April 1973; April 1974). Measurements were carried out on water volume, temperature, electrolytical conductivity, pH, aikalinity, chlorinity, dissolved molecular oxygen, dissolved organic material (COD), ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and free phosphate. Among the hydrochemical factors investigated the pH-value was closely related especially to the micro-climate in the spring drainage area. In particular the pH rose both with increasing length of the drainage area and within the same spring with decreasing water supply. On the other hand the pH-value diminished with increasing altitude of the drainage area. Simultaneously the highest values were found on SW-slopes and the lowest ones in NE-exposures.

Magniezia gardei n.sp. (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota): a Stenasellid from the underground waters of Southeastern Morocco., 1978, Magniez Guy
This new species has been discovered in the waters of Kef Aziza Cave, on the Saharian slopes of the High Atlas Range, Southeastern Morocco. Magniezia gardei n.sp. belongs to the same Genus as four species previously described from the phreatic waters of the Guinean area. So, it is assumed that this Moroccan species should be a relict of the ancient aquatic hypogean fauna of the entire West Africa, nowadays protected by the development of an arid climate.

Contribution to the study of Karstic caves of Djurdjura (Algeria). Morpho-hydrogeological description and evolutive synthesis., 1978, Quinif Yves
In North-Africa, the karst of Djurdjura Mountains is important because it shows high-alpine characters. In others papers, we have studied shallow morphology and speleological explorations. Here, we describe the caves: morphology, qualitative hydrology and fillings. These cavities are replaced in their morpho-structural context. We make distinctions between kinds of cavities. Gulfs and resurgences characterize high-alpine karst which is actual. Other caves that have their opening at the middle of slopes are dry, disconnected of actual morphological context. They belong to past karstification phases. From the synthesis of those elements, we show that it is possible to use karstic data in the reconstruction of morpho-structural evolution of a country.

Distribution and Habitat Diversity of Subterranean Amphipods in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, U.S.A., 1981, Holsinger John R. , Ward James W.
Subterranean amphipods have been collected from 35 locations on the eastern and western slopes of the Continental Divide in Colorado. All belong to the exclusively subterranean genus Stygobromus. Five species have been identified, two of which are undescribed. Specimens have been collected from (a) the hyporheic zone of rivers, (b) interrupted streams, (c) springs, and (d) seeps at elevations from 1597-2134 m a.s.l. Stygobromus occurs in several habitat types in interrupted drainage basins including sources, seeps, and isolated pools containing leaf detritus. All habitats contained waters which were cool to cold with dissolved oxygen values ranging from 4.3 ppm to fully saturated. Most waters exhibited soft or medium hardness, although one spring containing an undescribed species of Stygobromus had very hard waters (203 ppm bound CO2) and was mildly saline (913 mg/l TDS). There is evidence that the subterranean amphipods are phreatobites which, only under special conditions, establish relatively permanent populations in epigean habitats. Although little is known regarding ecology, zoogeography, or even taxonomy of the subterranean fauna of this region, stygobromid amphipods from the Cordilleran of western North America are apparently represented by fewer well differentiated species per unit area than their congeners from the geobiologicably older Appalachian region of eastern North America where numerous species are found in caves.

The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology, 1983, Williams Paul W. ,
The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the permanently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particular hydrological importance in karst because of its high secondary permeability, arising from the considerable chemical solution in this zone. However, corrosional enlargement of fissures diminishes with depth; thus permeability decreases in the same direction with the result that percolation is inhibited, except down widened master joints and faults. Storage of water consequently occurs in this zone, particularly after storms. The upper surface of this suspended saturated layer in the subcutaneous zone is defined by a perched water table, which slopes towards points of rapid vertical percolation. The potential induces lateral water movement converging on the most permeable areas such as beneath dolines. Leakage from the subcutaneous store sustains slow percolation in the vadose zone. Cross-correlation of rainfall with percolation rates in caves in New Mexico, U.S.A., and New Zealand reveal response lags of 2-14 weeks with no apparent relationship to depth below the surface. Other percolation sites show no correlation with rainfall; interpreted as being a consequence of considerable friction in tight fissure networks. The recognition of storage and rapid as well as very slow percolation from the subcutaneous zone requires re-interpretation of the components of hydrographs from karst springs and of some conceptual models of karst aquifers. The importance of subcutaneous storage in sustaining baseflow discharge at some sites must be recognised, as must the contribution of subcutaneous water to flood hydrographs. Methods of estimating the volumes of subcutaneous and phreatic components of karst-spring flood hydrographs are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of subcutaneous hydrologic processes for an understanding of karst geomorphology. The desirability of explaining karst landform evolution in terms of hydrologic processes is stressed

Hydrogologie karstique des Alpes-Maritimes, 1984, Baissas, P.
Karst hydrogeology in the Alpes-Maritimes - In the Marguareis, the systems penetrate very quickly by transverse faults, to reach the impermeable basement and then follow the dip. All the waters, even those on the French side, belong to the P basin. In the Roya arc, underflows are to be found going round the base of the Argentera-Mercantour. In the Nice arc, the karstification depends principally on tectonic factors and according to the places, the water follows either the overlaps or transverse faults. In the Grasse plateaus, the galleries follow at the outset the slopes and the dips of the synclinal hinges; the tectonic factors determine the location of the resurgences ; at depth, the karst is always phreatic, with relations between tectonic compartments during floods. In the cover of the Tanneron-Esterel basement and Barrot Dome, lithological factors determine flow.

Le karst du Sud et de l'Ouest du Moncayo (Cordillre ibrique, Espagne), 1986, Sanz Perez, E.
THE SOUTHERN AND WESTERN KARST OF SIERRA DEL MONCAYO (CORDILLERA IBERICA, SORIA, SPAIN) - The present work is a summary of our doctoral thesis about the karst on the southern and eastern slopes of the Moncayo (SANZ PEREZ, 1984). An interesting example of subterranean capture from the atlantic watershed to the mediterranean is shown, qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrated through diverse hydrogeological techniques of study. In the first part of the article, diverse karstic forms are described, including the Araviana Polje (37 km2). The hydrogeological characteristics and dynamic of the karst give a detailed hydraulic balance from which it is deduced that 70% of the water feeding the Vozmediano stream, the outlet of the aquifer, of 1.1 m3/s, and situated in the Ebro valley, comes from the Duero basin.

Deforestation of limestone slopes on northern Vancouver Island/ McMaster Univ. MSc thesis, 1987, Harding K.

Mangroves, Mountains and Munching Molluscs: The Evolution of a Tropical Coastline, 1988, Kiernan, Kevin

The highly scenic Andaman coast of peninsular Thailand is locally dominated by steep limestone hills and karst towers that rise from broad alluvial plains, from mangrove swamps or from the sea. The karst terrain stretches north and west across the Malay peninsula to the Gulf of Siam. Some of the variations in the style of this karst have resulted from lithological and structural factors. However, steepening of the slopes by marine erosion at times of formerly high sea levels has probably been important to the development of the most spectacular part of this landscape. Notches and caves cut in limestone towers up to 10-15m above present sea level may represent the maximum transgression of the Last Interglacial. Morphological evidence hints that former shorelines may now lie hundreds of metres above present sea level due to diastrophic movements during the late Cainozoic. However, this evidence is equivocal and it has been argued that similar landforms in neighboring parts of Malaysia may be the result of terrestrial planation processes that operated independent of sea level during the Pleistocene glacial stages.


SMALL-SCALE RETROSPECTIVE GROUND-WATER MONITORING STUDY FOR SIMAZINE IN DIFFERENT HYDROGEOLOGICAL SETTINGS, 1991, Roux P. H. , Hall R. L. , Ross R. H. ,
A ground water monitoring study was conducted for the triazine herbicide simazine at 11 sites in the United States. The study used carefully selected, small-scale sites (average size: about 33 acres) with documented product use and sensitive hydrogeological settings. The sites selected were Tulare County, California (two sites); Fresno County, California; Sussex County, Delaware; Hardee and Palm Beach counties, Florida; Winnebago County, Illinois; Jackson County, Indiana; Van Buren and Berrien counties, Michigan; and Jefferson County, West Virginia. These sites satisfied the following criteria: a history of simazine use, including the year prior to the start of the study; permeable soil and vadose zone; shallow depth to water; no restrictive soil layers above the water table; and gentle slopes not exceeding 2 percent. A variety of crop types, climates, and irrigation practices were included. Monitoring well clusters (shallow and deep) were installed at each site except in California and West Virginia, where only shallow wells were installed. Simazine was monitored at these sites at quarterly intervals for a two-year period during 1986-1988. The results of the study showed that out of 153 samples analyzed, 45 samples showed simazine detections. A substantial majority of the detections (32 out of 45) occurred in Tulare, Fresno, and Jefferson counties. The detections in these areas were attributed to mechanisms other than leaching, such as drainage wells, karst areas, surface water recharge, or point source problems. An additional 11 detections in Van Buren County were apparently due to an unknown upgradient source. Only one detection (in Palm Beach County, Florida) near the screening level of 0.1 ppb was attributed to possible leaching. The results of this investigation support the hypothesis that simazine does not leach significantly under field use conditions

The impact of bombs of World War I on limestone slopes of Monte Grappa, 1991, Celi M.


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