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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That algal limestone is type of limestone formed by calcium secreting algae [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for slovakia (Keyword) returned 52 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 52
Speleology in Czechoslovakia, 1958, Skrivnek, Frantisek

Aragonite Cave Discovery in Slovakia [Horny Hradock, Czechoslovakia], 1960, Orna B. [tr. ]

On mosses that, under influence of electrical lights inside the Hungarian and Czechoslovakian caves, penetrate underground., 1964, Boros A.
The introduction of electrical illumination into different caves makes the intrusion of some mosses and ferns into such depths of the caves possible which at previous occasions (i. e. before the installation of electrical light) were found sterile of these plants. Investigations of two caves in Czechoslovakia and 4 caves in Hungary revealed the presence of mosses thriving deep inside of these caves making use of the artificial illumination.

Seminar on Karst Denudation - Solution intensity on various types of Calcareous Rocks in Czechoslovakia, 1972, Stelcl O.

The genesis and the age of Rudice layers in the Moravian Karst (Czechoslovakia). [in Polish], 1978, Bosak, Pavel

On the genesis of fossil karst in the vicinity of Rudice (Moravia, Czechoslovakia). [in Polish], 1978, Burkhardt, Rudolf

Classification of Pseudokarst forms in Czechoslovakia., 1983, Vitek Jan
The paper is a geomorphological classification of pseudokarst forms in Czechoslovakia/Bohemien Massif and the Carpathians. In the author's opinion, forms occurring in non-carbonate rocks, are morphologically and often genetically analogous to the forms of karst relief, and are pseudokarst phenomena. They are divided according to their size into macroforms in sandstone morphostructures of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin some types of rocky valleys, water-shed plains and ridges, forming rock cities in some places, mesoforms with six types of caves, sinkholes, rock perforations and several rock phenomena and microforms such as weather pits and niches, lapies, etc.. The most prominent pseudokarst phenomena have been formed in the sandstones of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin whose relief may be considered "pseudokarst". They are also common in other sediments; in neovolcanic rocks and granitic rocks, as well as in other types of rocks. Pseudokarst forms are the product of geomorphological processes, especially weathering and denudation, block rock slides, erosion, suffosion, etc. Most of them have been developing in the recent mild humid climatic conditions.

C-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water and in recent tufa samples in several karst areas of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia was measured. Groundwater from 11 karst springs were measured for their isotopic content (C-14, H-3, C-13), chemical composition (HCO3, Ca2, Mg2) and physico-chemical properties (temperature, pH). Seasonal variations of the C-14 activity of DIC in two karst springs in Plitvice Lakes area, Yugoslavia, were measured systematically from 1979-1987. C-14 activity of recent tufa samples from several locations downstream were also measured. The activity of DIC in karst spring water in both countries ranged from 63-87 pMC, which is attributed to differences in geologic structure of the recharge area, topsoil thickness and composition. Grouping of C-14 activities of DIC ca (824)% is evident. Tritium activity at all the springs indicated short mean residence time (1-10 yr). Concentration of HCO3, Ca2 and Mg2 in spring water varied with geomorphology. C-14 activity of streamwater and recent tufa increased downstream from karst springs due to the exchange between atmospheric CO2 and DIC

Paleokarst - a Systematic and Regional Review, 1989,

Prepared by some of the world's leading experts in the field, this book is the first summarizing work on the origin, importance and exploitation of paleokarst. It offers an extensive regional survey, mainly concerning the Northern Hemisphere, as well as a thorough analysis of the problems of research into paleokarst phenomena, with particular emphasis on theoretical contributions and practical exploitation. By concentrating on phenomena which have appeared in the course of geological history, the book represents a substantial development in the general theory of paleokarst and demonstrates the advantages of a comprehensive approach to the problem. Considerable emphasis is put on the economic importance of paleokarst phenomena, from the point of view of exploiting significant deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as from a civil engineering and hydrological point of view. Since the publication deals with a boundary scientific discipline, it is intended for specialists from various branches of science: geologists, paleontologists, economic geologists, geographers, mining engineers and hydrogeologists.

List of Contributors. Foreword.

Part I. Introduction.
Introduction (P. Bosák et al.). Paleokarst as a problem (J. Głazek, P. Bosák, D.C. Ford). Terminology (P. Bosák, D.C. Ford, J. Głazek).

Part II. Regional Review.
Paleokarst of Belgium (Y. Quinif). Paleokarst of Britain (T.D. Ford). Paleokarst of Norway (S.-E. Lauritzen). Paleokarst of Poland (J. Głazek). Paleokarst of Czechoslovakia (P. Bosák, I. Horáček, V. Panoš). Paleokarst of Hungary (G. Bárdossy, L. Kordos). Hydrothermal paleokarst of Hungary (P. Müller). Paleokarst of Italy. Selected examples from Cambrian to Miocene (M. Boni, B. D'Argenio). Paleokarst-related ore deposits of the Maghreb, North Africa (Y. Fuchs, B. Touahri). Paleokarst of Yugoslavia (D. Gavrilović). Paleokarst of Bulgaria (I. Stanev, S. Trashliev). Paleokarst of Romania (M. Bleahu). Paleokarst of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (R.A. Tsykin). Paleokarst of China (Zhang Shouyue). Paleokarst of Canada (D.C. Ford). Paleokarst of the United States (M.V. Palmer, A.N. Palmer).

Part III. Mineral Deposits Connected With Karst.
An introduction to karst-related mineral deposits (P. Bosák). Pb-Zn ores (S. Dżułyński, M. Sass-Gustkiewicz). Bauxites (G. Bárdossy). Iron ore deposits in paleokarst (G. Bárdossy, Y. Fuchs, J. Głazek). Clays and sands in paleokarst (P. Bosák). The oceanic karst: modern bauxite and phosphate ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called ``Uplifted Atolls'') of the Pacific Ocean (F.G. Bourrouilh-le Jan). Paleokarst-related uranium deposits (Y. Fuchs).

Part IV. Hydrogeology and Engineering Hazards in Paleokarst Areas.
Paleokarst as an important hydrogeological factor (J. Zötl). Hydrogeological problems of opencast and underground mining of mineral deposits encountered during their exploration, development and exploitation stages (P. Bosák). Hydrogeological problems of the Cracow-Silesia Zn-Pb ore deposits (Z. Wilk). Hydrogeological problems of Hungarian bauxite and coal deposits (T. Böcker, B. Vizy). Paleokarst in civil engineering (A. Eraso). Interaction between engineering and environment in the presence of paleokarst: some case histories (J. Głazek).

Part V. Paleokarst as a Scientific Subject.
Special characteristics of paleokarst studies (I. Horáček, P. Bosák). Tectonic conditions for karst origin and preservation (J. Głazek). Problems of the origin and fossilization of karst forms (P. Bosák). Biostratigraphic investigations in paleokarst (I. Horáček, L. Kordos).

Part VI. Conclusions. Part VII. References. Part VIII. Indexes.
Author Index. Geographical Index. Subject Index.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-98874-2, 726 pages, publication date: 1989

The Silica nappe (s.l.) of the Inner West Carpathians consists of an essentially non-metamorphic, platform-type sedimentary complex of Mesozoic (chiefly Triassic) age. Palaeomagnetic samples were collected from 16 sites throughout the southern and northern Gemeric parts of this unit and from one site of the Mesozoic Meliata series which underlies the Silica nappe (s.s.) in south Gemer. The samples from each site were treated using thermal demagnetization and well-grouped magnetic directions of individual components were found for 13 (14) sites. Detailed analysis of the directional data showed (a) post-folding magnetization for four late Triassic-Jurassic sites in the eastern Slovak Karst, (b) synfolding magnetization for five sites in the western Slovak Karst with a direction corresponding to local palaeomagnetic data of African affinity for the late Cretaceous and (c) primary magnetizations in the northern Gemeric area for only two rock units with a declination difference which implies a relative rotation between these units. As all secondary remanences are of normal polarity it is very likely that their acquisition is related to the emplacement of the Silica nappe during the early late Cretaceous. The dominant remagnetization mechanism probably is CRM but occasional contributions of TVRM are also conceivable

Die Slowakischen Shauhohlen und ihre probleme., 1994, Racko Ivan
In 1960 the Slovak Caves Administration, which managed twelve Slovak Caves was founded. It was controlled by the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Socialist Republic and comprised also the Museum of Slovak Karst and the Slovak Speleological Society; a free speleological organisation. In 1981 such an Administration became part of the State Centre for the Protection of Nature. The main task of this centre was obviously the protection of nature in Slovakia but unfortunately many problems remained unsolved. The social movement in November 1989 accelerated the process to solve such problems and the Forum of Professional Workers of Show Caves was set up in Slovakia. Thanks to a very hard work, the first objectives were achieved on July 1, 1990 when the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic signed the Document of Establishment and the Statute of the Slovak Caves Administration. The task of this administration is to ensure a good management of the show caves together with their suitable protection. In cooperation with UNESCO, a sort of Chart for the protection of the karst areas should be developed in order to acknowledge Karst as a natural heritage of Earth because Karst is one of the most important ecosystems. Show caves can play a relevant role in the development of these feelings in the public opinion.

Paleoalpine karstification - The longest paleokarst period in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia), 1995, Cincura J, Kohler E,
The considerable areal extent and great thicknesses of Middle/Upper Triassic carbonate complexes influenced favourably the formation of karst during subaerial periods. The lower boundary of the Paleoalpine karst period is age-determined by the gradual emergence of the basement - during the Upper Cretaceous in the Central Western Carpathians and even earlier in the Inner Carpathians. The upper boundary can be dated by marine transgression The start of the transgression is not synchronous and it varies in a broad range from Upper Cretaceous to Upper Eocene and maybe even up to Oligocene/Miocene. The typical products of the period include typical karst bauxites filling karst cavities, ferri crusts, red clays, collapse and crackle breccias with speleothems, freshwater limestones or polymict conglomerates

Main features of the pre-Gosau paleokarst in the Brezovske Karpaty Mts. (Western Carpathians, Slovakia), 1998, Cincura J,
The considerable areal extent and great thickness of Middle/Upper Triassic carbonate sequences favourably influenced the development of paleokarst during the Paleoalpine karst period in the Brezovske Karpaty Mts. Carbonate formations provide data concerning the first-pre-Gosau-phase of the Paleoalpine karst period. Freshwater limestones, bauxites, reddish ferrugineous silty clays, Valchov Conglomerate, shallow doline-like depressions and deeper canyon-like forms represent the most important pre-Gosau karst sediments and forms

Paleomagnetic study of Triassic sediments from the Silica Nappe in the Slovak Karst, a new approach, 1998, Kruczyk J. , Kadzialkohofmokl M. , Tunyi I. , Pagac P. , Mello J. ,
Intensive paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study were performed for Triassic limestones from the Silica Nappe in the Slovak Karst. Five exposures situated on the eastern and western side of the Stitnik-Plesivec fault were sampled for this study. In all exposures a secondary component of remanence of normal polarity (N), carried by secondary PSD magnetite was found. In the Silicka Brezova exposure (SE) apart from the N component, another secondary component of reversed polarity (R), carried by hematite; was isolated. Both components were acquired after folding. The R component was acquired during the Odra reversal event in the Oligocene (Birkenmajer et al. 1977). Comparison of its direction with the reference data let us conclude that the area belonged during this time to the African affinity. The declination of the R component suggests that after this magnetization period the studied region rotated anticlockwise by about 90 degrees around an intraplate vertical axis together with the whole Pelso megaunit. According to Marton et al. (1995) and Marton & Fodor (1995) the rotation took place in two phases, the first one by about 50 degrees took place in the Early Miocene, the second one, by about 30 degrees - in the Late Miocene. The N component, isolated by us, seems to have been acquired during the Middle Miocene after the first and before the second rotational phases: its declination agrees with a counterclockwise rotation of the Silica Nappe by about 30-40 degrees during the Late Miocene, as postulated by the cited authors. The inclination of the N component is lower, than the expected for Miocene, but agrees with the Miocene results for the Bukk region also belonging to the Pelso block, confirming the idea about the Miocene 'southern escape' of the Pelso block (Marton 1993). The final tectonic activity in the study area was connected with formation of the Stitnik-Plesivec fault (Late Tertiary-Quaternary). Our results suggest, that the fault is of rotational type and resulted in different tilting of beds situated on its eastern and western sides

Genetic types of caves in Slovakia, 1998, Bella, Pavel

Karst and non-karst regions in the territory of Slovakia are notable for a very broad typological range of caves. The criteria of cave genetic classification in the existing works concerning parts of the Western Carpathians are not integrated. We suggest fundamental principles of classification and charaterize the basic genetic types of caves in this paper. We also advert to several problems of karstological and speleological terminology (exokras and endokarst, karst and pseudokarst).

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