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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That brochantite is a cave mineral - cu4(so4)(oh)6 [11].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for soil erosion (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 23
Accelerated soil erosion in a karst area: the Burren, western Ireland, 1984, Drew D. P.

Origination of stone forests in China., 1986, Song Linhua
The stone forests are widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical climatic areas. The stone forests may be divided into hilltop stone forest, hill slope stone forest and the stone forest in the depressions or valleys. The conditions for stone forest development should be (1) thick and pure limestone, (2) gentle dipping of limestone formation, generally less than 150, (3) a lot of vertical joint and fissure networks, (4) the soil covering on the limestone surface inhomogeneous, thick in the fissures and thin on the rock top surface, and (5) the soil should be wet and contain rich organic materials and CO2. In the above conditions, the stone teeth may develop to the stone forest. If lack of organic soil, low humidity and stable depth of soil erosion zone occurs, only the stone teeth are developed.

Be-7 distribution in surface soil of central Guizhou karst region and its erosion trace, 1996, Bai Zg, Wan Gj, Wang Cs, Wan X, Huang Rg, Santschi Ph, Baskaran M,
Soil erosion in karst region of south China is one of the major environmental problems. Beryllium-7, produced by energetic cosmic rags, has been used to trace the geochemical process of the soil erosion. The study has shown that Be-7 activity profiles present a decreasing logarithmic pattern with soil depth. The maximum permeable depth of Be-7 is 2-5mm in different seasons and locations, which is deeper in autumn than in spring, On the contrary, its apparent activity on boundary soil is higher in spring than in autumn. The Be-7 inventories in soil cores are higher in accumulative locations than in eroded one. Upper hills in the karst region are seriously eroded. Erosive intensity is higher in rainy periods than in dry ones. Influenced by the micromorphology and precipitation, the eroded particles accumulated in shallow basin after a short-distance transportation in winter and spring. However, in summer and autumn, they might be transported into drainage systems

Comparison of soil erosion and deposition rates using radiocesium, RUSLE, and buried soils in dolines in East Tennessee, 1997, Turnage K. M. , Lee S. Y. , Foss J. E. , Kim K. H. , Larsen I. L. ,

Geomorphology of the Tertiary gypsum formations in the Ebro Depression (Spain), 1998, Elorza Mg, Santolalla Fg,
This paper reviews the current knowledge of the mainly karstic geomorphological features developed in the evaporitic formations of the Ebro Depression (northern Spain). Special emphasis is given to the recently published and unpublished scientific advances. The gypsum formations, of Tertiary age, have an extensive outcrop area within the Ebro Depression. Here, their morphogenesis is controlled mainly by processes of surface and subsurface dissolution acting on the gypsum. Outstanding landforms in the gypsum terrain include saline lakes developed in flat bottom dolines (saladas). Other characteristic morphologies include karren and gypsum domes, which occur on a decimetre scale. Where the gypsum is covered by Quaternary alluvial deposits the karstification processes are especially intense and cause subsidence phenomena. Karstic subsidence affects stream terraces, mantled pediments and infilled valleys, which in the region are called vales. Dissolution-induced synsedimentary subsidence has produced interesting geological features, which include significant thickening and deformation of the alluvial deposits. In contrast to the rapid removal of gypsum by dissolution, the amount of gypsum removed by erosion is low. Water erosion studies carried out on gypsiferous slopes of the Ebro Depression, indicate that the sediment yield ranges from 0.59 to 7.82 t/ha/year. This low yield results from the high infiltration capacity of the soils. Subsidence caused by gypsum dissolution has important socioeconomic consequences in the Ebro Depression. The active alluvial karstification of the gypsum causes numerous sinkholes that are harmful to linear structures (roads, railway Lines, irrigation channels), buildings and agricultural land. Unforeseen catastrophic subsidence also puts human Lives at risk. The benefits of such terrains include thickened alluvial deposits which act as valuable water reservoirs and which form excellent sources of aggregates. Fluvial valleys in this gypsiferous terrain commonly show an asymmetrical geometry with prominent gypsum scarps at one side. These gypsum scarps are affected by numerous landslides. These slope movements are hazardous, may dam rivers and cause flooding of the alluvial plains. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Flared slopes revisited, 1998, Twidale C. R. , Bourne J. A. ,
Flared slopes are smooth concavities caused by subsurface moisture-generated weathering in the scarp-foot zone of hillslopes or boulders. They are well represented in granitic terrains but also developed in other massive materials such as limestone, sandstone, dacite, rhyolite, and basalt, as well as other plutonic rocks. Notches, cliff-foot caves, and swamp slob are congeners of flared slopes. Though a few bedrock flares are conceivably caused by nivation or by a combination of coastal processes, most are two-stage or etch forms. Appreciation of the origin of these forms has permitted their use in the identification and measurement of recent soil erosion and an explanation of natural bridges. Their mode of development is also germane to the origin of the host inselberg or bornhardt and, indeed, to general theories of landscape evolution. But certain discrepancies have been noted concerning the distribution and detailed morphology of flared slopes. Such anomalies are a result of structural factors (sensu late), of variations in size of catchment and in degree of exposure, and of several protective factors. Notwithstanding, the original explanation of flared slopes stands, as do their wider implications

Environmental vulnerability and agriculture in the karstic domain: landscape indicators and cases in the Atlas Highlands, Morocco, 1999, Akdim Brahim, Amyay Mohammed
After the brief presentation of the major karstic areas in Morocco, the article focused essentially on the Atlas mountains to investigate the impact of the agriculture on the natural systems equilibrium. Socio-economic changes (demographic pressure, escalation of the landscape use, utilisation of new techniques in water harvesting, etc...) have sometimes fathered mechanisms of degradation. Many indicators seem to reflect these mechanisms. The pedologic indicators, soil erosion, the hydrologic and geomorphic indicators, are apprehended to demonstrate existent correlation between different variables and the often negative impacts of land over-use in the karstic domain of the Middle Atlas.

Land use in the karstic lands in the Mediterranean region, 1999, Atalay Ibrahim
Karstic lands have special importance in terms of soil formation and land-use. Soil appears only on the flat and slightly undulating karstic lands, while soils are found along the cracks and bedding surfaces between the layers on the hilly karst areas although these lands are rocky in appearance. Karstic lands in the hilly area are not conducive to cultivation. But rocky areas create a favourable habitat for the growth of forests except in an arid climate. Because the tree roots easily follow and develop along the cracks in the limestone. As a general rule soil erosion does not occur on sub-horizontal karst surfaces due to the fact that atmospheric waters easily infiltrate along the cracks. Natural generation of vegetation like the maquis-type occurs via the root suckers, but coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, pine through seed dispersal. The clearance of natural vegetation on the karstic lands leads to the formation of bare lands. That is why the slopes of the limestone hillsides have been converted into bare and/or rocky terrains in places where natural vegetation has been completely destroyed.

Interaction between karst, water and agriculture over the climatic gradient of Israel, 1999, Frumkin Amos
The dry climate of Israel and the karstic nature of its rocks have always imposed human innovation for utilisation of water resources and agriculture. Large perennial karst springs are available only in the lowlands, but sophisticated water supply systems were built both in the lowland and highland regions. Marl layers interbedded within carbonates give rise to local perched springs and allow terrace construction. Deforestation has taken place for some 4000 years, causing intense soil erosion, but terraces have reduced this impact.

Soil erosion and water pollution in an intensive vine cultivation area: The Entre-deux-Mers example (Gironde, France), 1999, Audra P.

Lunan "Shilin" (Stone Forest), human impact and protection of (eventual) World Heritage Site (Yunnan, China), 2001, Kranjc Andrej, Liu Hong

The Chinese expression "shilin" (stone forest) is becoming an international term meaning megakarren, that is a Čforest« of intensively corroded limestone pinnacles. The best known is Shilin near the town of Lunan. The first known description of Shilin is from 1382. Shilin is very important tourist site. Modern tourism began to develop in 1980, in 1999 the number of visitors reached over 2 million. In 1981 the whole area (350 sq. km) was protected. Under the auspices of the National Ministry of Construction material is being collected for an application to inscribe Shilin into the list of World's Natural Heritage at UNESCO. Related to human impact the most important threats are: exploitation (destruction) of limestone pinnacles as a source of rock material; the pressure of population towards the protection zone due to their increase (need for new building plots); agriculture (farming and stockbreeding) connected to soil erosion and underground water pollution (use of fertilisers); fast growth of visitor numbers. The Shilin administration introduced different protection measures: ban on rock (limestone pinnacles) exploitation in the protection zone (orientation towards afforestation); construction of new tourist facilities out of the core zone (and demolition of some of them in that zone); establishment of a special protection department within Shilin management (18 person); education of "special voluntary rangers" - recruited among highly respected persons of villages and towns in the region.


Solution and recrystallisation processes and associated landforms in gypsum outcrops of Sicily, 2003, Ferrarese F, Macaluso T, Madonia G, Palmeri A, Sauro U,
Four small areas of Messinian (Upper Miocene) age gypsum, outcropping in western Sicily, are described. Messinian age evaporites are found in Sicily over a 1000-km(2) area. Here, gypsum outcrops extensively as a consequence of soil erosion induced by human impact. Geomorphological maps show how the rocky surfaces are characterized by a wide range of forms. There are large, medium, small, and microsized forms, which can be identified as belonging to different morphotypes. The morphotypes can be classified into two main categories: those that originated by solution and those that originated through recrystallisation. Four areas, illustrated by geomorphological maps, were specifically chosen to describe a type of medium-sized form: dome-like hills. These medium-sized forms are covered by a mosaic of smaller forms, related to both the previous categories: different types of karren and of 'expansion' forms. The types of karren can be explained as the results of the solution process under different hydrodynamical behaviour; the dome-like hills and other related 'expansion' forms are more difficult to understand. These 'expansion' forms can be explained by the same process that leads to the development of gypsum tumuli. The outcrops of gypsum lacking soil cover and influenced by alternating seasonal water conditions of surplus and deficit are affected by both solution and recrystallisation processes. During the wet season, the water soaks into the rocky mass, filling all the fissures and pores of the outer rocky layer from a few centimetres to some metres below the surface. During the dry season, there is a capillary upward motion of the water solution. Near the surface, gypsum precipitates from the oversaturated solution, increasing the crystal size or forming new crystals. In this way, during the dry season, there is a pressure increase in the outer gypsum layers, which is responsible for the development of a 'gypsum weathering crust' and characterised by many different forms such as gypsum tumuli, pressure ridges, pressure humps, and other related small forms. The crust may also lead to the development of mega-tumuli and dome-like hills. From the morphostructural point of view, the dome-like hills do not seem to be controlled by the strike, dip, or fissuring of the gypsum beds. Their evolution seems to be linked to the fact that on most of the dome surfaces, the weathering crust is evolving through a nearly isotropic field of stresses, resulting in volume increase in the outer gypsum layer. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

An improved method for determination of holocene coastline changes around two ancient settlements in southern Anatolia: A geoarchaeological approach to historical land degradation studies, 2003, Bal Y, Kelling G, Kapur S, Akca E, Cetin H, Erol O,
Two well-known ancient sites in southern Anatolia were selected to investigate and quantify the impact of historical land degradation on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. These sites are the Luwian settlements of Kelenderis (modern Aydincik) and nearby Nagidos (Bozyazi), both in Mersin Province and both occupied since around 4000 BP. Changes in local climatic conditions over this period have produced variations in the rates of fluvial transport of sediment/soil from the hinterland into the relevant deltaic regions, thus influencing rates of coastal progradation and aggradation. In addition, both eustatic and neotectonic movements have contributed to deltaic subsidence and/or hinterland uplift, with consequential impact on coastal evolution (positive or negative). The novel gcoarchaeological methodology adopted in this study involves the creation of a graphical archive from detailed and standardised measurements taken from rectified mono- and stereoscopic aerial photographs. These archival data were then integrated with data from several types of historical map and field measurements in order to develop a geographical information system (GIS) database that could be interrogated, enabling graphical models of past coastal change to be constructed and calculations then made of the coastal configurations at successive historical periods. These calculations reveal that over the past 6000 years there has been only limited erosion/degradation in the karstic hinterland supplying the sediment to these two study sites (contrary to some previous statements concerning the high degradation risk of Mediterranean karst terrains). Furthermore, rates of progradation in each delta appear to have become diminished or even reversed in the past several decades as a result of both natural and anthropogenic factors. The precise contribution of neotectonic movements in this seismically active zone remains unquantified and is a topic requiring further interdisciplinary study.

Analysis of the geomorphology and environmental geological problems of Huzhou on the Yangtze River delta, 2004, Jiang Y. H. , Wang J. D. , Yuan X. Y. , Wang R. H. ,
Geomorphically, Huzhou, which is on the Yangtze River delta is characterized mainly by plains, with small hills. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the environmental geological hazards both natural and those incurred by human activities in different morphologic units. The authors point out that most of the regional environmental geological problems in the natural geologic-morphologic conditions, such as crustal stability, foundation of soft soil, soil waterlogging and soil erosion, have insignificant effects to the society, or related countermeasures of prevention and control have been adopted. But environmental geological problems incurred by human being's economic activities become more and more severe, for example, water and soil pollution and land subsidence in plain areas resulting from overexploitation of groundwater, and landslides, karst collapses and water and soil loss etc. caused by quarrying in hilly areas

How types of carbonate rock assemblages constrain the distribution of karst rocky desertified land in Guizhou Province, PR China: Phenomena and mechanisms, 2004, Wang S. J. , Li R. L. , Sun C. X. , Zhang D. F. , Li F. Q. , Zhou D. Q. , Xiong K. N. , Zhou Z. F. ,
In Southwestern China karst rocky desertification (a process of land degradation involving serious soil erosion, extensive exposure of basement rocks, drastic decrease of soil productivity and the appearance of a desert-like landscape) results from irrational land use on the fragile, thin karst soil. Soil particles in the Guizhou karst plateau were accumulated predominantly from residues left behind after the dissolution of carbonate rocks, and the thickness of the soil layer is related to the amount of argillaceous substances in the lost carbonate rock. This paper examines the spatial distribution of karst rocky desertified (KRD) land in Guizhou Province, and relates it to the different assemblages of basement carbonate rocks. Types of carbonate rock assemblages are discussed using a 1 : 500000 scale digital-distribution map. Their distribution and sensitivity to erosion are analysed, demonstrating that the occurrence of KRD land is positively correlated to homogeneous carbonate rocks. Differences in physical and chemical properties of limestone and dolomite rocks lead to differences in dissolution, accumulation rate of soil particles and relief on the surface, and these factors influence land-use potential.

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