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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That paragenesis is a type of cave passage development in which erosion of the passage floor is inhibited by the presence of an armoring layer of sediment, such that any dissolutional enlargement is dominantly upwards [9]. generally, an unproven and unsupported theory.?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for solubility (Keyword) returned 57 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 57
Some Factors affecting the Solubility of Limestone in Natural Waters, 1950, Bamber H. A.

Saturated Calcite Solutions: a theoretical study evaluating the solubility product and other constants, 1973, Picknett R. G.

Enhanced calcite solubility in dilute magnesium carbonate solutions, 1978, Picknett R. G. , Stenner R. D.

A classification of karstic phenomena., 1978, Cigna Arrigo A.
The paper describes and classifies the several types of karstic processes, distinguishing karstic, parakarstic, hypokarstic, hyperkarstic and pseudokarstic phenomena. An appendix on solubility of silica is also given.

Structural, Petrographic, and Relative Solubility Relationships in the Sinnett-Thorn Mountain Cave System, Pendleton County, West Virginia, 1979, Stokowski, Jr. , S. J.

Le karst du gypse du centre de la dpression de l'Ebre (Espagne), 1990, Soriano, M. A.
THE GYPSUM KARST OF THE CENTER OF THE EBRE BASSIN (SPAIN) - The central Ebro basin was filled with evaporitic deposits (gypsum and limestones) during the Miocene. During the Quaternary, several alluvial terrace and pediment levels were developed and they overlay the gypsum deposits. A large number of karstic landforms developed on gypsum have been found. The most important reason is its high solubility. We have found different types of microlandforms. The most important are Rillenkarren, solution pits and micro etching. There are also small tumuli. They are active at present. We have differentiated three macrolandforms: paleocollapses, depressions and alluvial dolines. The paleocollapses are very narrow and deep. They are filled with quaternary materials. They are not active and were generated in the Middle or Upper Pleistocene. The depressions were developed by the gypsum dissolution, together with topographical and geomorphologic factors. They do not seem to be active nowadays. The alluvial dolines are developed on the terrace and pediment deposits, which overlay gypsum materials. There is basin, well and pan-shaped dolines and they are especially frequent in the T2 terrace level. From the study of aerial photographs of different years, the variations in the number and size of dolines and their density have been determined. Natural factors (lithology and fractures), together with human activities (irrigation) are the principal causes in their development.

Approche thorique _simplifie de la dissolution karstique, 1994, Gombert, P.
The specific behaviour of karsts makes the estimation of karstic denudation very difficult: discharge and water chemical variabili-ties are in fact major characteristics of aquifer karstic systems and cannot be properly estimated by the way of random sampling. The classical empirical methods provide generally high relative errors due to the bad knowledge of the hydrogeological catchment basin and even of the total number of springs. In the case of CORBEL's or WILLIAM's empirical formulas, average relative error can be estimated to about 100 % for a normally known aquifer karstic system : therefore it is impossible to compare different karsts that have not been studied with the same accuracy. The theoretical statisti-cal relationships between karstic denu-dation and a single climatic parameter (rainfall) are open to criticism: main authors tell that effective rainfall and pedological C02 are essential parame-ters of karstic denudation, which are never taken into account. For example, there are different PULINA's formula for different climatic types indicating that it is necessary to use another climatic parameter different from rain-fall! Moreover this way of modelling the data restrains the statistical repre-sentativity of each formula and intro-duces a difficult choice for karsts, which are at the border of two climatic types (or with mountainous parts). Another problem is the case of polar countries karsts where most precipitation is snowy and does not participate in karstic denudation. Therefore a mathematical modelling of carbonate dissolution is shown, based on infiltra-tion rate calculation and knowledge of calco-carbonic equilibrium. Temperature and rainfall are taken into account to determine the efficient part of precipitation, the productivity of pedogenetic C02 and the carbonate solubility constants. This theoretical approach gives the same results but with relative errors under 50 %. Consequently it is easy to compare different karstic countries in the world: hot and wet climates are confirmed to have the main karstogenetic activity but the role of cold countries is rehabilita-ted. Then paleokarstic denudation can be estimated.

CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF GROUNDWATER NEAR A SINKHOLE LAKE, NORTHERN FLORIDA .1. FLOW PATTERNS, AGE OF GROUNDWATER, AND INFLUENCE OF LAKE WATER LEAKAGE, 1995, Katz B. G. , Lee T. M. , Plummer L. N. , Busenberg E. ,
Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11-67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 mid for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions

Solutional landforms in quartz sandstones of the Sydney Basin, PhD thesis, 1995, Wray, R. A. L

Solutional landforms have been described for over a hundred years from limestone terrains and are termed karst. In many tropical regions landforms of similar morphology but on highly siliceous sandstones and quartzites have also recently been identified. The similarity of many of these features in morphology and also in genetic solutional processes to those on limestone has prompted recent calls for these quartzose landforms to also be regarded as true karst.
Although not unknown in temperate latitudes, these highly siliceous solutional landforms have been most commonly studied in present-day tropical regions, or areas believed to have been tropical in the recent past. This concentration of research in hot-wet areas, allied with the long held assertion of the insolubility of silica, especially quartz, led to a belief that tropical climatic conditions are necessary for karstic solution of these rocks. However, some of these quartzose solutional landforms are known in areas of temperate climate where there is little evidence for prior tropical conditions. A comprehensive worldwide review of these landforms, and the processes involved in their formation, has not previously been conducted and forms the basis from which this study stems.
The Sydney Basin in southeastern Australia has had a stable temperate climate for much of the Cainozoic with no evidence of tropical climate. The highly quartzose Permo-Triassic sandstones of this area have little carbonate, but nevertheless display a wide range of landforms morphologically similar to those both on limestones and also tropical quartzites These include large bedrock towers, grikes, caves, smaller solution basins and runnels, and even widespread silica speleothems. This study describes the morphology of this suite of landforms in detail, and provides a comparative analysis of these sandstone forms to those reported from quartzites of tropical areas and also their limestone analogues. Various microscopic and natural water chemistry analysis are then utilised in examining the poorly understood natural processes responsible for their formation. The process of sandstone solutional weathering in the Sydney Basin is also compared with that reported from the tropics, finding very little difference in either the form or magnitude of attack between these two climatically distinct regions. No previous studies have examined the wide range of solutional features found on quartz sandstones in one region of a climate comparable to Sydney, nor the processes involved in the genesis of these forms.


Sulphate rocks as an arena for karst development., 1996, Andrejchuk Vjacheslav, Klimchouk Alexander
The rocks in which karst systems develop are most commonly composed of carbonate sulphate and chloride minerals. The sulphate minerals are quite numerous, but only gypsum and anhydrite form extensive masses in sedimentary sequences. Other minerals, which represent sulphates of K, Mg and Na, normally occur as minor beds (0.1-5.0 m), or as inclusions associated with chloride rocks. However some minerals precipitated in salt-generating basins, such as mirabilite and glauberite (typically formed in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf, salt lakes of Siberia and in China), form sequences up to 5-10 m thick where karst may develop. Due to the very high solubility of Na -sulphates, karst processes and features occurring in these rocks resemble salt karst. Thus, the term sulphate karst, although not strictly correct, is used mainly to indicate karst developed in gypsum and anhydrite.

A global review of solutional weathering forms on quartz sandstones, 1997, Wray R. A. L. ,
Solutional landforms in limestone have been described for over a hundred years, but landforms of similar morphology on highly siliceous sandstones and quartzites have also been identified in a wide variety of environments and generally termed pseudokarst. These include large bedrock pinnacles and towers, caves, corridors, grikes, solution basins and runnels, and even silica speleothems. Quartzites and quartz sandstones have been held to be amongst the most chemically resistant of rocks, but the similarity, both in morphology and genetic process of many landforms developed from them to features of known solutional origin on limestone, has prompted some authors to refer to these quartzose landforms as true karst.The most detailed studies of quartzose karst landforms have been in present-day tropical regions, or areas believed to have been tropical in the geologically recent past. This concentration of research in hot-wet areas, allied with the long held assertion of the insolubility of silica, especially quartz, has led to a belief that tropical climatic conditions are necessary for karstic solution of these rocks. However, the existence of quartzose karst landforms in temperate and even sub-polar latitudes, especially where there is no evidence of prior tropical conditions, suggests that the requirement of tropical weathering is no longer tenable.The reports of these quartzose solutional landforms are widely scattered through the geomorphological and geological literature, but a comprehensive world-wide review of the range of solutional landforms on quartzose rocks has not previously been published. Because of the increasing awareness in this karst type such a summary is sorely overdue

Ground-water silicifications in the calcareous facies of the Tertiary piedmont deposits of the Atlas Mountain (Hamada du Guir, Morocco), 1997, Thiry M. , Benbrahim M. ,
The Tertiary piedmont deposits (Hamada Formations), on the southern edge of the Haut-Atlas mountains, form extensive tablelands in the Boudenib area. They consist of two main sedimentary sequences, the Hamada de Boudenib and the Hamada du Guir, of Eocene and Miocene age. Both sequences show elastic facies at their base (conglomerates, calcareous sandstones, silty clays) and end with thick lacustrine limestones and pedogenic calcretes are characterised by rather confined facies, palygorskite-rich, with some gypsum in the second sequence. The recent evolution of the region is marked by the dissection of the tableland that is lined with high cliffs. The water flaw is mainly through wide karst features as there is no major river on the tableland. Silicifications which affect the different facies, form pods of various shape and size, and show an erratic spatial distribution. In the calcareous sandstones, there are irregularly shaped tubules of about 5 cm in diameter, more planar bodies from 5 to 50 cm thick, which frequently display voids lined with translucent silica concretions. The conglomerates display relatively few silicifications, the more characteristic ones consist of a silica cortex on some Limestone pebble and silica plates fitting closely the base of the pebbles. The lacustrine limestones and the calcretes from the upper part of the formation show frequently well developed silicifications. These show very variable shapes; horizontally stretching layers, interconnected or isolated amoeba-like bodies, thin slabs, karst micro-breccia, with frequent concretionnary structures, and quartz crystallisations. Limestone nodules remain often included in these silicifications. The more argillaceous facies display either small tubules or thin plates formed of translucent concretionnary silica. As a rule, the importance of the voids and related structures (concretions, drusy crystals) has to be noticed in all these silicifications, sometimes they are also linked with fractures or karst pipes. Petrography of the silica minerals, their relation with the primary structures. their distribution and their succession, give invaluable information on the silicification processes. Microcrystalline and fibrous quartz are the most common silica minerals, including minor amounts of opal and euhedral quartz. But micrographic arrangements show clearly that primary opal deposits have been more extensive and have recrystallized into chalcedony, microcrystalline quartz, or even ''flame-like'' quartz. Silica deposits in voids make up an important part of the silica pods. The tubules and thin plates of translucent silica of the argillaceous facies are formed of laminar chalcedony deposited around voids. Silica deposits in voids are also particularly obvious in the sandstones. The pores between the quartz grains are then cemented by fibrous quartz and little opal. Some samples show very large cemented voids that cannot be related to the primary porosity of the sandstone. These large voids correspond to the dissolution of the primary calcareous cement, which even led to the collapse of the sandstone fabric. In the limestones, there are silicified micro-karst breccia with a very high primary porosity cemented by quartz crystals, and even in the large microcrystalline quartz zones there are numerous void fillings, the primary porosity often exceeding 50%. There is obviously the alternation of silica deposits and calcite dissolution. Beside the void filling, silicifications comprise also matrix epigenesis, that is replacement of the carbonate by silica with preservation of most of the limestone structures, without development of voids. Nevertheless, the epigenesis of the limestone matrix is restricted to the vicinity of the voids. The silicifications relate to diagenetic processes. The main part of the silica is formed of void deposits and matrix replacement (epigenesis) on the edge of the voids. These void deposits give evidence of the feeding solutions. The regularity of the deposits all around the voids point out to a hydrologic regime characterised by a ground-water our now. Silica originates most probably from alteration of the magnesian clay minerals along the ground-water path. Regarding the low solubility of silica in surficial waters, high flows are needed in order to renew continuously the silica precipitated from solution. This points to a relatively humid climate at time of silicification, and to relief and incised landscapes to bring about these high flows

Contemporary karst solution processes on the Tibetan Plateau, 1997, Zhang D. ,
The Tibetan Plateau, with an average elevation of 4,000-5,000 m a.s.l., is cold and arid, and geomorphologic processes are dominated by periglacial, glacial, and aeolian agents. Here, the highest known, currently-developing karst features were found during the Sino-British Expedition of 1987. Measurements of CO2 partial pressure were taken in air, soil, sediments, and caves. Also measured were the solubility of Tibetan limestones, the dissolved CaCO3 in water, and the electrical conductivity of karst waters. Field solution experiments show that CO2 partial pressure is one of the lowest in the world. Dissolved limestone content in fresh karst water is lower than in other karst areas. The solubility of the major Tibetan limestones varies little, but field experiments indicate that karst solution rates are affected by geomorphologic and climatic conditions. The formation and distribution of the present-day karst features correspond with the results of field and laboratory solution experiments. They are mainly small surface features in relatively wet and warm locations, especially where soil is in direct contact with limestone. Measurements of solution rates and CO2 content indicate that biologically stimulated solution plays an important role in karst development on this cold and arid plateau

Karst-like landforms and hydrology in quartzites of the Venezuelan Guyana shield: Pseudokarst or 'real' karst?, 1999, Doerr Sh,
The surfaces of table mountains (Tepuis) in southeastern Venezuela display well-developed karst topography including caves, sinkholes and karren-features. Although the rock (orthoquartzite of the Precambrian Roraima Formation) has a very low solubility, active cave systems are present with passages more than one kilometre in length, descending to more than 300 metres depth. These dimensions are greater than any so far reported in quartzitic rocks. There is strong evidence that corrosive rather than erosive processes are responsible for the karstification. Thin-sections of rock samples show dissolution not only of the amorphous silica cement, but also of the crystalline quartz grains themselves. Together with field observations in and near an active cave system on the Kukenan Tepui, this indicates a close similarity between the processes active on the Venezuelan table mountains and karstification processes in rocks of greater solubility. A combination of factors including high precipitation (4000-7000 mm/year), rock of very high purity (98 % silica) and the absence of other significant geomorphological processes prevailing for at least several million years are thought to have enabled a spectacular karst landscape to evolve in a rock that in the past has been regarded as almost immune to chemical weathering

The initiation of hypogene caves in fractured limestone by rising thermal water: investigation of a parallel series of competing fractures, 1999, Dumont K. A. , Rajaram H. , Budd D. A.
Integrated cave systems can either form at or near the surface of the earth (epigenic) or at some depth below the earth's surface (hypogenic)For caves that form in fractured limestone, the two most common types of cave-system morphologies are branchwork and mazeworkBranchwork caves are composed of tributaries that coalesce in the downstream direction, similar to surface streamsMazework caves exhibit two or more sets of parallel passages intersecting in a grid-like patternThe majority of epigenic caves exhibit branchwork morphologies, which represent the dominance of individual flow pathsIn contrast, mazework caves develop when dissolution occurs along numerous flow pathsWhereas most epigenic caves are related to surficial meteoric flow systems, some mazework caves are thought to have formed in hypogene environments where rising thermal water cools in response to the geothermal gradientOur objective is to examine the fundamental cause for the difference in morphology between epigenic and thermal hypogenic cave systems using numerical modelsIn particular, we are examining the competition between different flow paths in fractured limestone undergoing dissolutional enlargementAs noted in previous numerical studies, epigenic systems are characterized by the dominance of a single flow path, which is consistent with the structure of epigenic cavesSo, in order to explain the structure of maze caves, one has to explain why no single flow path attains dominanceThe retrograde solubility of calcite coupled with heat transfer from the fluid to the rock is hypothesized to provide the mechanism by which dissolutional power is distributed among all competing flow pathsNumerical models of fluid flow, heat transfer, and calcite dissolution chemistry are integrated to develop a model of hypogene cave initiation in fractured limestoneFlow is assumed to occur in the presence of a spatially variable rock temperature field that is constant through timePreliminary numerical modeling results for a system of parallel fractures demonstrate the differences in the nature of competition between flow paths in epigenic (constant temperature) and hypogenic systems (flow in the presence of a negative thermal gradient)Differences in results using various kinetic models for calcite dissolution are also presentedThe role of aperture variation and distribution in a parallel set of fractures is also examined

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