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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That surf karren is surf karren form along marine limestone and dolomite coasts where the surf sprays water onto abrasion surfaces that lie slightly above normal sea level. they are a result of corrosion caused by the mixing of sea- and rainwater, but do not exist under the sea surface as seawater is not limestone-corrosive. beyond the splashwater zone the karren are much less sharp [3].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for solution chemistry (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
The dissolution and conversion of Gypsum and Anhydrite., 1996, Klimchouk Alexander
The development of karst is a complex system driven by the dissolution of a host rock and the subsequent removal of dissolved matter by moving water. It is the process that, at various stages, initiates or triggers associated processes including erosion, collapse and subsidence. The dissolution of sulphate rocks proceeds by different mechanisms and at different rates to those associated with the dissolution of carbonate rocks. For each rock type different factors influence the process. This chapter is an attempt to summarise the present knowledge of the dissolution chemistry and kinetics of gypsum and anhydrite. These are important for the genetic interpretation of karst features in these rocks. The gypsum-anhydrite-gypsum transitions and recrystallization processes are also addressed, because of their importance to karst development.

The initiation of hypogene caves in fractured limestone by rising thermal water: investigation of a parallel series of competing fractures, 1999, Dumont K. A. , Rajaram H. , Budd D. A.
Integrated cave systems can either form at or near the surface of the earth (epigenic) or at some depth below the earth's surface (hypogenic)For caves that form in fractured limestone, the two most common types of cave-system morphologies are branchwork and mazeworkBranchwork caves are composed of tributaries that coalesce in the downstream direction, similar to surface streamsMazework caves exhibit two or more sets of parallel passages intersecting in a grid-like patternThe majority of epigenic caves exhibit branchwork morphologies, which represent the dominance of individual flow pathsIn contrast, mazework caves develop when dissolution occurs along numerous flow pathsWhereas most epigenic caves are related to surficial meteoric flow systems, some mazework caves are thought to have formed in hypogene environments where rising thermal water cools in response to the geothermal gradientOur objective is to examine the fundamental cause for the difference in morphology between epigenic and thermal hypogenic cave systems using numerical modelsIn particular, we are examining the competition between different flow paths in fractured limestone undergoing dissolutional enlargementAs noted in previous numerical studies, epigenic systems are characterized by the dominance of a single flow path, which is consistent with the structure of epigenic cavesSo, in order to explain the structure of maze caves, one has to explain why no single flow path attains dominanceThe retrograde solubility of calcite coupled with heat transfer from the fluid to the rock is hypothesized to provide the mechanism by which dissolutional power is distributed among all competing flow pathsNumerical models of fluid flow, heat transfer, and calcite dissolution chemistry are integrated to develop a model of hypogene cave initiation in fractured limestoneFlow is assumed to occur in the presence of a spatially variable rock temperature field that is constant through timePreliminary numerical modeling results for a system of parallel fractures demonstrate the differences in the nature of competition between flow paths in epigenic (constant temperature) and hypogenic systems (flow in the presence of a negative thermal gradient)Differences in results using various kinetic models for calcite dissolution are also presentedThe role of aperture variation and distribution in a parallel set of fractures is also examined

Morphoanalysis of bacterially precipitated subaqueous calcium carbonate from Weebubbie Cave, Australia, 2001, Contos Ak, James Jm, Heywood B, Pitt K, Rogers P,
In this article, we present a previously unreported morphology of bacterially precipitated calcite (determined using XRD, FTIR, and SAED) occurring subaqueously in Weebubbie Cave. Observations using FESEM and TEM revealed spindle-shaped crystals with curved [hk.0] faces lying parallel to the c-axis. Calcite precipitated under conditions designed to mimic the inorganic solution chemistry of the cave revealed a different morphology. These differences between the crystals suggest that the formation of the cave crystals is a consequence of biologically activity

Trace element (Th, U, Pb, REE) behaviour in a cryptokarstic halloysite and kaolinite deposit from Southern Belgium: importance of 'accessory' mineral formation for radioactive pollutant trapping, 2002, De Putter T, Andre L, Bernard A, Dupuis C, Jedwab J, Nicaise D, Perruchot A,
Hectometer wide cryptokarsts in Paleozoic limestone from Southern Belgium have been studied, to determine to what extent U, Th, Ph and rare earth elements (REE) have been mobilized in the karst sedimentary filling, during a Miocene weathering event. The weathering process resulted in the massive halloysite/kaolinite formation at the karst wall. As with most fossil systems, data on weathering fluid chemistry are lacking, hence it is difficult to quantify relevant parameters such as pH, Eh, and to address solution chemistry. However, on the basis of both field studies of more recent systems, and of geochemical modeling, it is proposed that moderately acid fluids percolated through a multi-layer sedimentary filling, in near-surface conditions and in a temperate/warm climate. Special attention is paid to the trace element immobilization/trapping processes, in newly crystallized REE phosphates, at the karst wall. Analytical methods used include major/trace element geochemistry (emission ICP, ICP-MS) and mineralogy (XRD, SEM, TEM, microprobe). The results suggest that both the sandy sediments that are in contact with the karst carbonate wall, and the carbonate wall itself acted as a kind of geochemical 'barrier'. Mineralization cells settled there, at the decimeter to meter scale. This results in sequential trace element (Pb, Th, REE, U) trapping, according to the affinity of these elements for the aqueous solution. At the end of the sequence, minute U-rich automorphic (Ce, Nd) monazite crystals (from 3 nm upwards) formed on kaolinite flakes. Though the analogy between the studied cryptokarst and planned surface-based repositories for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in argillaceous context is far from complete, the results outlined here are relevant because they show that even in natural-i.e. intrinsically uncontrolled and unmonitored-systems, 'pollutant' radionuclide (U, Th, REE, Pb) migration paths are often limited in space. Various processes converge towards trapping of these elements, that are present in the radioactive waste. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Dissolved organic carbon in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water at the Guandaushi subtropical forest in Taiwan, 2003, Liu C. P. , Sheu B. H. ,
The concentration and flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water for three types of subtropical forest stands, a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation, a secondary hardwood, and a natural hardwood stand in Guandaushi forest in central Taiwan from January 1998 to December 1998. The mean DOC concentration in precipitation was 4.7 mg l(-1). However, in the rain passing through the tree canopies and barks as throughfall and stemflow, the mean concentrations were 7.0 and 30.8, 9.9 and 10.0, and 8.3 and 7.2 mg l(-1) in the Chinese fir plantation, the secondary hardwood, and the natural hardwood, respectively. Mean DOC concentrations in soil solution were lower in the Chinese fir plantation than both hardwoods, and decreased with depth of soil profiles. Stemflow DOC flux (132.4 kg ha(-1)) in the Chinese fir plantation was much higher than the other hardwood stands (15.3 and 6.7 kg ha(-1) in secondary and natural hardwood, respectively). The monthly variations of DOC concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at the three stands, showing an increase in the beginning of the growing season in April. No clear monthly variations in soil solution DOC concentrations (mean from 3.2 to 21.3 mg l(-1) in different stands and for different depths) were found in our study. DOC concentrations (mean 2.7 mg l(-1)) in the stream draining the watershed were higher in spring and in winter. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Empirical equations for the temperature dependence of calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation from 10 to 708C, 2010, Demeґny A. , Kele S. , Sikloґsy Z.

Although the temperature dependence of calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation seems to have been well established by numerous empirical, experimental and theoretical studies, it is still being discussed, especially due to the demand for increased accuracy of paleotemperature calculations. Experimentally determined equations are available and have been verified by theoretical calculations (considered as representative of isotopic equilibrium); however, many natural formations do not seem to follow these relationships implying either that existing fractionation equations should be revised, or that carbonate deposits are seriously affected by kinetic and solution chemistry effects, or late-stage alterations. In order to test if existing fractionation-temperature relationships can be used for natural deposits, we have studied calcite formations precipitated in various environments by means of stable isotope mass spectrometry: travertines (freshwater limestones) precipitating from hot and warm waters in open-air or quasi-closed environments, as well as cave deposits formed in closed systems. Physical and chemical parameters as well as oxygen isotope composition of water were monitored for all the investigated sites. Measuring precipitation temperatures along with oxygen isotope compositions of waters and calcites yielded empirical environment-specific fractionation– temperature equations: [1] 1000 _ lnaј17599/T – 29.64 [for travertines with a temperature range of 30 to 70-C] and [2] 1000 _ lnaј17500/T – 29.89 [for cave deposits for the range 10 to 25-C]. Finally, based on the comparison of literature data and our results, the use of distinct calcite-water oxygen isotopic fractionation relationships and application strategies to obtain the most reliable paleoclimate information are evaluated.

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