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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pupa is (plural pupae). the inactive stage in the life history of certain insects during which the larva undergoes a gradual reorganization of its tissues in the process of becoming an adult. see also metamorphosis.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for southern italy (Keyword) returned 36 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 36
A new Microparasellid from subterranean phreatic waters of Italy: Microcharon arganoi n. sp. (Crustacea: Isopoda)., 1978, Pesce Giuseppe L. , Tete Pierantonio
Microcharon arganoi, a new Microparasellid from subterranean waters of Southern Italy is described. For the shape and ornamentation of pleopod II of females and for the morphology of pleopod II of males, the new species is clearly related to the phyletic line which includes all the Western and French species of the genus. However, from all these species and from all the other ones M. arganoi differs by the ornamentation of the antennae, maxillipeds and pereiopeds, by the shape and ornamentation of pleopods I and II of males and II of females. and by ratio endopod/exopod of pleopod III. The new species is the first one from the subterranean freshwaters of Italy.

Brushite, hydroxylapatite, and taranakite from Apulian caves (southern Italy); new mineralogical data, 1991, Fiore S, Laviano R,

Lithobius nuragicus n.sp., a new Lithobius from a Sardinian cave (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha)., 1996, Zapparoli Marzio
A new species of Lithobius from a Sardinian cave (Cagliari, Santadi, loc. Su Benatzu, Grotta "Pirosu", 576 Sa/Ca, m 270) is described. Lithobius nuragicus n. sp. belongs to the subgenus Lithobius s. str. and is related to Lithobius variegatus Leach, 1814, occurring in the British Isles, Brittany, Channel Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Maghreb, Sicily and Southern Italy. This new species is differentiated from L. variegatus by the number of prosternal teeth (3+3), the number and arrangement of ocelli (1+3; little, depigmented, not contiguous to each other, in the center of a depigmented area, posterosuperior ocellus larger than the other ocelli), the size of the organ of Tmsvry (larger), the number of antennal articles (79-86), the number of dorso-lateral and dorso-median setae and the shape and size of the claw of the female gonopods (4-5; 10-11; short, with a small lateral denticle on the internal side).

Initial Geologic Observations in Caves Bordering the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy), 1997, Galdenzi, S.
Geologic investigation of caves in the northern Calabria region of Italy has clarified their origin and irregular distribution. Caves and surface karst landforms are not widespread, despite the fact that the local limestones are widely exposed and surface drainage is poorly developed. The caves are located in small limestone hills and mountains around the Sibari Plain and are surrounded by low-permeability rocks. Among them is a significant shaft cave fed by a sinking stream that drains a non-karst recharge area. However, most of the caves are predominantly horizontal and have entrances at low altitudes at several levels. Their origin is due to the rising of thermal waters, which are mineralized after passing through the Neogene formations of the Sibari Plain. The caves can be considered relict hypogenic outflow caves. The main cave-forming process was probably the oxidation of H2S, favored by the mixing of thermal water and infiltrating fresh water. Oxidation of H2S has resulted in gypsum deposits within the caves.

Ce-anomalies in the textural components of upper Cretaceous karst bauxites from the Apulian carbonate platform (southern Italy), 1997, Mongelli G. ,
The chemical and mineralogical composition of Upper Cretaceous Apulian karat bauxites (southern Italy) and their textural components, i.e. ooids and matrix, has been studied. The bulk samples are composed of boehmite, hematite, anatase and kaolinite. The samples collected along a vertical profile show a downward enrichment for the elements Rb, Sr, Ba, Ni and Cr. A similar distribution is observed in deposits bauxitized in situ at the expense of matrix-like material collected in the karst zone. The ooids consist mainly of hematite with minor boehmite and anatase, whereas in the matrix boehmite prevails on hematite, kaolinite and anatase. In the void fillings in the matrix there is a Ca-fluorocarbonate having a Ce/Ce* of 5.8. The ooids, with the exception of Ce, are enriched in REE and show a higher (La/Yb)(ch) ratio relative to the matrix. The matrix exhibits a large positive Ce-anomaly whereas the ooids have negative Ce-anomaly. The Ce fractionation between the textural components can be explained assuming: (1) Ce oxidation and cerianite precipitation in the uppermost part of the deposits; (2) scavenging of REE from Ce-depleted percolating solutions by the iron oxide, inducing both REE-enrichment and Ce-negative anomalies in ooids; (3) remobilization of cerium as fluoride complex, as a consequence of more acidic conditions in the uppermost part of the deposit, and precipitation of Ce3 as fluorocarbonate mineral toward the carbonate bedrock barrier, at alkaline pH. Alternatively, the cerium remobilization, possibly as a carbonate-fluoride complex, could be due to an Eh decrease, favoured by a rise of the groundwater level. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Endokarst processes in the Alburni massif (Campania, southern Italy): evolution of ponors and hydrogeological implications, 1997, Santangelo N. , Santo A. ,
The Alburni carbonatic massif located within the southern Apennines chain, represents one of the most important Italian karstic areas. Within an area of about 280 square kilometres more than 200 caves are known and many important basal springs are present. This paper concerns ponor systems which are among the best developed endokarst morphologies in the area. In particular it deals with their morphological evolution and with their role in the underground hydrological circulation of the massif. The ponors can be defined as ''contact ponors'' since their entrances are always located at the contact between permeable carbonatic rocks and impermeable flysch formations. Two categories of ponors are present, active and inactive ones, latter due to erosion and lowering of the boundary between impermeable and permeable deposits. The ponors are located on the Alburni highland at a mean altitude of 1100 metres and they transfer water collected by catchment basin laying on flysch deposits down to the main basal springs, the altitudes of which range from 250 to 70 metres a.s.l. The structural setting of the massif strongly influences both the main directions along which the caves develop and the underground hydric circulation flows. Surface and underground morphostructural data have been compared, showing a general agreement, with frequency peaks at the N50 degrees and N140 degrees directions, though the underground data also outline the existence of a more ancient N90 degrees trend. As shown by speleological survey and tracing tests, the underground drainage is strongly influenced by the presence of karstic channels, and its preferential flow direction points towards the southern sector of the massif, according to the general dipping of the strata

Groundwater saliniza-tion in the Apulia region, southern Italy, 1999, Tulipano L. , Fidelibus M. D.

Large collapse dolines in Puglia (southern Italy): the cases of "Dolina Pozzatina" in the Gargano plateau and of "puli" in the Murge, 2000, Castiglioni Benedetta, Sauro Ugo

The paper deals with the description of the largest doline of Gargano and of other large dolines (puli) of Puglia in southern Italy aiming to suggest an interpretation of their origin and development, in relationship with tectonic events, karst corrosion processes, and transgressive and regressive cycles.


Water-upwelling pipes and soft-sediment-deformation structures in lower Pleistocene calcarenites (Salento, southern Italy), 2001, Massari F. , Ghibaudo G. , D'alessandro A. , Davaud E. ,
A thin sedimentary blanket, consisting mostly of subtidal, unconformity-bounded calcarenite units, was deposited in the small Novoli graben (Apulian foreland, southern Italy) in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. In a limited part of the study area the lower Pleistocene 'Calcarenite di Gravina,' forming the thicker part of this blanket, is crossed by continuous to discontinuous cylindrical pipes as much as 12 m high, most commonly consisting of stacked concave- upward laminae, locally grading upward into soft-sediment-deformation features and large dishes. The evidence favors an origin linked to upwelling of overpressured groundwater from a large karstic reservoir hosted in the Mesozoic carbonate rocks; the reservoir periodically developed a relatively high hydrostatic head due to Tertiary to Pleistocene cover acting as an aquitard or aquiclude. As a result, submarine springs were generated, the activity of which was primarily controlled by relative sea-level fluctuations. It is suggested that the pipes were located in those points where the hydrostatic pressure was sufficient to fluidize the overlying sediment and could be released without notably affecting the surrounding sediments. Some pipes cross calcarenitic infills of karstic sinkholes developed in the underlying units, whereas others follow the course of vertical to high-angle extensional synsedimentary tectonic fractures generated when the calcarenites were still in an unconsolidated to semiconsolidated state. The former relationships suggest that vertical routes of water upwelling during highstand of base level commonly coincided with axes of vadose solution during base-level lowstand; the latter suggest that opening of fractures enhanced the connection of the deep aquifer with the surface, hence intensifying water upwelling. We think that fluidization along the fractures was not hindered by the partially coherent state, and that pipes with a cylindrical geometry could form in spite of the planarity of the fractures. The formation of the pipes and their internal structure of stacked concave-upward laminae is thought to be consistent with a process of fluidization due to through-flowing waters. We believe that essential in this process is the role of upward-migrating transient water-filled cavities, akin to the voidage waves (Hassett's [1961a, 1961b] parvoids) experimentally reproduced by several authors in liquid fluidized beds, and regarded as true instability phenomena of a fluidized suspension occurring above minimum fluidization velocity. It is suggested that the process is akin to the production of the dish structure. It consists of the filling of transient, upward-migrating, water-filled cavities through steady fallout of particles from the cavity roof, their redeposition in a more consolidated state, and subsidence of the roof due to water seepage upward from the cavity. The process was accompanied by segregation of grains according to their size and density, as well by elutriation of finest particles, and led to a new pattern of sediment texture, packing, and fabric with respect to the surrounding calcarenites

Karst subsidence in South-Central Apulia, Southern Italy, 2002, Delle Rose Marco, Parise Mario
Subsidence in the karst of Apulia (Southern Italy), one of the classical karst areas of Italy, is described in this paper. The carbonate rocks that make up the geological structure of the Apulia region are affected by subsidence, which is of different type and intensity depending upon geological, topographical, and hydrogeological conditions. In particular, we discriminate between inland subsidence and coastal subsidence. Inland subsidence is generally restricted to the presence of individual cavities, either empty or partly or totally filled with deposits produced by dissolution of soluble rocks underground. Locally, such subsidence can cause severe effects on anthropogenic structures above. The coastal plains of Apulia, particularly the southernmost part (Salento Peninsula), show interesting karst subsidence. Here the main feature is the development of compound sinks extending for several thousands of square metres, or the formation of individual, mostly circular, dolines along the coastline. Occurrence of one or the other of the above features seems to depend upon topographical conditions, and also upon their relationship with sea level oscillations.

Growth of hematite and boehmite in concretions from ancient karst bauxite: clue for past climate, 2002, Mongelli G. ,
In the Peri-Adriatic Apulia Carbonate Platform (southern Italy), late Cretaceous karst bauxites mark an emergence period during a wet tropical climate. Bauxite formed through clay accumulation in the karst, 'in situ' bauxitization and late formation of iron-rich concretions in a water-unsaturated pedogenic environment. The concretions, which are geochemical recorders of the environment of formation, have a large core of Al-hematite surrounded by a cortex of alternating M-hematite and boehmite. Boehmite forms instead of Al-hematite at lower water activity values. Using a model of molecular diffusion and assuming the fluid flow negligible, the time necessary for growth of the concretions has been calculated. The average-sized core grew in similar to180 ka. The Al-hematite accretionary band grew in similar to180 ka whereas the boehmite accretionary band grew in similar to4.5 ka. The average bulk concretions possibly formed in 300-400 ka. The growth of the concretions is assumed to be a two-stage process. In the first stage, the core grew in a relatively long period of wet tropical climate. In the second stage, drier conditions favouring boehmite stability alternated to a wetter climate favouring Al-hematite stability. The growth of the bulk concretions is consistent with the Earth's long eccentricity cycle. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Surface and subsurface environmental degradation in the karst of Apulia (southern Italy), 2003, Parise M. , Pascali V. ,
Karst environments are highly vulnerable to a variety of degradation and pollution problems. Geology (fractured carbonate rocks), morphology (presence of a network of cavities produced by karst processes), and hydrogeology (rapid concentrated flow through fractures and conduits) of karst carbonates strongly favour the movement of contaminants towards the water table. In particular, poor quality of subsurface water can derive from polluting substances flowing at the surface, and/or by direct immission of liquid and solid waste into the water table through the systems of conduits and joints in the rock mass. As a consequence, water quality can deteriorate severely, which implies very high economic and social costs in order to clean the polluted sites and restore the original situation. In some cases, such as when the original karst morphology is changed because of anthropogenic interventions, the variations created in the landscape are not recoverable, and a loss of sites of naturalistic interest has to be registered. High vulnerability of a typical karst region of the Mediterranean area is illustrated in this paper by describing some case studies from Apulia, southern Italy. The Apulia region, where karst processes have had a prominent role in the development of the present landscape, is mostly underlain by intensely karstified limestone. Two cases of pollution due to solid waste into karst cavities (Grave di S. Leonardo in the Gargano Promontory and Grave Pelosello in the Murge plateau), landscape transformation in the Minervino Murge area, and degradation of Gravina Monsignore, a typical karst valley in southeastern Murge, are described in the paper. In two out of four cases, degradation of the sites was discovered thanks to activity from local speleologists, who also acted as promoters for cleaning and safeguarding the polluted sites. These examples underline well the mismanagement of karst territories (in particular, the common practice to dump refuse into sinkholes and caves), the pollution of limestone aquifers, and the effects that such pollution in karst areas might have in terms of the risk to public health

The karst of Salento region (Apulia, Southern Italy): constraints for management, 2003, Selleri Gianluca, Sansò, Paolo, Walsh Nicola

The Salento peninsula is a karstic area affected by relevant geological risk mainly due to surface water and groundwater. In particular, sinkholes have been used to convey underground large amount of surface waters (rain water, waste water, etc.) aiming to avoid the flooding of wide land surfaces. However, during the last ten years this input of surface water underground has caused several cases of rapid subsidence. In this paper, the detailed study of two areas which have been recently affected by rapid subsidence is reported.


Cryptokarst: a case-study of the Quaternary landforms of southern Apulia (southern Italy), 2003, Marsico Antonella, Selleri Gianluca, Mastronuzzi Giuseppe, Sanso Paolo, Walsh Nicola

Cryptokarst is a karst developed beneath a permeable and not karstifiable formation by percolating waters. The permeable rock acts as a storage of water which feeds slow seepage and infiltration enhancing the alteration of bedrock. The resulting forms consist of depressions, filled by the covering sediments, and pinnacles. The sinking of the permeable cover can produce depressions on the topographic surface. Erosion of the cover exposes a landscape characterised by pinnacles, ruinforms and dolines. In the Apulia region, cryptocorrosion surfaces are characterized by solution pipes 4-5 meters deep and with variable width (from a few centimeters to about one meter). Pipes walls are covered by a brownish carbonate crust, from a centimeter to more than 10 centimeters thick. The continental sands are only found in these depressions. The cryptocorrosion process took place late in the Middle Pleistocene on Quaternary marine abrasion terraces covered by no-carbonate sandy-silty continental deposits. The process stopped before the Last Interglacial age in response of an abrupt climatic change that induces a calcium carbonate precipitation and the formation of a carbonate crust.


Folk karst terminology from Apulia (Southern Italy), 2003, Parise Mario, Federico Antonio, Delle Rose Marco, Sammarco Mariangela

Apulia region, in southern Italy, is one of the classical karst areas of the Italian peninsula, being underlain for most of its extension by intensely karstified carbonate rocks. The landscape presents essentially landforms of karstic origin, which have been the object of specific studies for a long time. The three main geographical sub-regions into which Apulia is generally divided (from north to south, the Gargano Promontory, the Murge plateau, and the Salento peninsula) have been characterized in the past centuries by complex and different social and historical events. These resulted in the development, from a linguistical point of view, of very distinct dialects in different parts of Apulia. The terms used to describe the karst landforms, both at the surface and underground, had subsequently been, and still are, extremely variable throughout the region.


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