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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That capillary action is the movement of water in the interstices of a porous medium due to capillary forces [22]. synonymous with capillarity, capillary flow, and capillary migration.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for statistics (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Introduction une histoire des tudes karstiques, 1990, Renault, Ph.
History of speleo-karstology: an introduction - Before any historical study, it seems important to recall some general notions, studied in recent publications. History of sciences does not limit itself to a repertory of events or to statistics, even when those matters give the basic and main notions. It traces back the evolution of a thought acting upon nature. The historico-critical analysis shows that the noticed trajectories are irregular and moved by crisis for instance with Newton, Lavoisier, Einstein correspond to theory conflicts. Bachelard, Khun, Piaget, etc., bring the analytic elements particularly the notion of paradigm explaining the constant readjustments of scientific system. History of science, behind the stories, must identify the elements of epistemology, which explains the successive points of view of a discipline.

CORRELATION OF CONTEMPORARY KARST LANDFORMS WITH PALEOKARST LANDFORMS - THE PROBLEM OF SCALE, 1995, White W. B. , White E. L. ,
The signature of karst terrain is a suite of characteristic landforms: caves, closed depressions, deranged surface drainage, and sculptured bedrock surfaces. Identification of karst, in reality, is accomplished by an ill-defined mix of morphological, sedimentological, and bedrock-geology evidence. The purely morphological signature depends on an examination of population statistics and the scaling laws for the various landforms. Caves are fragments of active and paleo conduit drainage systems. The distribution of cave lengths is a power function with a fractional (fractal) exponent. The number of closed depressions of given depth or diameter falls off exponentially with increasing size. Blind valley areas relate to stream length and stream order by power laws. Some features of bedrock sculpturing occur at fu;ed scale. Pinnacle karren, however, appear to be scale invariant over seven orders of magnitude of scale range

Les caractristiques socio-dmographiques des splologues franais, 1997, Jovignot, Franois
The data come from three main sources: public data, an extract from the computer file of the members of the French Federation of Speleology (FFS) and a survey carried out among 285 FFS members. The importance of independent practice out of the FFS must be stressed as well as the difficulty to keep new members loyal to the federation because of a high "turn-over". France ranks high among nations as regards the numbers of practising people. Like many other federations of natural outdoors activities, FFS cavers are mostly men. The average age is over 30. Like most sportsmen, speleologists are generally well-to-do or belong to the middle class, with a fairly high academic background. The geographical breakdown of speleologists shows contradictory results: today cavers tend to be more numerous in the vicinity of caves ("countryside caving"), but statistics show that cavers are also mostly town-dwellers, like the great majority of sportsmen. It should be noted that, contrary to sportsmen, the increase in the number of FFS members is due to the expansion of rural speleology rather than to urban recruitment. Present day speleology is going through a period of transition. The large urban teams who have promoted speleology so far, are progressively being replaced by small size teams, living close to caves: such a change has been made possible thanks to new technology.

Quelle est la dimension du massif karstique de la Sainte-Baume ? Elments pour une thorie spatiale et fractale du karst, 2000, Martin, Philippe
The dimension of the surface of Sainte Baume and its neighbourhood is close to 2,2. This value has been obtained the study of 5 contour lines (from 400 to 800 m) and 5 topographic profiles (3 N - S and 2 E - W). 3 methods were used for contour lines: box counting (DB); the information dimension (Di) and surface - perimeter relation (D(P)). Three methods have been used for topo_graphic profiles: the power spectrum (DSPEC); statistics R/S (DR/S) and vario_gramme (DVAR). Average results are: (DB) = 1.20; Di = 1.23; (D(P)) = 1.32; DSPEC = 1.17; DR/S = 1.24; DVAR = 1.23. Thus, the surface of Sainte Baume and its neighbourhood is fractal. It means, theoretically, that Sainte Baume can be characterised by an infi_nite surface in a bounded volume. This first approach focuses on karst surface approach, cave systems approach will be presented in a following paper (in this review). This result raises numerous geomorpho_logic questions. How to calculate a specific erosion? How to think forms in a theoretical frame, which could develo_ped out of the Euclidean geometry conventions? How to think an essential_ly irregular morphology? Elements of answer are brought on a theoretical plan. They constitute the first elements of a karst geometrical theory. Calculation of the specific erosion points out the problem of the size of the surface used. Due to fractal theories, this size is relative to the observation scale used. To be significant, specific erosion calcula_tion needs the use of an efficient scale, in regard of the erosion processes studied. Furthermore, specific erosion expresses only a balance of mass, not a morphoge_nesis. It corresponds to a chronological approach of the karst. Two dynamics can be distinguished in surface morphogenesis. In one hand, increase of the mean slopes is named spatial differentiation, in another hand, decrease of this value is classically called: aplanation or levelling. These 2 dynamics imply the wearing away of spatially various materials. It takes place essentially around thalwegs during the differentiation stage, around the crest during levelling. Thus morphology, space are important factors of the dynamics in the work. Space is not only a support, but an actor in morphogenesis.

An anaysis of cave rescue statistics, Dales area, UK, 1935 to 2000, 2001, Forder J.

Geostatistical and geochemical analysis of surface water leakage into groundwater on a regional scale: a case study in the Liulin karst system, northwestern China, 2001, Wang Y. , Ma T. , Luo Z. ,
The Liulin karst system is typical of hydrogeological systems in northern China, with a group of springs as the dominant way of regional groundwater discharge. Surface water leakage into groundwater has been observed in six sections of the rivers in the study area. To extract hydrogeological information from hydrochemical data, 29 water samples were collected from the system. On a trilinear diagram, most of the groundwater samples are clustered around the surface waters, indicating the effect of leakage on their chemistry. R-mode factor analysis was made on seven variables (Na, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, and NO3) of the samples and three principal factors were obtained: the F-1 factor is composed of Ca, Mg and SO4, the F-2 of HCO3 and NO3, and the F-3 of Na and Cl. These factors are then used as regionalized variables in ordinary Kriging for unbiased estimates of the spatial variations of their scores. Considering regional hydrogeological conditions, the hydrogeological implications of the spatial distribution of the factor scores as related to the effects of the surface leakage are discussed. To evaluate the geochemical processes, the geochemical modeling code NETPATH was employed. The modeling results: show that mixing commonly occurs in the system and dolomite dissolution is more important than calcite dissolution. Dedolomitization (calcite precipitation and dolomite dissolution driven by anhydrite dissolution) is locally important, in the western flank of the system where the surface water leakage has the least effect.

Caves & Karst of Peninsula Malaysia. A register., 2001, Price, Liz
A register of the limestone caves and hills of Peninsular Malaysia. It lists more than 500 hills and 700 caves with photos and surveys, and lots of info on Malaysian caves. There are sections on a brief history of Malaysia, karst geology, statistics of hills and caves, archaeology and history of cave exploration, 19th century visitors to Malaysian caves, modern usage, flora and fauna. There is an index of the hills and caves.

The role of aerial algae in the formation of the landscape of the Yunnan Stone Forest, Yunnan Province, China, 2004, Tian Y. P. , Zhang J. , Song L. H. , Bao H. S. ,
Aerial algae on the surface of carbonate rocks at the Stone Forest, Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China, and their bioerosion were investigated in the field and studied in the laboratory in detail. Through the observation, identification and statistics of more than one hundred algal samples and rock samples with the optical microscopes (stereomicroscope, biological microscope) and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), the relationships between erosional forms on the surface of the Stone Forest and algae and/or algal communities and the genetic mechanism for the formation of erosional forms were analyzed. It is suggested that aerial algae play an active role in bioerosive processes that may affect the formation of karst erosional forms. These effects include both direct and indirect ones. The direct effect is the initiative control ('algal shape-controlling role') of algae on the formation of karst forms of various scales, mostly micro-scale (<10(-3) m) and minor-scale (10(-3)-10(-1) m) erosional forms. The algal shape-control ling roles can be divided into the algal individual shape-controlling role and the algal community shape-controlling role. The former mostly controls the formation of micro-scale erosional forms, while the latter mostly controls the formation of micro-scale and smaller minor-scale erosional forms. The indirect effect refers to the 'promoting role' of algae in the formation of karst forms, which may affect the formation of karst forms of all types and scales. The bioerosion of algae accelerates the weathering process of the whole Stone Forest karst landforms

Der Naturzustand der sterreichischen Hhlen - Vollerhebung in den Testgebieten Hochtor, Brgeralpe und Anninger., 2005, Herrmann, E.
The first part of a study concerning the status of naturalness (virginity) of Austrian caves comprises overall statistics of three cave regions in Styria and Lower Austria differing in geomorphology and land use. Except in high alpine areas nearly no cave was kept free of human influence if not transformation. Regarding the different motives, the influence of tourism is widespread but never destructive to caves while extraction of raw materials especially in quarries damaged a considerable part of all registered caves. Other cave uses are only of historic interest (like housing, defence) or were never of great importance (like traffic). This paper demonstrates that each karst region shows the effects of its specific human stress on caves. Unfortunately those caves held most important as well as those with large entrances are at the same time most endangered regarding all important aspects: their morphological integrity, their ecological functionality and their aesthetic attractiveness. The rather uniform legislation of cave protection that we have at present is quite unsuitable to guard against the manifold threats caves are facing today. So there is an urgent need for much more diversified strategies and provisions to conserve at least a few remarkable caves in their originality.[Vollerhebung von 120 Hhlen zeigt erhebliche Differenzen im Ausma der menschlichen Einflussnahme auf den unterirdischen Naturraum; Auswertung nach Eingriffsursachen, Hufigkeit der Eingriffe, Eingriffscharakteristik und Regenerierbarkeit auch im Hinblick auf Lage und Erreichbarkeit der Eingnge]

Spatial heterogeneity of the soil cover in the Yucatan karst: Comparison of Mayan, WRB, and numerical classifications, 2005, Bautista F, Azgarrido S, Castillogonzalez M, Zinck Ja,
In karstic areas, geopedologic information integrating soil and relief features, especially concerning short-distance variability, is usually scarce. The aim of this paper was to compare soil classes in the Yucatan karst using the Mayan soil nomenclature, the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), numerical soil classification (NSC), and geostatistics. The landscape is a flat-to-slightly-undulating karstic plain. Soil properties were determined at 54 sampling points on a regular grid covering an area of 1350 m(2). Six indigenous soil classes were identified on the basis of the terrain position, topsoil color, stoniness, rockiness. rock type. and soil depth. Five WRB soil units were recognized belonging mainly to Leptosols. Furthermore, six NSC groups were determined mainly on the basis of organic matter and stoniness. Soil organic material and texture explained 57% of the variation of the soil cover. An isotropic model of organic carbon shows a range of 39 m

Non-stationary spatiotemporal analysis of karst water levels, 2005, Dryden Il, Markus L, Taylor Cc, Kovacs J,
We consider non-stationary spatiotemporal modelling in an investigation into karst water levels in western Hungary. A strong feature of the data set is the extraction of large amounts of water from mines, which caused the water levels to reduce until about 1990 when the mining ceased, and then the levels increased quickly. We discuss some traditional hydrogeological models which might be considered to be appropriate for this situation, and various alternative stochastic models. In particular, a separable space-time covariance model is proposed which is then deformed in time to account for the non-stationary nature of the lagged correlations between sites. Suitable covariance functions are investigated and then the models are fitted by using weighted least squares and cross-validation. Forecasting and prediction are carried out by using spatiotemporal kriging. We assess the performance of the method with one-step-ahead forecasting and make comparisons with naive estimators. We also consider spatiotemporal prediction at a set of new sites. The new model performs favourably compared with the deterministic model and the naive estimators, and the deformation by time shifting is worthwhile

Error and Technique in Fluorescent dye Tracing, 2005, Smart Chris

The appropriate approach to dye tracing in karst areas depends upon the objective and context of the trace. Dye tracing in karst areas is undertaken to address geographical, hydrogeological and contaminant problems at particular spatial and temporal resolution in the context of prior knowledge, available resources, social and legal expectations and environmental constraints. The value of a trace is improved if the objective can be formalized into a rational hypothesis and where the signal is demonstrably distinct from error. This requires sampling and analysis as much to define error as to detect the signal. The tolerable error depends on the dye trace objective and context, and scales with the sophistication of both, becoming increasingly critical and challenging as higher level interpretations are made. The appropriate technique for a particular trace therefore depends not only on the problem and context, but also upon the necessity of defining and correcting errors. Simpler problems such as establishment of underground connections can often be usefully tackled with simple techniques. Variable background fluorescence is a particularly difficult systematic error in dye tracing that can be reduced by supplementary sampling and control. This approach is illustrated for fluorescence spectra and in situ filter fluorometry. To extract a signal from spectra a statistical correction has been developed allowing compositional and concentration corrections to highlight anomalous samples. Supplementary sampling is required to provide the background statistics necessary for such an approach. The strong spectral coherence of background allows concurrent green fluorescence measurements to define variable background fluorescence during a red dye trace. The relationship between red and green fluorescence in un-dyed samples can be used to model background behavior in the presence of the red dye.


Der Naturzustand der sterreichischen Hhlen - Vollerhebung in den Testgebieten Hochtor, Brgeralpe und Anninger, 2005, Herrmann, E.
The first part of a study concerning the status of naturalness (virginity) of Austrian caves comprises overall statistics of three cave regions in Styria and Lower Austria differing in geomorphology and land use. Except in high alpine areas nearly no cave was kept free of human influence if not transformation. Regarding the different motives, the influence of tourism is widespread but never destructive to caves while extraction of raw materials especially in quarries damaged a considerable part of all registered caves. Other cave uses are only of historic interest (like housing, defence) or were never of great importance (like traffic). This paper demonstrates that each karst region shows the effects of its specific human stress on caves. Unfortunately those caves held most important as well as those with large entrances are at the same time most endangered regarding all important aspects: their morphological integrity, their ecological functionality and their aesthetic attractiveness. The rather uniform legislation of cave protection that we have at present is quite unsuitable to guard against the manifold threats caves are facing today. So there is an urgent need for much more diversified strategies and provisions to conserve at least a few remarkable caves in their originality.

Subterranean ecological research and multivariate statistics: a review (1945-2006), 2008, Herrandoperez S. , Baraui M. , And Messana G.
Subterranean ecosystem studies using multivariate ordination and/or agglomerative classification statistical methods were reviewed in the Science Citation Index (SCI) between 1945 and 2006. Nearly 57,000 publications cited subterranean habitats or their associated biota in the SCI abstracts, however, multivariate statistics applied to strictly hypogcan taxa occurred in onl y 65 papers from 1990 onwards. Over 90% of the multivariate applications were devoted to morphometric or genetic studies of single species and to relationships between the environment and species assemblages . In terms of taxa and ecosystem types, stygobitc and waterless cave studies featuring multivariate applications predominated, respectively. Only six different methods (Agglomerative Clustering, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, Discriminant Analysis, non-metric Multidimensional Scaling, Principal Component Analysis) were used among the >30 multivariate techniques available within the biostatistical toolbox . The retrieved set of publications was sorted in a simple table by keyword according to type of biota, habitat, research topic and multivariate method, while online biostatistical resources are appended. Further comments are made on the use of statistics in the biological sciences in general.

Entrances, 2012, White, William B.

Entrances are connections between an underlying cave passage and the surface above. Most cave entrances are statistical accidents where the breakthrough to the surface is caused by collapse, by valley deepening, or by human activities such as road cuts, quarries, and other excavations. The number of caves with a certain number of entrances decreases rapidly with the number of entrances, leading to the prediction of a large number of caves that have no entrances. Entrances range in size over several orders of magnitude but there is no relationship between the size of the entrance and the size of the cave.


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