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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That riser is a pipe through which liquid rises in a well [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for strains (Keyword) returned 25 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 25
Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Le massif de la Chartreuse, Alpes franaises du Nord : paysages karstiques et organisation des rseaux souterrains, 1990, Lismonde B. , Delannoy J. J.
The massif of Chartreuse: karsts features and underground systems (Alps, France) - The Chartreuse massif is the smallest of the subalpine massifs, but it contains the most important underground systems of French Alps. The massif of Chartreuse is characterised by parallel folds directed N020. The eastern plateau spreads out urgonian limestone (perched syncline); it contains the two largest cave systems: "Alpe-Alpette" (54 km) and "Dent de Crolles" (54 km). To the W, the limestone layers are uplifted by the orogenic strains and thereby, the caves are very deep: "rseau Ded" (- 780m), "puits Francis" (- 723m), "gouffre de Gnieux" (- 675m). Two transverse rivers make the hydrologic drainage: the "Guiers Vif" and the "Guiers Mort", which cut up the region into small hydrological basins. The greatest of them is "Guiers Vif" basin, with an area of 9.2 km2.

Approche thorique _simplifie de la dissolution karstique, 1994, Gombert, P.
The specific behaviour of karsts makes the estimation of karstic denudation very difficult: discharge and water chemical variabili-ties are in fact major characteristics of aquifer karstic systems and cannot be properly estimated by the way of random sampling. The classical empirical methods provide generally high relative errors due to the bad knowledge of the hydrogeological catchment basin and even of the total number of springs. In the case of CORBEL's or WILLIAM's empirical formulas, average relative error can be estimated to about 100 % for a normally known aquifer karstic system : therefore it is impossible to compare different karsts that have not been studied with the same accuracy. The theoretical statisti-cal relationships between karstic denu-dation and a single climatic parameter (rainfall) are open to criticism: main authors tell that effective rainfall and pedological C02 are essential parame-ters of karstic denudation, which are never taken into account. For example, there are different PULINA's formula for different climatic types indicating that it is necessary to use another climatic parameter different from rain-fall! Moreover this way of modelling the data restrains the statistical repre-sentativity of each formula and intro-duces a difficult choice for karsts, which are at the border of two climatic types (or with mountainous parts). Another problem is the case of polar countries karsts where most precipitation is snowy and does not participate in karstic denudation. Therefore a mathematical modelling of carbonate dissolution is shown, based on infiltra-tion rate calculation and knowledge of calco-carbonic equilibrium. Temperature and rainfall are taken into account to determine the efficient part of precipitation, the productivity of pedogenetic C02 and the carbonate solubility constants. This theoretical approach gives the same results but with relative errors under 50 %. Consequently it is easy to compare different karstic countries in the world: hot and wet climates are confirmed to have the main karstogenetic activity but the role of cold countries is rehabilita-ted. Then paleokarstic denudation can be estimated.

Relationships between karst and tectonics: case-study of the cave system north of Lake Thun (Bern, Switzerland): Relations entre karst et tectonique : l'exemple du reseau speleologique du nord du lac, 1999, Hauselmann Philipp, Jeannin Pierre Yves, Bitterli Thomas,
The cave system is situated north of Lake Thun, in the Helvetic border chain. The overall geology is simple: the slightly dipping (15-25[deg] towards the southeast) strata are interrupted by a NE-SW trending normal fault with a throw of 150 m in the NE and about 500 m in the SW. Since a part of the region is covered by flysch, the caves are the only way to observe the geological setting of the underlying Cretaceous and Eocene series. We show that observations in caves may yield valuable information about the onset of the tectonic movements: in particular, observations in the Barenkluft region clearly demonstrate that the beginning of prealpine extension had already begun in the Upper Cretaceous, and that this normal fault has been inverted later during Alpine compression. We also illustrate the influence of tectonic stress and strain upon karstification. The Alpine tectonic phases, with alternating compression and extension, contributed to the development of different karstogenetic levels. Tectonic strains opened and possibly closed some fractures, allowing (or preventing) water to flow through parts of the karst massive. The structural setting, defining the overall geometry of the limestone bed, played an important role in the development of the various phases of the system. Most of the conduits appear to belong to old, deep phreatic systems. Tectonics is only one of a number of factors controlling karstification. Together with lithology, it represents the geological control. Geomorphological factors (mainly spring and catchment positions, but also erosion of the flysch cover), as well as bioclimatical factors (quantity and physico-chemical characteristics of water), and hydrodynamics and transport processes can play a significant role on the genesis of karst systems

Acidic cave-wall biofilms located in the Frasassi Gorge, Italy, 2000, Vlasceanu L. , Sarbu S. M. , Engel A. S. , Kinkle B. K. ,
Acidic bioflms present on cave walls in the sulfidic region of the Frasassi Gorge, Italy, were investigated to determine their microbial composition and their potential role in cave formation and ecosystem functioning. All biofilm samples examined had pH values <1.0. Scanning electron microscopy of the biofilms revealed the presence of various filaments and rods associated in large clusters with mineral crystals. Qualitative energy-dispersive x-ray analysis was used to determine that the crystals present on the cave walls, associated with the microbial biofilm, were composed of calcium and barium sulfate. Ribosomal RNA-based methods to determine the microbial composition of these biofilms revealed the presence of at least two strains of potential acidophilic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, belonging to the genera Thiobacillus and Sulfobacillus. An acid producing strain of Thiobacillus sp. also was obtained in pure culture. Stable isotope ratio analysis of carbon and nitrogen showed that the wall biofilms are isotopically light, suggesting that in situ chemoautotrophic activity plays an important role in this subsurface ecosystem

Deposition of calcium carbonate in karst caves: role of bacteria in Stiffe's cave, 2001, Cacchio Paola, Cappuccio Giorgio, Ercole Claudia, Lepidi Aldo
Bacteria make a significant contribution to the accumulation of carbonate in severa! natural habitats where large amounts of carbonates are deposited. However, the role played by microbial communities in speleothem formation (stalactites, stalagmites etc.) in caves is still unclear. In bacteria carbonate is formed by autotrophic pathways, which deplete CO2 from the environment, and by heterotrophic pathways, leading to active or passive precipitation. We isolated cultivab!e heterotrophic microbial strains, able to induce CaCO3 precipitation in vitro, from samples taken from speleothems in the galleries of Stiffe's cave, L'Aquila, Italy. We found a large number of bacteria in the calcite formations (1 x 104 to 5 x 109 cells g-1). Microscopic examination, in laboratory conditions at different temperatures, showed that most of the isolates were able to form calcium carbonate microcrystals. The most crystalline precipitates were observed at 32C. No precipitation was detected in un-inoculated controls media or in media that had been inoculated with autoclaved bacterial cells. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that most of the carbonate crystals produced were calcite. Bacillus strains were the most common calcifying isolates collected from Stiffe's Cave. Analysis of carbonate-solubilization capability revealed that the non-calcifying bacteria were carbonate solubilizers.

Ecological assessment and geological significance of microbial communities from Cesspool Cave, Virginia, 2001, Engel As, Porter Ml, Kinkle Bk, Kane Tc,
Microbial mats from hydrogen sulfide-rich waters and cave-wall biofilms were investigated from Cesspool Cave, Virginia, to determine community composition and potential geomicrobiological functioning of acid-producing bacteria. Rates of microbial mat chemoautotrophic productivity were estimated using [C-14]-bicarbonate incorporations and microbial heterotrophy was determined using [C-14]-leucine incubations. Chemoautotrophic fixation was measured at 30.4 12.0 ng C mg dry wt(1) h(1), whereas heterotrophic productivity was significantly less at 0.17 0.02 ng C mg dry wt(1) h(1). The carbon to nitrogen ratios of the microbial mats averaged 13.5, indicating that the mats are not a high quality food source for higher trophic levels. Ribosomal RNA-based methods were used to examine bacterial diversity in the microbial mats, revealing the presence of at least five strains of bacteria. The identity of some of the strains could be resolved to the genus Thiothrix and the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteriodes phylum, and the identity of the remaining strains was to either the Helicobacter or Thiovulum group. Two of 10 sulfur-oxidizing, chemoautotrophic pure cultures of Thiobacillus spp. (syn. Thiomonas gen. nov.) demonstrated the ability to corrode calcium carbonate, suggesting that the colonization and metabolic activity of these bacteria may be enhancing cave enlargement

Involvement of microorganisms in the formation of carbonate speleothems in the Cervo Cave (L'Aquila-Italy), 2004, Cacchio P, Contento R, Ercole C, Cappuccio G, Martinez Mp, Lepidi A,
Much is known about the bacterial precipitation of carbonate rocks, but comparatively little is known about the involvement of microbes in the formation of secondary mineral structures in caves. We hypothesized that bacteria isolated from calcareous stalactites, which are able to mediate CaCO3 precipitation in vitro, play a role in the formation of carbonate speleothems. We collected numerous cultivable calcifying bacteria from calcareous speleothems from Cervo cave, implying that their presence was not occasional. The relative abundance of calcifying bacteria among total cultivable microflora was found to be related to the calcifying activity in the stalactites. We also determined the delta(13)C and delta(18)O values of the Cervo cave speleothems from which bacteria were isolated and of the carbonates obtained in vitro to determine whether bacteria were indeed involved in the formation of secondary mineral structures. We identified three groups of biological carbonates produced in vitro at 11degreesC on the basis of their carbon isotopic composition: carbonates with delta(13)C values ( a) slightly more positive, (b) more negative, and (c) much more negative than those of the stalactite carbonates. The carbonates belonging to the first group, characterized by the most similar delta(13)C values to stalactites, were produced by the most abundant strains. Most of calcifying isolates belonged to the genus Kocuria. Scanning electron microscopy showed that dominant morphologies of the bioliths were sherulithic with fibrous radiated interiors. We suggest a mechanism of carbonate crystal formation by bacteria

Colonization by aerobic bacteria in karst: Laboratory and in situ experiments, 2004, Personne J. C. , Poty F. , Mahler B. J. , Drogue C. ,
Experiments were carried out to investigate the potential for bacterial colonization of different substrates in karst aquifers and the nature of the colonizing bacteria. Laboratory batch experiments were performed using limestone and PVC as substrates, a natural bacterial isolate and a known laboratory strain (Escherichia coli [E. coli]) as inocula, and karst ground water and a synthetic formula as growth media. In parallel, fragments of limestone and granite were submerged in boreholes penetrating two karst aquifers for more than one year; the boreholes are periodically contaminated by enteric bacteria from waste water. Once a month, rock samples were removed and the colonizing bacteria quantified and identified. The batch experiments demonstrated that the natural isolate and E. coli both readily colonized limestone surfaces using karst ground water as the growth medium. In contrast, bacterial colonization of both the limestone and granite substrates, when submerged in the karst, was less intense. More than 300 bacterial strains were isolated over the period sampled, but no temporal pattern in colonization was seen as far as strain, and colonization by E. coli was notably absent, although strains of Salmonella and Citrobacter were each observed once. Samples suspended in boreholes penetrating, highly fractured zones were less densely colonized than those in the borehole penetrating a less fractured zone. The results suggest that contamination of karst aquifers by enteric bacteria is unlikely to be persistent. We hypothesize that this may be a result of the high flow velocities found in karst conduits, and of predation of colonizing bacteria by autochthonous zooplankton

Effects of microbes and their carbonic anhydrase on Ca2 and Mg2 migration in column-built leached soil-limestone karst systems, 2005, Li W. , Yu L. J. , He Q. F. , Wu Y. , Yuan D. X. , Cao J. H. ,
In natural karst systems, limestone diagenesis can be significantly influenced by bacterial activity in the soil horizon. Here, we investigate the effects of microorganisms on the elements migration of calcium and magnesium in karst soil systems by using different microbial treatments in simulated soil-limestone systems. Two bacterial strains, GLRT102Ca and JFSRT303 were specially studied. The leaching and release of Ca2 in the experiments was characterized by a rapid initial increase followed by a sharp decrease before a gradual approach to equilibrium. In contrast, the Mg2 concentrations in the leachates showed an initial decrease before a gradual approach to equilibrium. Microorganisms significantly promoted Ca2 and Mg2 migration in the simulated systems. The total amounts of Ca2 and Mg2 in leachates varied with microbial treatments. The soil GLRT102Ca columns showed the highest total amount of Ca2 in leachates. This increased by a factor of 2.2 relative to the control columns. The highest total amount of Mg2 in leachates was presented in the soil JFSRT303 columns, which leached 58.0% more total amounts of Mg2 than the control columns. The activities of a microbial specific enzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), present in the investigated columns were also examined. Varying levels of CA activities were detected in the leachates collected from soil columns with microbial activity. This suggests that the microbes in soil columns produced and released CA. The mean activity of CA in leachates was significantly correlated with total amount of Ca2 in leachates (r = 0.86, P < 0.01). This implied that microbially produced CA might be a major factor influencing Ca2 release and leaching in natural karst systems. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved

La grotte de Saint-Marcel (Ardche) : un rfrentiel pour lvolution des endokarsts mditerranens depuis 6 Ma, 2006, Mocochain Ludovic, Bigot Jeanyves, Clauzon Georges, Faverjon Marc Et Brunet Philippe
Saint Marcel Cave: an important site for the evolution of the mediterranean endokarst in the last 6 million years - The plateau of Saint-Remze is a mesozoic carbonate platform located close to the Rhne valley. This carbonate platform is intensely karstified, as proven by Saint-Marcel Cave, which is 53 km long. It displays several horizontal levels. The upper and middle levels are dry most of the time. They are composed of large horizontal conduits extending over several kilometers. The lowermost third level is active and partly drowned. Scuba divers have reached a depth of 65 m below the Ardche. The horizontal levels are not controlled by geological structure. Consequently, the distribution of the horizontal levels depends only on the base level which constrains the whole organisation of the Ardche karst. Around the Ardche Canyon and the Rhne Valley, the identification of the marks made by the messinian salinity crisis allows to reconstruct the evolution of the local base level. This reconstruction allowed us to study the Saint-Marcel Cave in a geodynamical and chronological frame over the last six million years. The morphological investigations in the cave, combined with the study of the base level change, have shown three main stages of speleogenesis and two main types of water flow. Following entrenchment of the deep messinian canyons during the salinity crisis, cave levels developed according to the very deep base level of that time. At the end of the crisis, at 5.35 Ma, the Pliocene transgression caused a sudden rise of the base level. The messinian valleys as well as the karst outflows were flooded. This hydraulic change produced a per ascensum genesis of some shafts that are called chimney-shafts. This per ascensum genesis of chimney-shafts repeated itself at each stage of the Pliocene base level rise. During the Pliocene (5.32 to 2 Ma), the infilling of the messinian canyons by fluvial sediments shows that the Ardche river had several long stages of base level stability, allowing the development of new cave levels. The karst system was fed by both local recharge from the Saint-Remze Plateau and large underground shortcuts through the Ardche river meanders. The detailed study of the main levels in Saint-Marcel Cave reveals the existence of intermediate stages in the evolution of the base level, allowing us to refine its knowledge.

Sinkhole 'swarms' along the Dead Sea coast: Reflection of disturbance of lake and adjacent groundwater systems, 2006, Yechieli Yoseph, Abelson Meir, Bein Amos, Crouvi Onn, Shtivelman Vladimir,
More than a thousand sinkholes have developed along the western coast of the Dead Sea since the early 1980s, more than 75% of them since 1997, all occurring within a narrow strip 60 km long and <1 km wide. This highly dynamic sinkhole development has accelerated in recent years to a rate of [~]150-200 sinkholes per year. The sinkholes cluster mostly over specific sites up to 1000 m long and 200 m wide, which spread parallel to the general direction of the fault system associated with the Dead Sea Transform. Research employing borehole and geophysical tools reveals that the sinkhole formation results from the dissolution of an [~]10,000-yr-old salt layer buried at a depth of 20-70 m below the surface. The salt dissolution by groundwater is evidenced by direct observations in test boreholes; these observations include large cavities within the salt layer and groundwater within the confined subaquifer beneath the salt layer that is undersaturated with respect to halite. Moreover, the groundwater brine within the salt layer exhibits geochemical evidence for actual salt dissolution (Na/Cl = 0.5-0.6 compared to Na/Cl = 0.25 in the Dead Sea brine). The groundwater heads below the salt layer have the potential for upward cross-layer flow, and the water is actually invading the salt layer, apparently along cracks and active faults. The abrupt appearance of the sinkholes, and their accelerated expansion thereafter, reflects a change in the groundwater regime around the shrinking lake and the extreme solubility of halite in water. The eastward retreat of the shoreline and the declining sea level cause an eastward migration of the fresh-saline water interface. As a result the salt layer, which originally was saturated with Dead Sea water over its entire spread, is gradually being invaded by fresh groundwater at its western boundary, which mixes and displaces the original Dead Sea brine. Accordingly, the location of the western boundary of the salt layer, which dates back to the shrinkage of the former Lake Lisan and its transition to the current Dead Sea, constrains the sinkhole distribution to a narrow strip along the Dead Sea coast. The entire phenomenon can be described as a hydrological chain reaction; it starts by intensive extraction of fresh water upstream of the Dead Sea, continues with the eastward retreat of the lake shoreline, which in turn modifies the groundwater regime, finally triggering the formation of sinkholes

THE ONE-EIGHTH RELATIONSHIP THAT CONSTRAINS DEGLACIAL SEISMICITY AND CAVE DEVELOPMENT IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES, 2007, Faulkner, T.

The formation of karst caves in Caledonide metamorphic limestones in a repeatedly-glaciated 40000km2 region in cen­tral Scandinavia was initiated by tectonic inception, a process in which open fracture routes, primarily created by deglacial seismicity, provided the opportunity for subsequent dissolution and enlargement into cave passages in both deglacial and inter­glacial environments. The tectonic inception model built on re­ports of a ‘partially detached’ thin upper crustal layer in similar settings in Scotland and this paper shows that the present maxi­mum subsurface cave distance (i.e. the distance of a passage to the nearest land surface) is commonly less than one-eighth of the depth of the local glaciated valley. This suggests that frac­ture generation was related to the scale of isostatic uplift and was partly determined by the magnitude of seismicity caused by the differential pressure change and differential uplift that occurred along valley walls as the ice margin of each of the ma­jor Pleistocene icesheets receded from west to east. The maxi­mum one-eighth relationship is also commonly maintained in other Caledonide marble terranes in Scandinavia, Scotland and New England (USA), suggesting that many of the caves in these areas were formed by similar processes.


Inference of a karst conduit structure using quantitative tracer tests and geological observations, 2008, Perrin J. , Luetscher M.
Karst aquifers are known for being particularly heterogeneous with highly transmissive conduits embedded in low permeability volumes of rock matrix. Artificial tracer experiments have been carried out in a complex karst aquifer of the folded Jura Mountains in Switzerland with the aim of deciphering the conduit organisation. It is shown that tracer experiments with multiple injection points under different flow conditions can lead to useful information on the conduits? structure. This information has been combined with data from structural geology, spring hydrology, and speleological observations. A conceptual model of the conduit network shows that a detailed inference of the conduit organisation can be reached: geology controls conduit location and orientation; spring hydrology, including temporary springs, constrains conduit elevations and relative hydraulic heads in the aquifer subsystems; and tracer tests identify major flow paths and outlets of the system and dilution caused by nontraced tributaries, as well as the presence of secondary flow routes. This understanding of the Aubonne aquifer structure has important implications for the future management of the groundwater resource. Similar approaches coupling geological information, spring hydrology, and multi-tracer tests under various flow conditions may help to characterise the structure of the conduit network in karst aquifers.

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