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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rappel is the art of descending a rope using some sort of friction between the rope and the rappeller to control the rate of descent [13]. synonym: abseil. see also abseil; carabiner.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for stromatolite (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, , Bontognali Tomaso R. R. , D’angeli Ilenia M. , Tisato Nicola, Vasconcelos Crisogono, Bernasconi Stefano M. , Gonzales Esteban R. G. , De Waele Jo

Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Cueva Grande de Santa
Catalina, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their
composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize
their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that
the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four
different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an
assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts
that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammillaries). More peculiar is the
cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and
thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized
extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)—the constituents of biofilms and microbial
mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that
the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The
existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence
of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved
in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on
Earth.


Sulfate reducing bacteria in microbial mats: Changing paradigms, new discoveries, 0000, Baumgartner Lk, Reid Rp, Dupraz C, Decho Aw, Buckley Dh, Spear Jr, Przekop Km, Visscher Pt,
Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have existed throughout much of Earth's history and remain major contributors to carbon cycling in modern systems. Despite their importance, misconceptions about SRB are prevalent. In particular, SRB are commonly thought to lack oxygen tolerance and to exist only in anoxic environments. Through the last two decades, researchers have discovered that SRB can, in fact, tolerate and even respire oxygen. Investigations of microbial mat systems have demonstrated that SRB are both abundant and active in the oxic zones of mats. Additionally, SRB have been found to be highly active in the lithified zones of microbial mats, suggesting a connection between sulfate reduction and mat lithification. In the present paper, we review recent research on SRB distribution and present new preliminary findings on both the diversity and distribution of [delta]-proteobacterial SRB in lithifying and non-lithifying microbial mat systems. These preliminary findings indicate the unexplored diversity of SRB in a microbial mat system and demonstrate the close microspatial association of SRB and cyanobacteria in the oxic zone of the mat. Possible mechanisms and further studies to elucidate mechanisms for carbonate precipitation via sulfate reduction are also discussed

Donnees geomorphologiques sur la region de Fresh Creek, Ile Andros (Bahama), 1974, Bourrouilh F,
A geomorphological study of the east coast of Andros (Fresh Creek area) shows the existence of a paleotopography represented by low-altitude hills (few metres). This paleotopography is protected by the presence of a calcitic Quaternary crust which covers Pleistocene calcarenite.In the western part of the area, there are long woody axes, oriented NE-SW, parallel to the channels of the creek. They end at two kilometres from the coast, along which is a second kind of lower hills, orthogonal to the first.The first axes can be interpreted as megaripples as seen at the present time on modern deposits (on the Great Bahama Bank) and fossilized by the upper crust. The second direction is made by accretion ripples along the coast.The surface of the Bahamian calcarenite has been studied. The Bahamian karst presents two topographical forms: “blue holes” like those outside the island, which are 60-80 m in diameter and both sparse and deep; and “washtub” dolines; these are numerous and shallow, and, from low altitude, exhibit a honeycombed aspect on the surface. This karstic topography with dolines and blue holes is also seen through the water of the Creek the hard bottom of which is covered only here and there with a few centimetres of sediments. Hence, there is a submerged karstic topography, made of the same elements as the aerial karst, but submerged by the Holocene transgression. The present karstic relief, in relation with the different eustatic levels of the Quaternary, has begun 120,000 years ago, according to the isotopic ages, and might be composed by different steps, difficult to show now, in the topography.The blue holes in the interior of the island of young and little evolved karst, were formed more by solution than by collapse of the karstic caves, because of the absence of a real river to drain the Andros shelf at the time of low sea levels. Blue holes of the inside of the island, as they are called, with submarine openings, have the same salinity as the water of the creek (17.5 g/l). The dolines with very low salinity (0.7 g/l to 3.8 g/l) are filled with stromatolites and charophytes, slowly forming sediments made up essentially of high-magnesian calcite.It seems that the Andros Island karst can be compared with that of the Yucatan, where there are round and deep open pits, called cenote, of which the Bahamian equivalent would be the blue holes which were drowned by the Holocene transgression.ResumeSur l'ile Andros, zone emergee du Grand Banc de Bahama, l'auteur montre l'existence d'une paleotopographie comprenant deux categories de rides d'orientation differente et semblant fossilisee par une croute calcitique recente et l'existence d'un karst aux formes jeunes, bien qu'heritage d'un karst holocene en voie de submersion. Ces formes sont des “blue holes” ou trous bleus circulaires (60 a 80 m de diametre) et peu nombreux, et des dolines, dites en baquet. Dans ces dolines se deposent actuellement des croutes stromatolithiques calcitiques dont l'etude est faite par diffractometrie de rayons X et microscopie electronique a balayage

Modern stromatolites in a karst structure from the Malmani Subgroup, Transvaal Sequence, South Africa, 1985, De Ncg,

Le lapiaz de Souroukoudinga (Burkina Faso), un karst micro-tourelles d'ge suppos quaternaire, 1986, Hugot G. , Carbonnel J. P.
THE SOUROUKOUDINGA LAPIAZ (BURKINA-FASO): A MICRO-TURRETED KARST SUPPOSEDLY FROM THE QUATERNARY ERA. - The very few karsts noted and described from West Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, Mali) are not particularly spectacular. However, one from Burkina-Faso is quite different and is no doubt the most atypical of West African karsts. The Souroukoudinga karst is located in sediments of marine origin, attributed to the Upper Precambrian, and forms the southern limit of the Taoudeni basin. This karst develops in dolomites of the schistic-sandstone-dolomitic level and in particular in a very fine Stromatolite algal structure. It takes up the form of micro-turreted karren which, due to its apparent freshness and the surrounding ferruginous cuirasses, suggests that its formation began in a very recent Quaternary period.

Evaporites, brines and base metals: What is an evaporite? Defining the rock matrix, 1996, Warren J. K. ,
This paper, the first of three reviews on the evaporite-base-metal association, defines the characteristic features of evaporites in surface and subsurface settings. An evaporite is a rock that was originally precipitated from a saturated surface or near-surface brine in hydrological systems driven by solar evaporation. Evaporite minerals, especially the sulfates such as anhydrite and gypsum, are commonly found near base-metal deposits. Primary evaporites are defined as those salts formed directly via solar evaporation of hypersaline waters at the earth's surface. They include beds of evaporitic carbonates (laminites, pisolites, tepees, stromatolites and other organic rich sediment), bottom nucleated salts (e.g. chevron halite and swallow-tail gypsum crusts), and mechanically reworked salts (such as rafts, cumulates, cross-bedded gypsarenites, turbidites, gypsolites and halolites). Secondary evaporites encompass the diagenetically altered evaporite salts, such as sabkha anhydrites, syndepositional halite and gypsum karst, anhydritic gypsum ghosts, and more enigmatic burial associations such as mosaic halite and limpid dolomite, and nodular anhydrite formed during deep burial. The latter group, the burial salts, were precipitated under the higher temperatures of burial and form subsurface cements and replacements often in a non-evaporite matrix. Typically they formed from subsurface brines derived by dissolution of an adjacent evaporitic bed. Because of their proximity to 'true' evaporite beds, most authors consider them a form of 'true' evaporite. Under the classification of this paper they are a burial form of secondary evaporites. Tertiary evaporites form in the subsurface from saturated brines created by partial bed dissolution during re-entry into the zone of active phreatic circulation. The process is often driven by basin uplift and erosion. They include fibrous halite and gypsum often in shale hosts, as well as alabastrine gypsum and porphyroblastic gypsum crystals in an anhydritic host. In addition to these 'true' evaporites, there is another group of salts composed of CaSO4 or halite. These are the hydrothermal salts. Hydrothermal salts, especially hydrothermal anhydrite, form by the subsurface cooling or mixing of CaSO4- saturated hydrothermal waters or by the ejection of hot hydrothermal water into a standing body of seawater or brine. Hydrothermal salts are poorly studied but often intimately intermixed with sulfides in areas of base-metal accumulations such as the Kuroko ores in Japan or the exhalative brine deeps in the Red Sea. In ancient sediments and metasediments, especially in hydrothermally influenced active rifts and compressional belts, the distinction of this group of salts from 'true' evaporites is difficult and at times impossible. After a discussion of hydrologies and 'the evaporite that was' in the second review, modes and associations of the hydrothermal salts will be discussed more fully in the third review

The Stromatolites of the Cenote Lakes of the Lower South East of South Australia, 1996, Thurgate, Mia E.

Stromatolite are lithified, laminated, organosedimentary deposits. Preliminary examination of eight cenote lakes near Mt. Gambier has revealed the presence of tens of thousands of actively - forming stromatolites. Based on the external morphology, 14 different types of stromatolites have been identified, columnar growth forms are most common. Three genus of Diatom and three genus of Cyanobacteria are the most likely responsible for stromatolite development.


An overview of the geology of the Transvaal Supergroup dolomites (South Africa), 1998, Eriksson Pg, Altermann W,
In the Neoarchaean intracratonic basin of the Kaapvaal craton, between approximately 2640 Ma and 2516 Ma, two successive stromatolitic carbonate platforms developed. Deposition started with the Schmidtsdrif Subgroup, which is probably oldest in the southwestern part of the basin, and which contains stromatolitic carbonates, siliciclastic sediments and minor lava flows. Subsequently, the Nauga formation carbonates were deposited on peritidal flats located to the southwest and were drowned during a transgression of the Transvaal Supergroup epeiric sea, around 2550 Ma ago. This transgression led to the development of a carbonate platform in the areas of the preserved Transvaal and Griqualand West basins, which persisted for 30-50 Ma. During this time, shales were deposited over the Nauga Formation carbonates in the south-western portion of the epeiric sea. S subsequent period of basin subsidence led to drowning of the stromatolitic platform and to sedimentation of chemical, iron-rich silica precipitates of the banded iron formations (BIF) over the entire basin. Carbonate precipitation in the Archaean was largely due to chemical and lesser biogenic processes, with stromatolites and ocean water composition playing an important role. The stromatolitic carbonates in the preserved Griqualand West and Transvaal basins are subdivided into several formations, based on the depositional facies, reflected by stromatolite morphology, and on a intraformational unconformities; interbedded tuffs and available radiometric age data do not ye permit detailed correlation of units from the two basins. Thorough dolomitisation of most formations took place at different post-depositional stages, but mainly during early diagenesis. Partial silification was the result of diagenetic and weathering processes. Karstification of the carbonate rocks was related to periods of exposure to subaerial conditions and to percolation of groundwater. Such periods occurred locally at the time of carbonate and BIF deposition. Main karstification, however, probably took place during an erosional period between approximately 2430 Ma and 2320 Ma

Microbial communities associated with hydromagnesite and needle-fiber aragonite deposits in a karstic cave (Altamira, northern Spain), 1999, Canaveras Jc, Hoyos M, Sanchezmoral S, Sanzrubio E, Bedoya J, Soler V, Groth I, Schumann P, Laiz L, Gonzalez I, Sainzjimenez C,
Microbial communities, where Streptomyces species predominate, were found in association with hydromagnesite, Mg-5(CO3)(4)(OH)(2). 4H(2)O, and needle-fiber aragonite deposits in an Altamira cave. The ability to precipitate calcium carbonate in laboratory cultures suggests that these and other bacteria present in the cave may play a role in the formation of moonmilk deposits

Sedimentology and geochemistry of fluvio-lacustrine tufa deposits controlled by evaporite solution subsidence in the central Ebro Depression, NE Spain, 2000, Arenas C, Gutierrez F, Osacar C, Sancho C,
The Urrea de Jalon tufa deposits constitute the 20- to 50-m-thick caprock (0.3 km(2)) of an isolated mesa. They disconformably overlie horizontal strata of the Tertiary Ebro Basin (NE Spain), which contains a thick succession of lacustrine gypsum and marls, followed by limestones, marls and, locally, fluvial sandstones and mudstones. The tufa deposits show a complex, large-scale framework of basin-like structures with centripetal dips that decrease progressively from the base to the top of the tufa succession, and beds that thicken towards the centre of the structure (cumulative wedge-out systems). These geometries reveal that the tufa deposits were affected by differential synsedimentary subsidence. Distinct onlapping depressions reflect time migration of the subsiding areas. The studied carbonates are composed mostly of low-Mg calcite, with minor quartz. Some samples have anomalously high contents of Fe, Mn and Ba that may exceed 1% (goethite, haematite and barite are present). Carbonate facies are: (a) macrophyte encrustation deposits; (b) bryophyte build-ups; (c) oncolite and coated grain rudstones; (d) non-concentric stromatolite-like structures; (e) massive or bioturbated biomicrites; and (f) green and grey marls. Facies a and c show a great variety of microbial-related forms. These facies can be arranged in dm- to 2-m-thick vertical associations representing: (i) fluvial-paludal sequences with bryophyte growths; (ii) pond-influenced fluvial sequences; and (iii) lacustrine-palustrine sequences. The Urrea de Jalon tufa deposits formed in a fluvio-lacustrine environment that received little alluvial sediment supply. Isotope compositions (delta(13)C and delta(18)O) reveal meteoric signatures and accord with such a hydrologically open system of fresh waters. The Fe, Mn and Ba contents suggest an additional supply of mineralized waters that could be related to springs. These would have been discharge points in the Ebro Depression of a regional aquifer of the Iberian Ranges. Rising groundwater caused the solution of the underlying evaporites and the synsedimentary subsidence of the tufa deposits

Iron oxide-rich filaments: Possible fossil bacteria in Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, 2001, Provencio P. P. , Polyak V. J. ,
Reddish filaments in two fragments of unusual iron oxide bearing stalactites, 'the Rusticles' from Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, are found only within the central canals of the Rusticles. The curved, helical, and/or vibrioidal filaments vary from 1 to 6 mum in outer diameter and 10 to >50 mum in length. SEM and TEM show the filaments have 0.5-mum diameter central tubes, with goethite crystals radiating outwardly along their lengths. The diameter of the central tubes is consistent with the diameter of many iron-oxidizing filamentous bacteria. Although most iron oxide depositing bacteria do not deposit well-crystallized radiating goethite, we propose thick hydrous iron oxide was slowly crystallized from amorphous material to goethite, in place, over a relatively long period of time. From the gross morphology and the particular setting, we suggest this represents an occurrence of fossilized, acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria

Late Archaean foreland basin deposits, Belingwe greenstone belt, Zimbabwe, 2001, Hofmann A. , Dirks P. H. G. M. , Jelsma H. A. ,
The c. 2.65 Ga old sedimentary Cheshire Formation of the Belingwe greenstone belt (BDB), central Zimbabwe, has been studied in detail for the first time to shed some light on the much debated evolution of this classical belt. The Cheshire Formation rests sharply on a mafic volcanic unit (Zeederbergs Formation) and comprises a basal, eastward-sloping carbonate ramp sequence built of shallowing-upward, metre-scale sedimentary cycles. The cycles strongly resemble Proterozoic and Phanerozoic carbonate cycles and might have formed by small-scale eustatic sea level changes. The top of the carbonate ramp is represented by a karst surface. The carbonates are overlain by and grade laterally to the east into deeper water (sub-wave base) siliciclastic facies. Conglomerate, shale and minor sandstone were deposited by high- to low-density turbidity currents and were derived from the erosion of Zeederbergs-like volcanic rocks from the east. Shortly after deposition, the Cheshire Formation and underlying volcanics were affected by a northwest-directed thrusting event. Thrusting gave rise to the deformation of semi-consolidated sediments and resulted in the juxtaposition of a thrust slice of Zeederbergs basalts onto Cheshire sediments. The stratigraphy, asymmetric facies and sediment thickness distribution, palaeogeographic constraints and evidence for an early horizontal tectonic event suggest that the Cheshire Formation formed in a foreland-type sedimentary basin. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Fallen arches: Dispelling myths concerning Cambrian and Ordovician paleogeography of the Rocky Mountain region, 2003, Myrow Paul M. , Taylor John F. , Miller James F. , Ethington Raymond L. , Ripperdan Robert L. , Allen Joseph,
High-resolution sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, and stable isotope data from numerous measured sections across Colorado reveal a complex architecture for lower Paleozoic strata in the central Cordilleran region. A lack of precise age control in previous studies had resulted in misidentification and miscorrelation of units between separate ranges. Corrections of these errors made possible by our improved data set indicate the following depositional history. The quartz-rich sandstone of the Sawatch Formation was deposited during onlap of the Precambrian erosion surface in the early Late Cambrian. The overlying Dotsero Formation, a regionally extensive carbonate- and shale-rich succession records blanket-like deposition with only minor facies changes across the state. An extremely widespread, meter-scale stromatolite bed, the Clinetop Bed, caps the Dotsero Formation in most areas. However, a latest Cambrian erosional episode removed 9-11 m of the upper Dotsero Formation, including the Clinetop Bed, from just east of the Homestake shear zone in the Sawatch Range eastward to the Mosquito Range. The overlying Manitou Formation differs in character, and thus in member stratigraphy, on the east vs. west sides of the state. These differences were previously interpreted as the result of deposition on either side of a basement high that existed within the Central Colorado Embayment or Colorado 'Sag,' a region of major breaching across the Transcontinental Arch. This paleogeographic reconstruction is shown herein to be an artifact of miscorrelation. Biostratigraphic data show that the northwestern members of the Manitou Formation are older than the members exposed in the southeastern part of the state and that there is little or no overlap in age between the two areas. This circumstance is the result of (1) removal of older Manitou Formation strata in the southeast by an unconformity developed during the Rossodus manitouensis conodont Zone, and (2) erosion of younger Manitou strata in central and western Colorado along Middle Ordovician and Devonian unconformities. Deciphering these complex stratal geometries has led to invalidation of long-held views on western Laurentian paleogeography during the Cambrian and earliest Ordovician, specifically the existence of the Colorado Sag and a northeast-trending high within the sag that controlled depositional patterns on either side. The mid- Rossodus uplift and resultant unconformity eliminated any and all Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician deposits in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, and thus their absence should not be misconstrued as evidence for earlier nondeposition in this region. Lithofacies distribution patterns and isopach maps provide no evidence that highlands of the Transcontinental Arch existed in Colorado prior to the mid-Rossodus age uplift event. In fact, regional reconstructions of earliest Paleozoic paleogeography along the entire length of the purported Transcontinental Arch should be reevaluated with similarly precise biostratigraphic data to reconsider all potential causes for missing strata and to eliminate topographic elements not supported by multiple stratigraphic techniques. This study illustrates how seriously paleogeographic reconstructions can be biased by the presumption that missing strata represent periods of nondeposition rather than subsequent episodes of erosion, particularly in thin cratonic successions where stratigraphic gaps are common and often inconspicuous

Stalactites extrieures dans les karsts tropicaux humides. Dpts stalagmitiques de tufs calcaires, 2004, Taborosi Danko, Hirakawa Kazuomi
Outside Stalactites in humid tropical karst Stalactitic deposits of calcareous tufa - Friable and porous stalactitic deposits composed of calcareous tufa rather than sparry calcite characteristic of normal cave stalactites are often encountered in the entrances of caves and plastered to cliffs in the humid tropics. Tufaceous stalactitic outside deposits are frequently mentioned in literature but are typically dismissed in a few sentences, even in review articles dedicated to calcareous tufa. Mostly based on fieldwork in the Mariana Island, we have identified a variety of depositional settings where stalactitic tufa occurs. These settings can be grouped into spelean, transitional, epigean, and littoral realms. Centimetre to tens of meters in scale, their overall shapes can be quite irregular, with crooked, bulbous, pendant-like, light-oriented and other deflected forms exceedingly common. The outside surfaces of these stalactites invariably lack the crystalline luster of cave speleothems and feel wet and pasty, or powdery and earthy when dry. They are often covered with organic coatings. Stalactitic tufas are generally lightweight, porous, and friable, and many small specimens are weak enough to be plucked by hand. Composed of layered microcrystalline material, sometimes reminiscent of chalk, these stalactites exhibit a bewildering variety of fabrics, which can be classified as encrusted, amorphous, and laminated. In addition, they contain much organic material, microbial structures, and detrital grains. A wide array of biota is associated with these features, and they are thought to form by biogenic mechanisms superimposed on abiotic physico-chemical precipitation from karst water. Biologic processes involved in the formation of stalactitic tufa are numerous and appear to involve hundreds of species. While it is now clear that stalactitic tufas are a result of abiotic and biogenic deposition, an additional possibility remains to be considered. It is not improbable that tufa-like stalactites could form by decay and diagenesis of true cave speleothems, if the latter are exposed at the land surface conditions. Stalactitic tufas represent a unique, subaerial variety of calcareous tufa rarely deliberated in karst literature.

C and O stable isotope variability in recent freshwater carbonates (River Krka, Croatia), 2004, Lojen S. , Dolenec T. , Vokal B. , Cukrov N. , Mihelcic G. , Papesch W. ,
Three types of recent carbonate precipitates from the River Krka, Croatia, were analysed: (1) bulk tufa from four main cascades in a 34 km long section of the river flow through the Krka National Park; (2) a laminar stromatolite-like incrustation formed in the tunnel of a hydroelectric power plant close to the lowest cascade; and (3) recent precipitates collected on artificial substrates during winter, spring and summer periods. Stable isotope compositions of carbon (delta(13)C) and oxygen (delta(18)O) in the carbonate and organic carbon (delta(13)C(org)) were determined and compared with delta(18)O of water and delta(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The source of DIC, which provides C for tufa precipitation, was determined from the slope of the line ([DIC]/[DIC0]-1) vs. (delta(13)C-DIC x ([DIC]/[DIC0])) (Sayles & Curry, 1988). The delta(13)C value of added DIC was -13.6parts per thousand, corresponding to the dissolution of CO2 with delta(13)C between -19.5 and -23.0parts per thousand Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). The observed difference between the measured and calculated equilibrium temperature of precipitation of bulk tufa barriers indicates that the higher the water temperature, the larger the error in the estimated temperature of precipitation. This implies that the climatic signals may be valid only in tufas precipitated at lower and relatively stable temperatures. The laminar crust comprising a continuous record of the last 40 years of precipitation shows a consistent trend of increasing delta(13)C and decreasing delta(18)O. The lack of covariation between delta(13)C and delta(18)O indicates that precipitation of calcite was not kinetically controlled for either of the elements. delta(13)C and delta(18)O of precipitates collected on different artificial substrates show that surface characteristics both of substrates and colonizing biota play an important role in C and O isotope fractionation during carbonate precipitation

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