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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That coliform organism is a microorganism, the concentration of which is used as an indication of the degree of biological pollution of water [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for stromatolitic (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
A note on the occurrence of a crayback stalagmite at Niah Caves, Borneo, , Lundberg Joyce, Mcfarlane Donald A.

Crayback stalagmites have mainly been reported from New South Wales, Australia. Here we document a small crayback in the entrance of Painted Cave (Kain Hitam), part of the Niah Caves complex in Sarawak, Borneo. Measuring some 65 cm in length and 18 cm in height, this deposit is elongate in the direction of the dominant wind and thus oriented towards the natural tunnel entrance. It shows the classic humpbacked long profile, made up of small transverse segments or plates, in this case the tail extending towards the entrance. The dark blue-green colour down the centre suggests that cyanobacterial growth follows the track of the wind-deflected roof drip. The dry silty cave sediment provides material for accretion onto the biological mat. This is the only example known from Borneo and one of the very few known from outside of Australia


Messinian event in the black sea, 1979, Hsu Kenneth J. , Giovanoli Federico,
Three holes were drilled during the 1975 DSDP Leg 42B drilling the Black Sea. A section from Hole 380, at 2107 m water depth on the western edge of the abyssal plain, is 1074 m thick, and provides the most complete stratigraphic section. Dating of the sediments is based upon (1) fossil evidence from pollen, crustaceans, benthic foraminifera, and diatoms, (2) correlation with climatic changes and with unusual isochronous events that have been dated elsewhere, (3) paleomagnetic data, and (4) estimates of sedimentation rate.The history of Black Sea sedimentation recorded by the DSDP cores includes black shale sedimentation during the Late Miocene, followed by periodic chemical sedimentation from Late Miocene to Early Quaternary, and a change to dominantly terrigenous sedimentation from the Middle Quaternary. These hemipelagic and turbiditic sediments were deposited in lacustrine and brackish marine environments. The Messinian sediments, however, consist of stromatolitic dolomite, oolitic sands, and coarse gravels, deposited in supratidal and intertidal environments. The intercalation of the shallow-water sediments in a deep-water sequence suggests a drastic lowering of the water-level within the Black Sea basin during the Messinian so that the edge of the present abyssal plain was then the edge of a shallow lake.The Messinian draw-down phase of the Black Sea was in existence for about 100,000 years during the Lago-Mare stage of the salinity crisis. The evaporated waters formed an alkaline lake before it was drowned by a brackish marine transgression correlative to the Trubi transgression of the Mediterranean

TRAVERTINES - CARBONATE ACCUMULATIONS CONNECTED TO KARST SYSTEMS, SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCES AND QUATERNARY PALEOENVIRONMENTS, 1991, Magnin F. , Guendon J. L. , Vaudour J. , Martin P. ,
In the valleys of southeastern France, below karst massifs, river deposits with travertines show vertical sedimentary sequences always similar, with, from bottom to top: gravels, silts, chalks, travertines s.s. (stromatolitic encrustations with laminated facies), travertinous sand, silts. The study of flora and fauna fossilized by these formations shows a good correlation between the maximum of carbonate deposition (travertinous facies s.s.) and the optimum of vegetation development (forest). And finally, behind calcareous dams edified by travertine, paludal and lacustrine fields are environments developed trapping diversified sediments (clays, peats, silts,...). Then, dam and lake are forming a unit that we can call a 'travertine system'

An overview of the geology of the Transvaal Supergroup dolomites (South Africa), 1998, Eriksson Pg, Altermann W,
In the Neoarchaean intracratonic basin of the Kaapvaal craton, between approximately 2640 Ma and 2516 Ma, two successive stromatolitic carbonate platforms developed. Deposition started with the Schmidtsdrif Subgroup, which is probably oldest in the southwestern part of the basin, and which contains stromatolitic carbonates, siliciclastic sediments and minor lava flows. Subsequently, the Nauga formation carbonates were deposited on peritidal flats located to the southwest and were drowned during a transgression of the Transvaal Supergroup epeiric sea, around 2550 Ma ago. This transgression led to the development of a carbonate platform in the areas of the preserved Transvaal and Griqualand West basins, which persisted for 30-50 Ma. During this time, shales were deposited over the Nauga Formation carbonates in the south-western portion of the epeiric sea. S subsequent period of basin subsidence led to drowning of the stromatolitic platform and to sedimentation of chemical, iron-rich silica precipitates of the banded iron formations (BIF) over the entire basin. Carbonate precipitation in the Archaean was largely due to chemical and lesser biogenic processes, with stromatolites and ocean water composition playing an important role. The stromatolitic carbonates in the preserved Griqualand West and Transvaal basins are subdivided into several formations, based on the depositional facies, reflected by stromatolite morphology, and on a intraformational unconformities; interbedded tuffs and available radiometric age data do not ye permit detailed correlation of units from the two basins. Thorough dolomitisation of most formations took place at different post-depositional stages, but mainly during early diagenesis. Partial silification was the result of diagenetic and weathering processes. Karstification of the carbonate rocks was related to periods of exposure to subaerial conditions and to percolation of groundwater. Such periods occurred locally at the time of carbonate and BIF deposition. Main karstification, however, probably took place during an erosional period between approximately 2430 Ma and 2320 Ma

Dedolomitization and other early diagenetic processes in Miocene lacustrine deposits, Ebro Basin (Spain), 1999, Arenas C, Zarza Ama, Pardo G,
A variety of meteoric diagenetic features reveal the development of a syngenetic karst on lacustrine deposits of the Ebro Basin. Diagenetic processes that operated on lacustrine laminated and stromatolitic carbonates include the following. (1) A first syndepositional stage with processes such as dolomitization, desiccation and related breccia formation and sulphate precipitation, either as lenticular gypsum crystals or nodules. This stage took place under progressive evaporation due to lake level fall, when the previous carbonate deposits became exposed as a supra-littoral fringe surrounding saline mud flats of adjacent sulphate depositional environments. (2) A second early diagenetic stage in which processes such as sulphate dissolution and collapse brecciation, dedolomitization, calcite spar cementation and silicification occurred as a result of meteoric water input that caused a progressive rise in lake level. Light isotopic compositions (delta(13)C and delta(18)O) of diagenetic calcites, versus heavier compositions in primary laminated and stromatolitic limestones, confirm a meteoric influence. The syngenetic karst is best developed at the boundary between two allostratigraphic units and coincided with one of the extensive stages of sulphate deposition at the end of the Early Miocene. The karst facies occurred in an area that was a low-relief barrier that separated two sites of sulphate deposition during low lake levels, This indicates that the karat development was controlled by topographic changes within the basin and record a shift from arid to wetter climatic conditions, as suggested by the overlying freshwater carbonate deposits. The presence of diagenetic features such as those described in the central Ebro Basin affecting saline lacustrine carbonates is relevant because they can be used as indicators of subaerial exposure periods in terrestrial environments and they also reveal important palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic events of basinal extent.

Geological controls in the development of caves in the south-central Ozarks of Missouri, USA, 1999, Š, Ebela Stanka, Orndorff Randall C. , Weary David J.

The Ozark Plateaus Province of Missouri is one of the largest karst areas in the USA. The dominant lithology is Cambrian and Ordovician dolomite and sandstone. Numerous, mostly horizontal caves and large springs are characteristic of Ozark karst. From October 1996 through May 1999, 23 caves were visited and geologic maps were made for 18 caves in the Ozarks of south central Missouri. For this paper, the geology of four of the caves is discussed. The prevailing geologic control on cave development is bedding plane dip and preferred strata a stromatolitic dolomite bed. The only recognized relationship between geologic structure and cave passage trends is the correlation of a N S trend of cave passages to a general N S trend in joints.


Sequence stratigraphy of the type Dinantian of Belgium and its correlation with northern France (Boulonnais, Avesnois), 2001, Hance L. , Poty E. , Devuyst F. X. ,
The relative influences of local tectonics and global eustasy in the architecture of the sedimentary units of the Namur-Dinant Basin (southern Belgium) are determined. Nine third-order sequences are recognised. During the Lower Tournaisian (Hastarian and lower Ivorian) a homoclinal ramp extended from southern Belgium through southern England (Mendips) and into southern Ireland. From the upper Ivorian to the lower Visean rapid facies changes occurred due to progradation and increasing prominence of Waulsortian mudmounds. Progradation gradually produced a situation in which inner shelf facies covered the Namur (NSA), Condroz (CSA) and southern Avesnes (ASA) sedimentation areas, whereas outer shelf facies were restricted to the Dinant sedimentation area (DSA). During the middle and late Viscan a broad shelf was established from western Germany to southern Ireland. Because the shelf built up mainly by aggradation, parasequences can be followed over a large area. An early phase of Variscan shortening is perceptible during the Livian. The stratigraphic gap between the first Namurian sediments (E2 Goniatite Zone) and the underlying Visean varies from place to place, but is more important in the north. Sequence 1 straddles the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. It starts with a transgressive system tract (TST) corresponding to the Etroeungt Formation (Fm.) and its lateral equivalent (the upper part of the Comb lain-au-Pont Fin.), and to the lower member of the Hastiere Fin. The highstand system tract (HST) is represented by the middle member of the Hastiere Fin. which directly overlies Famennian silicielastics in the northern part of the NSA. Sequence 2 starts abruptly, in the DSA and CSA, with the upper member of the Hastiere Fin. as the TST. The maximum flooding surface (MFS) lies within the shales of the Pont d'Arcole Fin., whereas the thick-bedded crinoidal limestones of the Landelies Fm. form the HST. Sequence 3 can clearly be recognised in the DSA and CSA. Its TST is formed by the Maurenne Fm. and the Yvoir Fm. in the northern part of the DSA and by the Maurenne Fm. and the Bayard Fin. in the southern part of the DSA. The Ourthe Fin. represents the HST. Growth of the Waulsortian mudmounds started during the TST. Sequence 4 shows a significant change of architecture. The TST is represented by the Martinrive Fm. in the CSA and the lower part of the Leffe Fin. in the DSA. The HST is marked by the crinoidal rudstones of the Flemalle Member (Mbr.) and the overlying oolitic limestones of the Avins Mbr. (respectively lower and upper parts of the Longpre Fin.). These latter units prograded far southwards, producing a clinoform profile. Sequence 5 is only present in the DSA and in the Vise sedimentation area (VSA). The TST and the HST form most of the Sovet Fm. and its equivalents to the south, namely, the upper part of the Leffe Fm. and the overlying Molignee Fm. In the VSA, the HST is locally represented by massive grainstones. Sequence 6 filled the topographic irregularities inherited from previous sedimentation. In the CSA, NSA and ASA the TST is formed by the peritidal limestones of the Terwagne Fm. which rests abruptly on the underlying Avins Nibr. (sequence 4) with local karst development. In the DSA, the TST corresponds to the Salet Fin. and, further south, to the black limestones of the strongly diachronous Molignee Fin. Over the whole Namur-Dinant Basin, the sequence ends with the thick-bedded packstones and grainstones of the Neffe Frn. as the HST. Sequence 7 includes the Lives Fm. and the lower part of the Grands-Malades Fm. (Seilles Mbr. and its lateral equivalents), corresponding respectively to the TST and HST. Sequence 8 corresponds to the Bay-Bonnet Mbr. (TST), characterised by stromatolitic limestones. The HST corresponds to the Thon-Samson Mbr. Sequence 9 is the youngest sequence of the Belgian Dinantian in the CSA and DSA. It includes the Poilvache Nibr. (TST, Bonne Fm.) and the Anhee Fm. (HST). These units are composed of shallowing-upward parasequences. The uppermost Visean and basal Namurian are lacking in southern Belgium where sequence 9 is directly capped by Namurian E2 silicielastics. In the VSA, sequence 9 is well developed

Geologic framework of the Ozarks of South-Central Missouri Contributions to a Conceptual Model of Karst, 2001, Orndorff R. C. , Weary D. J. , Sebela S.

A geologic framework is required to understand the environmental impact of proposed mining of lead and zinc on large springs in the karst area of south-central Missouri. Information about lithologies, faults, joints, and karst features (sinkholes, caves, and springs) contributes to the development of a conceptual model of karst hydrogeology. Conduits and caves along bedding planes and joints provide avenues for ground-water recharge, movement, and discharge. The trend of joints was studied to determine if they controlled the orientation of cave passages and conduits. The data show that cave passages are curvilinear and do no correlate well with measured joint trends. Instead, stratigraphy, bedding-plane dip, and local base level affect conduit and cave development. The majority of caves in south-central Missouri have developed within stromatolitic dolomite horizons beneath sandstone beds. It is thought that the sandstone beds act as confining units allowing artesian conditions and mixing to occur beneath them, thus, enhancing dissolution. Joints and the high primary porosity of the stromatolitic dolomite beds form openings in the bedrock that initiate solution. Where a solution-widened joint intersects a bedding plane, lateral movement of ground water is controlled by the bedding plane.


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