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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydrologic budget is the quantitative accounting of all water volumes and their changes over time for a given basin or province [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for structural features (Keyword) returned 17 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 17
Alignment of dolines north-west of Lake Constance, Germany, 1968, Matschinski M. ,
An account is given of the karst features of a given area, and ways of finding some order in their apparently chaotic arrangement. The simplest characteristic to study is the alignments of the karst features. These can be determined either subjectively (following the simple overall impression given by the area), or objectively (on the basis of various mathematical or graphical operations). A distinction between 'local' and 'general' alignment by an elementary statistical-graphical method is proposed. This method is applied to the Lake Constance area, and the results are interpretated in relation to the geological features of the area. It is concluded that (a) the structural features of an area have a strong influence on the karst phenomena, and (b) there is a possibility of revealing, and even making geometrical determinations of, some geologically fundamental directions, e.g. tectonic--from an analysis of the distribution of such relatively superficial phenomena as karst features

Le karst nivernais : aperu gomorphologique et hydrogologique, 1989, Couturaud A. , Orange A.
The Nivre karst: geomorphologic and hydrogeologic considerations - Western part of Burgundy and southern part of the Paris basin, the Nivernais karst takes from both regions their lithologic and structural features: Middle and Upper Jurassic carbonate formations, monocline structure with horsts and grabens. But its particularity is in the thick superficial formations, that are supporting a wide mantle of forest, and that determine its morphology, its hydrodynamic and its hydrochemistry. The karst area is distinguished by closed depressions and by the abundance of valleys. The penetrable cavities are scarce and of a little extension, and are principally underground streams. The study of the hydrodynamic and the chemistry of some springs have shown the complexity and the variability of the dynamic of the karstic systems that depends essentially on the superficial formations.

Ultrastructure des sensilles cylindriques, mcanorcepteurs d'un Crustac Mysidac souterrain., 1990, Crouau Yves
The ultrastructural features of a new chordotonal sensillum in a cavernicolous Mysidacea is described. That sensillum and the other mechanoreceptor sensilla of the same Mysidacea are compared. 9 + 0 cilia show ultrastructural features which previously allowed us to establish a hypothesis with respect to the mode of functioning of chordotonal sensilla. That sensillum shows a pore at the tip of its external receptor.

The study area is situated within the complex structure and karst system of the western Taurids. Basinwide interpretation of the structural features, each of which has great importance, will enlighten many complicated hydrogeologic problems encountered in the area. Thus, considering the previous views on the structural geology of the area, an interpretation of the structural and tectonic features of the study area by means of satellite images was undertaken, and based on the data gained, new approaches were suggested to solve the hydrogeological problems, in particular, determination of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Olukkopru and Dumanli karst springs, which are the most important karst groundwater discharge points in the region, has been attempted. Within the framework of this study, a tectonic-lineament map of a large area covering Eqirdir, Beysehir, and Sugla lakes at the north and the basins to the south of these lakes was prepared

Geological features, permeability and groutability characteristics of the Zimapan Dam Foundation, Hidalgo State, Mexico, 1997, Foyo A, Tomillo C, Maycotte Ji, Willis P,
The geology of the Zimapan Dam foundation has a significant influence on the permeability and groutability characteristics. The dam foundation is composed of a sequence of dolomitic limestones and dolomitic breccia of the late Jurassic period. Karst phenomena contribute the main structural features. In this paper the relationships between the karstic features and the permeability characteristics of the Zimapan Dam foundation have been evaluated. A modification of the low pressure test (Foyo and Cerda, 1990) for analyzing the permeability characteristics was carried out. This type of permeability test permits the determination of the critical pressure and the analysis of the differences between the critical manometric pressures and the real critical pressures induced during the test performance. Permeability and hydrofracture tests results were used in the foundation for the design of the grouting programme, and the karstic features of the formation were grouted using a special treatment process. The relationships between the permeability and the grouting results have been analyzed

Analytical 1D dual-porosity equivalent solutions to 3D discrete single-continuum models. Application to karstic spring hydrograph modelling, 2002, Cornaton F, Perrochet P,
One-dimensional analytical porosity-weighted solutions of the dual-porosity model are derived, providing insights on how to relate exchange and storage coefficients to the volumetric density of the high-permeability medium. It is shown that porosity-weighted storage and exchange coefficients are needed when handling highly heterogeneous systems-such as karstic aquifers-using equivalent dual-porosity models. The sensitivity of these coefficients is illustrated by means of numerical experiments with theoretical karst systems. The presented ID dual-porosity analytical model is used to reproduce the hydraulic responses of reference 3D karst aquifers, modelled by a discrete single-continuum approach. Under various stress conditions, simulation results show the relations between the dual-porosity model coefficients and the structural features of the discrete single-continuum model. The calibration of the equivalent 1D analytical dual-porosity model on reference hydraulic responses confirms the dependence of the exchange coefficient with the karstic network density. The use of the analytical model could also point out some fundamental structural properties of the karstic network that rule the shape of the hydraulic responses, such as density and connectivity. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Structural Features of Cultural Landscape in the Karst Area (landscape in transition), 2003, Anič, Ić, Branka, Perica Draž, En

During a long historical continuity in the karst area a specific landscape type has evolved due to varied climatic, geomorphological, topographic as well as socio-economic conditions. This is characterized by great typological diversity based on authentic features both of natural and cultural origin. These have occurred as a consequence of balanced economic land-uses from early periods on. The main quality of these landscapes is derived from unique agricultural land-use patterns, which constitute one of the most valuable spatial heritages in the entire Mediterranean. However, the recent evolution, mainly in the socio-economic sphere, generated far-reaching impacts in the rural areas which largely affect the integrity and traditional harmony the karst countryside in general and the landscape in particular. The basic intention of the paper is to outline these transformations as a serious threat and immense loss of the national cultural heritage and to emphasize the great responsibility of this generation in these processes.

Palaeoclimatic implications of the growth history and stable isotope ([delta]18O and [delta]13C) geochemistry of a Middle to Late Pleistocene stalagmite from central-western Italy, 2004, Drysdale Rn, Zanchetta G, Hellstrom Jc, Fallick Ae, Zhao Jx, Isola I, Bruschi G,
The age structure and stable isotope composition of a stalagmite (CC1) from an upland cave in central-western Italy were studied to investigate regional response to global climatic changes. Four growth phases are constrained by 28 thermal ionization and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Th-U ages and reveal intermittent deposition through the period between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and 3 (~380 and ~43 kyr). Most of the growth took place between ~380 and ~280 kyr, a period punctuated briefly by a hiatus in deposition through the glacial maximum of MIS 10. Growth was terminated abruptly at 280 kyr just prior to the MIS 8 glacial maximum. With a present-day chamber temperature of 7.5 [deg]C, the timing of hiatuses close to these glacial maxima point to freezing conditions at the time. No deposition was recorded through the entirety of MIS 7 and most of MIS 6, whilst two minor growth phases occurred at ~141-125 and ~43 kyr. Growth at 141 kyr indicates temperatures >0 [deg]C at a time when MIS 6 ice volumes were close to their maximum. High stable carbon isotope ([delta]13C) values (-2.8[per mille sign] to .1[per mille sign]) throughout the stalagmite's growth reflect a persistently low input of biogenic CO2, indicating that the steep, barren and alpine-like recharge area of today has been in existence for at least the last ~380 kyr. During MIS 9, the lowest [delta]13C values occur well after maximum interglacial conditions, suggesting a lag in the development of post-glacial soils in this high-altitude karst. The stable oxygen isotope ([delta]18O) trends match the main structural features of the major climate proxy records (SPECMAP, Vostok and Devils Hole), suggesting that the [delta]18O of CC1 has responded to global-scale climate changes, whilst remarkable similarity exists between CC1 [delta]18O and regional sea-surface temperature reconstructions from North Atlantic core ODP980 and southwest Pacific marine core MD97-2120 through the most detailed part of the CC1 record, MIS 9-8. The results suggest that CC1 and other stalagmites from the cave have the potential to capture a long record of regional temperature trends, particularly in regards to the relative severity of Pleistocene glacial stages

Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy), 2004, Marsico A. , Giuliano G. , Pennetta L. , Vurro M. ,
Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, eaves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SIN-TACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the southeastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy). The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydro-geological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area

Structural vocabulary of cultural landscape on the island of Krk, 2004, Anič, Ić, Branka, Rechner Iva, Perica Draž, En

Within the large-scale research project in Croatian cultural landscapes, a special place is occupied by the Mediterranean area, with its highly valuable cultural landscape structures. This area is characterised by authentic structures, which represent a valuable cultural heritage and an important element of the national identity. The island of Krk is particularly inspiring in this respect, due to an intricate cultural landscape typology that has developed there under the influence of natural features on the one hand, and the centuries-long agricultural activity on the other. This paper is the result of research in its structural vocabulary in order better to understand and value these unique landscapes. The complex typological articulation was generated mainly by natural karst phenomena (karst valleys and fields, small dolinas, dry valleys), as well as various stone walls, terraces, and similar features, formed through the process of land cultivation. A considerable diversity of landscape units and patterns has been identified through particular structures which often turned out to be assets themselves, and which at the same time help to understand and interpret the outstanding value of the island's landscape.

Using state-wide GIS data to identify the coincidence between sinkholes and geologic structure., 2005, Florea L.
The Kentucky GIS coverage of sinkholes, completed in 2003, consists of 101,176 polygons representing the upper-most closed contour of every karst sinkhole identified using USGS 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. This resource is a useful tool for delineating karst landscapes in Kentucky because karstified limestones underlie 55% of the aerial surface of the state. For hydrologic studies, alignments of sinkholes commonly indicate preferential flowpaths for groundwater; and this information aids in large-scale planning and zoning. In this paper, I demonstrate the effectiveness of using this sinkhole coverage as a tool for delimiting structural features of Kentucky.

Suitability Assessment for New Minia City, Egypt: A GIS Approach to Engineering Geology, 2005, Aly Mh, Giardino Jr, Klein Ag,
Urban development is a high priority in Egypt. New Minia City, located on the eastern bank of the Nile River, approximately 250 km south of Cairo, is one of 16 new development communities. Urban development in New Minia City may encounter several geo-environmental problems. Karst conditions and structural features in the local heterogeneous bedrock limit its suitability for constructional purposes. In this research, suitability of the area for urban development was assessed using a geographic information systems (GIS)-based approach. A weighted GIS model that incorporated land use/cover, types of soil, karst feature distribution, fracture densities, slopes, distances to major faults and streams, road network, and city boundaries was established to create a map of site suitability for the city. Model weights were developed using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach. Current urban land use within New Minia City falls into four classes of suitability. Approximately 7 percent of the area built by 2002 is in the low suitability class, which suggests that the map of site suitability can serve as a reliable base for planning sustainable development in New Minia City. The developed map of site suitability is effective for assessing and revealing ratings of suitability for urban development. Furthermore, the map of suitability provides the foundation for informed decision making in the development of New Minia City

A Review of Coalesced, Collapsed-Paleocave Systems and Associated Suprastratal Deformation, 2007, Loucks, Robert G.

Coalesced, collapsed-paleocave systems and associated suprastratal deformation appear to be prominent diagenetic/structural features in carbonate sections at/near composite conformities. The basic architecture of the system can be divided into two sections. The lower karsted section, where high-density cave formation took place, is preserved as massive breccias commonly displaying a rectilinear pattern in map view. The overlying suprastratal eformation section is characterized by large, circular to linear sag structures containing faults and fractures. Regional distribution of coalesced, collapsed-cave systems commonly appears as large-scale (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers in area), rectilinear patterns with areas of concentrated, coalesced breccias separated by relatively undisturbed host rock. This pattern may reflect development of the paleocave system along fracture swarms. Collapsed-paleocave systems are large, complex features that show broad-scale organization. The complete paleocave system may need seismic data or large, mountain-scale outcrops to define their architecture and distribution.


A more accurate model of the subsurface is a two-dimensional (2-D) model where the resistivity changes in the vertical direction as well as in the horizontal direction along the survey line. Our survey was carried out by a new modern computerized static type resistivity meter, “SYSCAL Jr switch-72”. The interpretation of the 2D ?eld model was performed by the latest version of the software package “RES2DINV” version 3.54v and “RES2DMOD” version 3.01w, which perform smoothness constrained inversion using ?nite difference and ?nite elements forward modeling. The measurements were carried out by using Roll-along technique in 69 2-D soundings distributed over two pro?les. The area is characterized by quite homogenous and relatively thin recent sediments. The isopach map constructed shows generally about 10-80 m of these sediments. Excellent aquifers were detected in the Pila Spi limestones, which have wide ranges of resistivities between 22-700 ?.m due to lateral and vertical facies changes from low resistivity chalky limestone to compact high resistivity dolomite. This aquifer is buried beneath 10-80 m of sedimenst, and greater depths were detected in a few limited locations due to existence of particular structural features. The isopach map of the Pila Spi aquifer shows that thickness ranges between (20-135) m. In addition, three important structural features were identi?ed within the Pila Spi strata, a strike slip fault near Dargazen village, the “Hayasi Horst” which extends NE-SW close to Hayasi village, and a graben “Ibrahim Awa graben” close to Ibrahim Awa village. These structural features form natural obstacles below the surface and have great in?uence on the groundwater movements.

Hypogene speleogenesis in the Cenozoic carbonates of the Prichernomorsky artesian basin (north Black Sea region), 2011, Klimchouk A. B. , Timokhina E. I. , Amelichev G. N.

This paper demonstrates the dominant hypogenic origin of caves and other karst features in the Prichernomorsky artesian basin, a major hydrogeological structure of the north Black Sea region. The basin occupies the south of the continental part of Ukraine and the north-central plain part of the Crimea Peninsula and is dominated by the Neogene (lower through middle Miocene) and Paleogene (Eocene through Paleocene) carbonate rocks, intercalated with sands, sandstones, clays and marls. The key study areas, in which some limestone members are exposed and partially drained, lie in the opposed sides of the basin: the north Black Sea region in the continental part (caves in Early Pliocene and Miocene limestones) and the Inner Range of the fore-mountain Crimea in the south, where the basin borders with the fold-trust Alpine mountain region (caves in Eocene and Paleocene limestones). The hypogenic origin of caves is strongly suggested by the analysis of cave morphology and occurrence relative to lithostratigraphy and structural features, cave sediments, isotopic and mineralogical data, and paleohydrogeological analysis. Despite of differences in age and diagenetic maturity of the host rocks, the caves demonstrate remarkable common features imposed by their common origin. The hypogenic speleogenetic model well explains observed specific hydrogeological and geochemical features of the regional multi-storey aquifer system in the central confined part of the basin. Hypogene speleogenesis is likely to play a role in the formation of carbonate-hosted reservoirs, as well as in the migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in the Prichernomorsky basin.

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