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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cimolite is a cave mineral - al4(sio2)9(oh)12 [11].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for structure (Keyword) returned 702 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 702
The Aggitis karst system, Eastern Macedonia, Greece: Hydrologic functioning and development of the karst structure, , Novel Jean Paul, Dimadi Agoro, Zervopoulou Anna, Bakalowicz Michel,
SummaryThe Aggitis karst system developed in the marbles of the Rhodope massif. The conditions of the development of its karst drainage network are determined from the geological and geomorphologic settings by means of a microstructural analysis, following Eraso's method. This analysis shows that the karst conduit network intensely developed in the western part of the mountain Falakro where the majority of the open fractures oriented in the same direction as the hydraulic gradient, while the two directions are perpendicular in its eastern part drained by the spring of Drama.The behaviour of the system was analysed by means of hydrodynamic and water geochemical techniques. Despite the extension of the cave system and of the favourable development conditions of conduits, the functioning appears complex, with a significant storage, and a slow infiltration as well as an easy drainage. On the contrary the Drama karst system, characterised by a low variability in its hydrological and geochemical characteristics does not show any karst functioning.In the Aggitis karst system the initial groundwater flow conditions in combination with the aperture planes of which the directions are in agreement with the hydraulic gradient, favoured the rapid development of a drainage network system. The recharge from a large surface catchment area on non-karstic rocks, through swallow holes in a wide polje contributed to increase the groundwater flow through the karst part of the system, facilitating the development of the conduits

Fungal communities on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, USA, , Vaughan Michael J. , Maier Raina M. , Pryor Barry M.

Kartchner Caverns, located near Benson, Arizona, USA, is an active carbonate cave that serves as the major attraction for Kartchner Caverns State Park. Low-impact development and maintenance have preserved prediscovery macroscopic cavern features and minimized disturbances to biological communities within the cave.. The goal of this study was to examine fungal diversity in Kartchner Caverns on actively-forming speleothem surfaces. Fifteen formations were sampled from five sites across the cave. Richness was assessed using standard culture-based fungal isolation techniques. A culture-independent analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assay evidence of community homogeneity across the cave through the separation of 18S rDNA amplicons from speleothem community DNA. The culturing effort recovered 53 distinct morphological taxonomic units (MTUs), corresponding to 43 genetic taxonomic units (GTUs) that represented 21 genera. From the observed MTU accumulation curve and the projected total MTU richness curve, it is estimated that 51 percent of the actual MTU richness was recovered. The most commonly isolated fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Phialophora, and Aspergillus. This culturebased analysis did not reveal significant differences in fungal richness or number of fungi recovered across sites. Cluster analysis using DGGE band profiles did not reveal distinctive groupings of speleothems by sample site. However, canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis of culture-independent DGGE profiles showed a significant effect of sampling site and formation type on fungal community structure. Taken together, these results reveal that diverse fungal communities exist on speleothem surfaces in Kartchner Caverns, and that these communities are not uniformly distributed spatially. Analysis of sample saturation indicated that more sampling depth is required to uncover the full scale of mycological richness across spelothem surfaces.


Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, , Bontognali Tomaso R. R. , D’angeli Ilenia M. , Tisato Nicola, Vasconcelos Crisogono, Bernasconi Stefano M. , Gonzales Esteban R. G. , De Waele Jo

Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Cueva Grande de Santa
Catalina, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their
composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize
their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that
the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four
different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an
assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts
that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammillaries). More peculiar is the
cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and
thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized
extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)—the constituents of biofilms and microbial
mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that
the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The
existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence
of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved
in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on
Earth.


The Crystalline Structures of the Caves of Belgium [a], 1949, Prinz W.

The Crystalline Structures of the Caves of Belgium [b], 1949, Prinz W.

The Crystalline Structures of the Caves of Belgium [c], 1950, Prinz W.

The Crystalline Structures of the Caves of Belgium [d], 1950, Prinz W.

Observations on the evolution of caves., 1964, Cavaille Albert
In this note, which results from a paper published in France, the author defines the "karst system" formed by several successive levels, at the heart of a limestone mass: joints of surface feeding, vertical chimneys, galleries which are alternatively dry and full of water according to the season, a network of continually drowned clefts. He then studies modifications in this system resulting from internal causes, corrosion, filling and sedimentation, concretion. Then he shows how this evolution of the karst system may be modified by general conditions: geology, tectonics, geography with the losses, resurgences and the role of surface formations. The deepening of the river level may create a structure of differing levels in the various karst system, but their positioning is always slower than the streams erosion and it comes about later. In any case, the caves in a dried karst system undergo an evolution on their own. Finally, the author gives the definition of the terms used to explain the evolution in the karst system: "embryonic galleries" in the network of clefts, "young galleries" in the zone which is alternately wet and dry, "mature galleries" where the concretion and the erosion are balanced, "old galleries" where the concretion is becoming more and more important, "dead galleries" where the cave is completely filled by the deposits and concretions. This classification will easily replace the inexact terms of "active galleries" and "fossilized galleries" which are too vague and lead to confusion.

Collapse structures related to evaporites of the Prairie Formation, Saskatchewan, 1964, Demille G. , Shouldice J. R. , Nelson H. W.

Genesis of the Ordovician zinc deposits in east Tennessee, 1965, Hoagland Alan D. , Hill William T. , Fulweiler Robert E. ,
Zinc occurs in low-iron sphalerite associated with gangue dolomite in dissolution breccias and collapse structures in dolomitized limestone and interbedded fine-grained 'primary' dolomite. These breccias and collapse structures were developed as part of a karst-sinkhole complex formed at depths up to 800 feet below the top of the Knox Dolomite during widespread emergence at the end of Early Ordovician time. Mineralization was completed before the rocks were tilted, and clearly antedates the Appalachian orogeny. Source of hydrothermal solutions is not known

The genus Arrhopalites (Collembola, Sminthuridae) in the United States and Canada., 1966, Christiansen Kenneth
The members of the genus Arrhopalites (Collembola Sminthuridae) found in the U.S. and Canada are described and illustrated. These include six previously described forms and seven new species: A. altus, A. clarus, A. bimus, A. bellingeri, A. dubius, A. hirtus, and A. amarus. Two forms known only from incomplete specimens are described, but not named. Nine of the species are found in caves, but only four of these are at present unknown from surface localities. The characteristics of the genus are described and discussed, and the genus Pseudarrhopalites Stach is placed in synonymy with Arrhopalites. New methods are developed for formulizing the structure of the female subanal appendage, and identifying the cephalic spines and setae.

Subterranean Hydracarida of Bulgaria. I., 1966, Petrova Anelya
A new species of Mideopsis (Nudomideopsis) motasi n. sp. coming from a well near Gorni-Ciflik, close to Belogradchik in NW Bulgaria, is described. For the structure of the palp it is distinguished from the other subterranean European species Mideopsis (Mideopsis (Nudomideopsis) longipalpis Szalay and Mideopsis (Nudomideopsis) fonticola Tanasachi et Orghidan and resembles some Japonese Mideopsis species found also in wells.

Contribution on the study of European Bathynella: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky, a dilemma to resolve., 1966, Serban Eugne.
After a minute study of the structure of the 8th male pereiopod in some Bathynella populations from Romania and England, the structure differences which were found allowed to identify two well individualized kinds of pereiopods; they were named type natans and type stammen. Taking into account the striking differences between these two types, B. stammeri (Jakobi), which since 1954 is considered to be a subspecies of the natans species, was separated out of the species B. natans sensu Jakobi (1954). The populations understudied were collected in England and Romania, their minute study being the object of an other note, collaboration with T. Gledhill. The facts led to the conclusion that Jakobis opinion (1954), which dominated the taxonomy of this group, doesnt entirely correspond to the reality, the two taxonomical units being characterized as follows:; Bathynelta natans Vejdovsky, characterized by the 8th male pereiopod (fig. I A) with a triangular, well developed anterior plate (fig. 3 A-D-a; 7 A-D), of the same length with the exopodit, a cylindrical internal lobe (fig. 3 A-D-b,) and a little lobe (fig. 3 A-D-c) of a reduced size;; Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi) differing from the first with respect to the anterior pinte (fig. 2 A-D-a; 6A-C) which is rectangular in shape and has a prolongation in the distal outer angle, to the conelike internal lobe (fig. 2 AD-b), and to the little lobe (fig. 2 A-D-d) which is twolobed in this case. After discussion on the relationship between B. catena Vejd. and B. stammeri (Jakobi) it is shown that differences observed in the 8th male pereiopod structure give important indications about the above species to the effect that they are not very closely related. If one takes into account also their wide spreading area, and the individualisation of some populations due to important, characteristic traits; we are obliged to classify them into two different sub-genera. In the first one, the species catena is included; which will keep by this way the very name of the genus, and in the second, termed here Antrobathynella, the species stammeri. In conclusion, what was till now considered as Bathynella natans Vejdovsky sensu Jakobi, was divided into two distinct species each of them pertaining to two different sub-genera, that is: Bathynella (Bathynella) natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella (Antrobathynella) stammeri (Jakobi). It is demonstrated that the synonymy Jakobi made between B.chappuisi and B. natans is perfectly true under the new conditions too, because it was Delachaux (1919) who rediscovered B.natans Vejd., not Chappuis (1914). The material found by Chappuis in Basel (1914) appears to pertain to B. stammeri (Jakobi) differing both from the individuals from the Grotte de Ver (Delachaux, 1919) and from Prague (Vejdovsky, 1882).

Breeding Caves and Maternity Colonies of the Bent-Winged Bat In South-Eastern Australia, 1966, Dwyer P. D. , Hamiltonsmith E.

Eight breeding Caves of Miniopterus schreibersi (Kuhl) are described from South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Southern Queensland, in terms of their structure, the location of nursery areas at which juveniles are deposited after birth, and their physical environments. Maternity colonies are found at these caves through spring, summer and early autumn. Established colonies range from about 15,000 to 200,000 bats at peak size. These individuals are predominantly adult females and their young. Adult males are conspicuous only at the single South Australian breeding cave. Births occur from approximately the beginning of December to mid-January at all colonies except that in South Australia, where a birth period is evident between mid-October to late-November. Artificial warming, as a consequence of bat activity, appears to be characteristic of these Miniopterus schreibersi breeding caves. It is suggested that this may have functional significance in facilitating adequate development of juveniles, and that the habit could be a reflection of the tropical ancestry of this species.


Two new Halacariens of Israel Limnohalacarus capernaumi n. sp. And Lohmannella heptapegoni n. sp., 1967, Petrova Anelya
Two new species of Halacarinae of a thermal slightly brackish spring near the Tiberiade lake in Israel are reported. Limnohalacaras capernaumi n. sp. Has certain characteristics typical of other species of the Genus, but is clearly distinguished by proper elements. Lohmannell heptapegoni n. sp. resembles Lohmannella stammeri Viets, of which it is distinguished by the structure of the dorsal plates, the palp and the morphology of the genital apparatus.

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