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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That endogenic is 1. pertaining to, or living in, the zone immediately beneath the earth's surface [9]. 2. pertaining to geological process originating within the earth [16]. see also endogean, epigean, hypogean.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for stygobiont (Keyword) returned 24 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 24
The ecological classification of cave and fissure water in the underground water habitats., 1967, Husmann Siegfried
Bodies of waters in caves and in crevices of rocks are distinguished from the other subsoil water ecosystems ("eustygon", "stygorhithron", "stygopotamon") under the names "troglostygon" and "petrostygon". The colonisation of subsoil water biotopes involves a fundamental principle which controls the development of the main biotopes for the stygobiont undergroundwater organisms. According to this ecological rule, which is described in detail and formulated, the several interstitial biotopes (for example "eustygopsammal," "rhithrostygopsammal," "potamostygopsephal") are to be considered as the real biotopes of the stygobiont subsoil water organisms; waters in caves, on the contrary, are secondary biotopes of these animals. Caves which contain marine water are described as ecostystem "Thalassotroglon" in their relation to "limnotroglon" (= "stygotroglon"). In this why the contact between "limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" is established, and the limnic and marine microcavernal biotopes; "thalassopsammal" and "thalassopsephal"; are also taken in consideration. "Limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" as limnological and thalassological investigations of subsoil water are characterized as biological fields of work, which serve for the investigation of an ecological unit.

The ecological classification of cave and fissure water in the underground water habitats., 1967, Husmann Siegfried
Bodies of waters in caves and in crevices of rocks are distinguished from the other subsoil water ecosystems ("eustygon", "stygorhithron", "stygopotamon") under the names "troglostygon" and "petrostygon". The colonisation of subsoil water biotopes involves a fundamental principle which controls the development of the main biotopes for the stygobiont undergroundwater organisms. According to this ecological rule, which is described in detail and formulated, the several interstitial biotopes (for example "eustygopsammal," "rhithrostygopsammal," "potamostygopsephal") are to be considered as the real biotopes of the stygobiont subsoil water organisms; waters in caves, on the contrary, are secondary biotopes of these animals. Caves which contain marine water are described as ecostystem "Thalassotroglon" in their relation to "limnotroglon" (= "stygotroglon"). In this why the contact between "limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" is established, and the limnic and marine microcavernal biotopes; "thalassopsammal" and "thalassopsephal"; are also taken in consideration. "Limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" as limnological and thalassological investigations of subsoil water are characterized as biological fields of work, which serve for the investigation of an ecological unit.

Studies on subterranean drift of stygobiont Crustaceans (Niphargus, Crangonyx, Graeteriella)., 1976, Husmann Siegfried
In two groundwater canals of a water work in West Germany the drift of stygobiont groundwater organisms was investigated. The collections were made at two-hour intervals. Niphargus aquilex Schiodte, Crangonyx subterraneus Bate and Graeteriella unisetigera (Graeter) were considered more closely, because they were caught in greater numbers than other organisms. These stygobionts show no sign of dial periodicity.

Karst geomorphology and biospeleology at Vanishing Falls, South-West Tasmania, 1992, Eberhard Rolan , Eberhard Stefan , Wong Vera

A speleological expedition to Vanishing Falls explored a 2.3km long cave associated with the underground course of the Salisbury River, and provided the first systematic documentation of karst features and cave ecology in this remote area. The caves host a fauna comprising at least 30 taxa, of which probably more than 14 are troglobitic or stygobiontic. This fauna exhibits a high degree of troglomorphy, with some species likely to be endemic to the Vanishing Falls karst.


Genetic divergence and evolutionary times: calibrating a protein clock for South-European Stenasellus species (Crustacea, Isopoda), 1997, Argano Roberto, Sbordoni Marina Cobolli, Matthaeis Elvira De, Ketmaier Valerio
We studied genetic divergence in a group of exclusively stygobiont isopods of the family Stenasellidae. In particular, we assessed evolutionary relationships among several populations of Stenasellus racovitzai and Stenasellus virei. To place this study in a phylogenetic context. we used another species of Stenasellus, S. assorgiai, as an outgroup. S. racovitzai occurs in Corsica, Sardinia and in the fossil islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, while S. virei is a polytypic species widely distributed in the central France and Pyrenean area. This vicariant distribution is believed to be the result of the disjunction of the Sardinia-Corsica microplate from the Pyrenean region and its subsequent rotation. Since geological data provide time estimates for these events, we can use the genetic distance data to calibrate a molecular clock for this group of stygobiont isopods. The calibration of the molecular clock reveals a roughly linear relationship (r = 0.753) between the genetic distances and absolute divergence times, with a mean divergence rate (19.269 Myr/DNei,) different from those previously reported in the literature and provides an opportunity to shed some light on the evolutionary scenarios of other Stenasellus species.

Les mollusques souterrains du rseau karstique de Padirac (Lot, France) et micro-rpartition de Bythinella padiraci Locard, 1903 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Rissooidea), 2004, Bichain Jeanmichel, Boudsocq Christian, Pri Vincent
Subterranean molluscs of the karstic network of Padirac (France, Lot) and micro-distribution of Bythinella padiraci Locard, 1903 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Rissooidea) - During a Padirac expedition in November 2003, about ten biological samplings were carried out in the deep karstic network. The first aim of this biospeological mission was to update the data on stygobites molluscs in this subterranean ecosystem. The results show that Bythinella padiraci Locard, 1903, species listed as vulnerable in the 2004 IUCN world Red List of threatened animals, although absent in the upstream part of the Padirac subterranean river, is present in its downstream part after the Dversoir and in the De Joly affluent. An hydrobioid belonging to the genus Islamia was recorded as a component of the stygobiontic biocenose of Padirac as well as Moitessieria rolandiana Bourguignat, 1863. In addition, 3 epigean freshwaters molluscs were observed alive in the deep network, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Ancylus fluviatilis, Pisidium sp. as well as a terrestrial mollusc, Discus rotundatus.

What Does the Distribution of Stygobiotic Copepoda (Crustacea) Tell Us About Their Age?, 2007, Culver D. C. , Pipan T.

Geographic distribution of stygobionts is often used to estimate age of a group by assuming vicariant speciation with little or no subsequent dispersal. We investigated the utility of using distributional data for Slovenian stygobiotic copepods by assuming that dispersal is a way to measure age of a species. We list some species of Copepoda that, on the basis of their range and frequency of occupancy within their range, should be older. Body size is not predictor either of range or frequency of occupancy.


PATTERNS AND PROCESSES OF GROUNDWATER INVASION BY COPEPODS IN THE INTERIOR PLATEAUS OF THE UNITED STATES, 2007, Lewis J. J. , Reid J. W.

The copepod crustacean fauna collected from subterranean habitats, including caves, wells, and the hyporheos of streams in and near the Interior Low Plateaus of the United States is dominated by Cyclopoida, with 39 species, followed by Harpac­ticoida with 9, and Calanoida with 2. Nearly all of the harpac­ticoid and calanoid species are widespread, primarily surface-dwelling generalists. Fourteen of the cyclopoids, members of the genera Diacyclops, Itocyclops, Megacyclops, and Rheocyclops, are apparently obligate stygobionts or hyporheic. Several of the species that are more strongly modified for subterranean exis­tence occur only in the more southern, unglaciated areas. Our sampling data support the hypothesis that the more specialized, groundwater-interstitial species have been unable to disperse into previously glaciated regions; whereas some, less-special­ized species may have invaded groundwaters from surface habi­tats as the glaciers receded.


FOSSIL VERTEBRATES AND PALEOMAGNETISM UPDATE OF ONE OF THE EARLIER STAGES OF CAVE EVOLUTION IN THE CLASSICAL KARST, SLOVENIA: PLIOCENE OF ČRNOTIČE II SITE AND RAČIŠKA PEČINA CAVE, 2007, HorÁ, Č, Ek I. , Mihevc A. , Zupan Hajna N. , Pruner P. , BosÁ, K P.

For the first time in the Classical Karst, paleontological data enabled to match the magnetostratigraphic record precisely with the geomagnetic polarity timescale in two studied sites: (i) a series of speleothems alternating with red clays in Račiška pečina Cave (Matarsko podolje), and (ii) an unroofed paleocave of the Črnotiče II site (Podgorski kras Plateau) completely filled by fluvial clastic sediments covered by speleothems. The later sites are also characterized by a rich appearance of fossil tubes of autochthonous stygobiont serpulid Marifugia cavatica. The vertebrate record is composed mostly of enamel fragments of rodents and soricomorphs. Absence of rootless arvicolids as well as taxonomic composition of the mammalian fauna suggests the Pliocene age of both sites. For (i) Račiška pečina (with Apodemus, cf. Borsodia) it was estimated to middle to late MN17 (ca 1.8–2.4 Ma), while (ii) the assemblage from Črnotiče II (with Deinsdorfia sp., Beremedia fissidens, Apodemus cf. atavus, Rhagapodemus cf. frequens, Glirulus sp., Cseria sp.) is obviously quite older: MN15–MN16 (ca 3.0–4.1 Ma). In respect to congruence of biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data and a reliable sedimentary setting of the samples we propose to apply the respective datum also as the time of one ancient speleogenetic phase in the Classical Karst.


Effectiveness and adequacy of well sampling using baited traps for monitoring the distribution and abundance of an aquatic subterranean isopod, 2009, Hutchins B. And Orndorff W.
Land-use practices in karst can threaten aquatic subterranean species (stygobionts). However, since their habitat is mostly inaccessible, baseline ecological data such as distribution and population size are not known, making monitoring and risk assessment difficult. Wells provide easy and inexpensive access for sampling subterranean aquatic habitats. Over three years, including a two-month period of intensive sampling, the authors sampled sixteen wells (ten repeatedly) in Jefferson County, West Virginia, USA, for a threatened stygobiont, the isopod crustacean Antrolana lira Bowman, in two areas where the species was known to occur. A. lira was collected during 21 of 54 sampling events. A. lira was collected from 6 wells in which a total of 31 of the sampling events took place. Borehole logs suggest that only these 6 wells intersected appropriate habitat. Using the binomial approximation, the authors conclude that a random well has a 29% to 91% chance of intersecting appropriate habitat. In a well that intersects appropriate habitat, a single sampling event has a 51% to 85% chance of successful capture. The species occurs heterogeneously throughout the aquifer both in space and time, and thus, repeated sampling of multiple wells is needed to confidently establish presence or absence. In a contiguous block of phreatic carbonate- aquifer habitat analogous to that in the study area, at least 6 wells need to be sampled at least one time each to determine absence or presence of A. lira with 95% confidence. Additional studies with larger sample size would better constrain confidence intervals and facilitate refinement of minimum sampling requirements. In one well that consistently yielded from 8 to 19 animals, the population was estimated by mark- recapture methods. The limited data only allowed a very rough result of 112.3 6 110 (95% CI) individuals. Successful recapture suggests that animals are largely stationary when a food source is present. Animals were collected at depths below the water surface from ,1m (hand-dug well and cave) to , 30 meters in drilled wells. No migration of animals between wells was observed.

Ecology of the hyporheic zone: a review, 2010, Pacioglu, Octavian
It is widely recognized that the hyporheic zone is a crucial component of river ecosystems, structurally and functionally. This article provides a contemporary review outlining the historical development of research in the field and an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the structure and functioning of hyporheic invertebrate assemblages. The paper makes a call for a more holistic approach to the study of the hyporheic zone and the invertebrate communities that inhabit it.

The subterranean fauna of a biodiversity hotspot region - Portugal: an overview and its conservation, 2011, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Borges Paulo A. V. , Gonalves Fernando, Serrano Artur R. M. , Orom Pedro

An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature on subterranean Biology of Portugal since the first written record in 1870 until today has been revised. A total of 43 troglobiont and 67 stygobiont species and subspecies from 12 orders have been described so far in these areas, included in the so-called Mediterranean hotspot of biodiversity. The subterranean fauna in Portugal has been considered moderately poor with some endemic relicts and it remains to be demonstrated if this fact is still true after investing in standard surveys in cave environments. The major problems related to the conservation of cave fauna are discussed, but it is clear that the protection of this specialized fauna implies an adequate management of surface habitats.


An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature o, 2011, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Borges Paulo A. V. , Gonalves Fernando, Serrano Artur R. M. , Orom Pedro

An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature on subterranean Biology of Portugal since the first written record in 1870 until today has been revised. A total of 43 troglobiont and 67 stygobiont species and subspecies from 12 orders have been described so far in these areas, included in the so-called Mediterranean hotspot of biodiversity. The subterranean fauna in Portugal has been considered moderately poor with some endemic relicts and it remains to be demonstrated if this fact is still true after investing in standard surveys in cave environments. The major problems related to the conservation of cave fauna are discussed, but it is clear that the protection of this specialized fauna implies an adequate management of surface habitats.


Composition and distribution of stygobionts in the Tafna alluvial aquifer (north-western Algeria), 2011, Nouria Belaidi, Amina Taleb, Abdelhakim Mahi, Giuseppe Messana

Little is known about the hypogean fauna of Algeria, with studies mostly dating to the beginning of the twentieth century (Gurney 1908; Racovitza 1912; Monod 1924; Pesce and Tetè 1978); moreover, the knowledge varies markedly among regions. In this study, we examined the composition and distribution of the invertebrate communities in the phreatic zone of the Tafna aquifer (N-W Algeria). Twelve wells close to the Tafna wadi, ranging between 120 and 1100 m a.s.l., were studied from May 2005 to March 2006. Many specimens belonging to 37 taxa were collected, the most frequent taxa being Typhlocirolana sp., a stygobitic Gammaridae species, Cyclopidae and Ostracoda. Other crustacean species were relatively scarce, with discontinuous distribution, being present only in a few wells. The taxonomic richness and abundance of stygobitic crustacean communities were relatively constant over time. The spatial distribution of stygobionts was mainly related to the exchanges with surface water.


Preliminary notes on the Cavernicolous Arthropod Fauna of Judbarra / Gregory Karst Area, northern Australia, 2012, Moulds Timothy, Bannink Peter

The Judbarra / Gregory Karst Region is situated in the Judbarra / Gregory National Park, west of Timber Creek, Northern Territory. Several large joint controlled maze caves occur within the area, developed within and below a prominent dolomitic layer (the Supplejack Member). The caves are predominantly shallow in depth (< 15 m below the surface) but are occasionally developed deeper as multi-level systems, reaching the aquifer. Two biological surveys from the largest caves have revealed 56 morphospecies from 43 families, 19 orders, and 7 classes. All collecting was undertaken in the northern dry season (April to September) and consisted predominantly of opportunistic collecting. The diversity of invertebrates collected from the Judbarra / Gregory karst comprised non-troglobionts (48 species, 86%), troglobionts (5 species, 9%), stygobionts (2 species, 3%), and trogloxenes (1 species, 2%). Five of the species are considered to be potential troglobionts, and two potential stygobionts as indicated by troglomorphisms such as elongate appendages and reduced or absent eyes. The five troglobiont species are an isopod (Platyarthridae: Trichorhina sp.), a scorpion (Buthidae: Lychas? sp. nov.), a pseudoscorpion (Geogarypidae: Geogarypus sp. nov.), a millipede (Polydesmida: sp.), and a planthopper (Meenoplidae: sp.). The two stygobiont species are a hydrobiid snail (Hydrobiidae: sp.), and an amphipod (Amphipoda: sp.). The troglobiont scorpion is only the second collected from a cave environment from continental Australia.


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