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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That mexican onyx is see onyx marble.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for subterranean (Keyword) returned 307 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 307
Diversity and dynamics of microarthropods from different biotopes of Las Sardinas cave (Mexico) , , Jos Palaciosvargas, Gabriela Castaomeneses, Daniel A. Estrada

An ecological study of the microarthropod communities from Las Sardinas cave was undertaken. Four different biotopes were studied over the course of a year: bat guano, litter, soil under the chemoautotrophic bacteria colonies and as a control, plain soil without litter or guano. A total of 27,913 specimens of a total of 169 species were collected. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there is a significant effect of biotope on the recorded density, and the post hoc Tukey’s test showed that guano is the most different biotope with the highest value of density recorded. The interaction between season and biotope variables was not significant. In the most extreme case, 99 percent of the microarthropods in soil under chemoautotrophic bacteria were mites, mainly in the family Histiostomidae.


The cycle of subterranean drainage as illustrated in the Bloomington Quadrangle (Indiana), 1911, Beede J. W.

A Subterranean Adventure in Diamond Caverns, Park City, KY, 1944, Ward, L. E.

More Subterranean Adventures, 1945, Ward, L. E.

Unique Animals Inhabit Subterranean Texas, 1948, Mohr, Charles E.

Book Review: ''Subterranean Climbers'' by P. Chevalier, 1951, Dunnington N. J.

Observations on Caves, Particularly Those Of South Australia - 1862 , 1962, Lane, Edward A.

The historical study of Australian caves and caving areas is fascinating although involving the expenditure of vast amounts of time. Australia's early days are unusually well-documented, but in the case of caves the early history is usually wrapped up in rumour, hearsay and clouded by lack of written record. Most research work means long hours poring over old newspaper files, mine reports, land department records and so on, little of which is catalogued. A small number of exploration journals and scientific studies have extensive material on special cave areas, and of these, the volume by Rev. Julian Edmund Woods, F.G.S., F.R.S.V., F.P.S., etc., and is one of the most interesting. This book gives the ideas and beliefs of 100 years ago concerning the origin, development and bone contents of caves and makes interesting reading in the light of more recent studies of cave origins. Wood's study "Geological Observations in South Australia : Principally in the District South-East of Adelaide" was published in 1862 by Longman, Green, Roberts and Green, London. In a preface dated November 15, 1861, Rev. Woods points out that the book was written while he was serving as a missionary in a 22,000 square mile district, and "without the benefit of reference, museum, library, or scientific men closer than England". Up to the time of writing, almost no scientific or geological work had been done in South Australia and much of the area was completely unexplored. The book, also, contained the first detailed description of caves in the south-east of the state. Father Woods writes about many different types of caves in South Australia, for instance, the "native wells" in the Mt. Gambier/Mt. Shanck area. These are caves, rounded like pipes, and generally leading to water level. Woods points out their likeness to artificial wells. He also writes of sea cliff caves, particularly in the Guichen Bay area, and blow holes caused by the action of the waves on the limestone cliffs. Woods discusses many other types of caves found further inland, particularly bone caves. Father Woods discusses cave origins under two sub-heads: 1. Trap rock caves generally resulting from violent igneous action, and 2. Limestone caves resulting from infiltration of some kind. He is mainly concerned with limestone caves which he sub-divides into (a) crevice caves - caves which have arisen from fissures in the rock and are therefore wedge-shaped crevices, widest at the opening, (b) sea-beach caves, caves which face the seashore and are merely holes that have been worn by the dashing of the sea on the face of the cliff, (c) egress caves, or passages to give egress to subterranean streams, (d) ingress caves, or passages caused by water flowing into the holes of rocks and disappearing underground. These caves would have entrance holes in the ground, opening very wide underneath, and having the appearance of water having entered from above, (e) finally a group of caves which he lists by use as "dens of animals".


Progress in the biological exploration of caves and subterranean waters in Israel., 1964, Friedmann I.
The article gives an account of the biological works carried out in the caves and other subterranean habitats of Israe1. The botanical and zoological investigations are summarized separately and a list of literature dealing with biospeleological research in Israel is supplied.

The birth of Biospeleology., 1964, Motas Constantin
Modern biospeleology dates from May 15, 1907, with the publication of Racovitza's "Essai sur les problmes biospologiques." In this paper he posed; if he did not answer; every question raised by life in the subterranean world. He outlined a program of biospeological research, made an analysis of the conditions of existence in the subterranean domain and their influence upon cavernicoles, discussed the evolution of subterranean biota, their geographical distribution, etc. Racovitza modified Schiner's (1854) classification, dividing cavernicoles into troglobites, troglophiles and trogloxenes, terms later adopted by a great number of biospeologists. The "Essai", called "Racovitza's famous manifest" by Vandel, was considered the birth certificate of biospeology by Antipa (1927) and by Jeannel (1948), its fundamental statute. Jeannel also made major contributions to the young science through his extensive and detailed studies. The names of Racovitza and Jeannel will always be linked as the uncontested masters of biospeology, the founders of Biospeologica, and the authors of Enumration des grottes visites. Apart from Schiner, whose ecological classification of cavernicoles was utilized and modified by Racovitza, they had another forerunner in Vir, a passionate speleologist who often accompanied Martel in his subterranean explorations, once meeting with a serious accident in which he was on the brink of death. Vir (1897, 1899) studied subterranean faunas, establishing the world's first underground laboratory, where he carried on unsuccessful or ill-interpreted experiments. We consider Racovitza and Jeannel's criticism of him too severe. Let us be more lenient with our forerunners, since their mistakes have also contributed to the progress of science, as well as exempting us from repeating them.

Remarks on the significance of experiences in karst geodynamics., 1964, Renault Philippe
Distinction is made between the experiment which "demonstrates" having an argumentative value; and the experiment which "questions" nature by isolating one factor and by determining the mode of its action. The concept of experiment in geology and in geodynamics and the distinctions between geodynamics and geophysics are discussed. Karstic geodynamics considers the action of fluids; mainly liquids; on a soluble rock. It is a science bordering the different branches of geochemistry, hydrology, the mechanics of rocks, and geophysics. Researches in karstic geodynamics are based upon measurements obtained through field surveys, or upon the utilization of a subterranean laboratory. However, in the laboratory this hardly surpasses the stage of experimental demonstration. A series of simple experiments are enumerated to exemplify the above statement, like the one where the attack of a diluted acid on a soluble rock is utilized, in order to enable us to classify the major problems encountered in karstic corrosion. The last chapter discusses the bicarbonate equilibriums of Ca-CO2. Experiment furnishes the empiric criterion on which scientific theory is founded. Each discipline has its own methodology dependent on the object under study having experimental criteria of different nature. This is particularly true in case of such distant phenomena which no longer have a common ground with human dimensions like space for astronomy or time for geology. In such cases the possibilities of "instrumental" experimentations are very limited. After a brief recollection of the principles of experimental procedure and the history of the experiments attempted by geodynamicians (tectonics, geomorphology, etc.) we will analyze several methods of investigation and by relying exactly on the example of karstic corrosion we shall determine those which have a value for the science of karstology.

Fauna of the brackish underground waters of Central Asia., 1965, Birstein Jakov Avadievich, Ljovuschkin S. I.
In the cave Kaptar-Khana (south-western Turkmenistan) was discovered a lake filled with water with a salinity of 11,68/oo. This lake is inhabited by a fauna of marine origin; Foraminifera (three species), Molluscs (Pseudocaspia ljovuschkini sp.n.), Harpacticoida (genera Ectinosoma, Schizopera and Nitocra), Isopoda (Microcharon halophilus sp.n.) and possibly Nematoda (Oncholaimidae). The majority of the discovered species are related to species of circum-Mediterranean origin. Geological data do not permit to consider this fauna as a relict of any of the Tertiary seas. The same applies to all other cases when animals of marine origin were discovered in subterranean waters of Central Asia (as for instance Microcharon kirghisicus Jank. on the shores of the lake Issyk-Kul). We can either admit a far greater anciennity of this fauna or an ability of its components to disperse very widely beyond the boundaries of marine transgressions.

On subterranean confluences., 1965, Bleahu Marcian
The development of a subterranean drainage system depends on the way in which subterranean confluences between different rivers can be formed. Different from surface, in which confluences are determined by processes related to the surface runoff of water, in subterranean karst confluences have a random pattern and are related to certain circumstances independent of the underground flow. These conditions are: pre-existence of circulation ways and the way they are distributed in space. At these the peculiar processes of subterranean karst flow determined by the flow under pressure, the only one that can explain the systematic appearance of confluences, have to be added. In function of these parameters a morphogenetic classification of subterranean confluences is given.

Contribution to the study of the biology of Asellus cavaticus Leydig (preliminary note)., 1965, Henry Jean Paul
The cavernicole asellid Asellus cavaticus Leydig has been reared in our laboratory for more than twenty months, permitting us to give some data on the sexual cycle of this species. Females provided with brood pouches seem to be more numerous in the spring, as is the case with the subterranean amphipod Niphargus virei Chevreux. The average length of the incubation period seems much shorter than that of other troglobitic species such as Niphargus virei Chevreux or Caecosphaeroma burgundum Dollfus, so that the life cycle of our species is nearer to that of epigean Asellus. The number of young per brood appears to be related to the length of the female, as is suggested by our observations on 52 ovigerous females, but there must be other factors which influence this quantity. The comparison between our observations and those made on the North American cavernicole Asellus tridentatus Hungerford shows that the sexual biology of these two species is apparently quite different.

Subterranean occurrence of Anaspides tasmaniae (Thomson) (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1965, Williams W. D.
Anaspides tasmaniae is recorded from a subterranean habitat for the first time. The only difference noted from surface forms was the smaller amount of pigment present.

Pelodrilus bureschi Mich. 1924 (Oligochaeta Haplotaxidae) of the caves of Banat (Romania)., 1966, Botea Francisc, Botosaneanu Lazare
Pelodrilus bareschi Mich., one of two species of limicolous oligochaetes strictly confined to a subterranean environment and previously known from several caves in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, was recently found in three caves in the Banat Mountains, Romania. Examination of sexually mature worms showed that they are within the range of variability of P. bareschi and that there is no reason to describe a form peculiar to the caves of Banat. Pelodrilus has almost always been found in the mud or clay covering the bottom of pools of variable size, which are filled by periodic flooding of underground water courses. The Banat colonies are small.

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