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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That stream bed is the bottom of a stream covered by water [16].?

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for susceptibility (Keyword) returned 20 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 20
Alpine karsts. Genesis of large subterranean networks. Examples : the Tennengebirge (Austria) - the Ile de Crémieu, the Chartreuse and the Vercors (France), PhD Thesis, 1993, Audra, Philippe

This work, based on the study of several underground alpine networks, aims to propose some milestone in the history of these karstic regions.

The first part of the work is made up of three regional studies.

The Tennengebirge mountains are a massif of the limestone High Alps in the region of Salzburg in Austria. A cone karst close to the base level developed in the Neogene. Streams from the Alps fed the karst, resulting in the huge horizontal networks of which the Eisriesenwelt provides evidence. During the successive phases of upthrust, the levels of karstification, whether on the surface or deeper down, settled into a tier pattern, thus descending in stages from the base level. From the Pliocene era onwards, thanks to an increase in potential, alpine shafts replace the horizontal networks. The formation of these shafts is more pronounced during glaciation. The study of the Cosa Nostra - Bergerhöhle system developing 30 km of conduits on a gradient reaching almost 1 500 m provides a fairly full view of the karstification of this massif. It includes the horizontal levels developed in the Miocene and the Plio-Pleistocene, joined together by vertical sections. The most noteworthy features of the Tennengebirge, as in the neighboring massifs, lie first and foremost in the extreme thickness of the limestone which has recorded and immunized the differents steps of karstification. Secondly, the size of the networks can be, for the most part, accounted for by the contribution of allogenous waters from the streams of the Neogene and the glaciers of the Pleistocene. Generally sudden and unexpected, these flows of water engendered heavy loads (up to 600 m), simultaneously flooding several levels. To a lesser extent, the situation is similar today.

The Ile de Cremieu is a low limestone plateau on the western edge of the Jura. Due to its location in the foothills, the lobes of the Rhône glacier have covered it up, obliterating the surface karst. However, widespread evidence of anteglacial morphologies remains : paleokarst, cone karst, polygenic surface. Because of glacial plugging, access to the underground karst is limited. The main cavity is the cave of La Balme. Its initial development dates back to an early period. The morphological study has permitted the identification of several phases which go back to the Pleistocene and which are related to the Rhône glacier. The latter brought about modifications in the base level by supplying its merging waters as well as moraine material. These variations in the base level shaped the drainage structure. The underground glacial polishes are one of the noteworthy aspects recorded.

The massives of the Moucherotte and dent de Crolles belong to the northern French Prealps. They conceal large networks, respectively the Vallier cave and the Dent de Crolles. They were formed in the early Pliocene after the final orogenic phase and are in the form of horizontal conduits. The upthrust, which brought about the embanking of the Isère valley, left them in a perched position by taking away the basin which fed them. They were later, however, able to take advantage of waters from the Isère glacier during a part of the Pleistocene. The Vallier cave contains particularly glacio-karstic sediments of the lower Pleistocene, representing unique evidence of glaciation during this period. The vertical networks were put in place at the end of the Pliocene with the increase in karstification potential ; they underwent changes in the Pleistocene due to the effect of autochton and allogenous glaciers.

The second part of the work deals in general with the various forms and processes of karstification, sometimes going beyond the Alps. The study of cave deposits is a privileged tool in the understanding and reconstruction not only of the history of the networks but also the regional environment. The dating of speleothems by the U / Th method has very ofen given an age of over 350 000 years. The age of the networks is confirmed by the use of paleomagnetism which has yielded evidence of speleothems and glacio-karstic sediments anterior to 780 000 years. Anisotropic measurements of magnetic susceptibility have been used to distinguish the putting into place of glacio-karstic deposits by decantation.

Measurements of calcite rates lead to a typology of sediments based on their nature and carbonate content (rehandled weathered rocks, fluvial sands, carbonated varves, decantation clays). Granulometry confirms this differenciation by supplying precise details of transport and sedimentation modes : suspension and abrupt precipitation of clay, suspension and slow decantation of carbonated varves, suspension and rolling together with a variable sorting of sand and gravel. Mineralogical analyses oppose two types of detrital deposits. On the one hand, the rehandling of antequaternary weathered rocks extracted by the karst as a result of scouring during environmental destabilization and on the other hand, sediments characteristic of the ice age of the Pleistocene. The latter are not highly developed and their arrival in the karst is always later. Examination of heavy minerals, the morphoscopy of quartz grains and study of micromorphologies on thin blades provide precise details of conditions of evolution. The use of these methods of investigation allows for an accurate definition of the features of the evolution of the differents types of fillings, particularly speleothems, rehandled weathered rocks as well as carbonated varves. This wealth and complexity are emphasized by a detailed study of the sedimentary sequences of the Vallier cave and of the Bergerhöhle.
Speleogenesis is approached last of all in the light of above study. Emphasis is placed on the major part played by corrosion in the temporarily phreatic zone and on its many consequences (multi-level concept, simultaneous evolution of levels, origin of deep waterlogged karsts…).
Varia tions in the base level have induced karstification in contexts in which the potential was weak. These were followed by periods of increased potential to which were added the effects of glaciation. Perched horizontal levels belong to the first stages which ended in the early Pliocene, whereas alpine shafts developed in the second context. The role of structure and the parameters governing the shape of conduits (pits, meanders, canyons) are also dealt with. The different parts of the karst are borne in mind when dealing with the strength of karstic erosion during the ice age. It notably appears that it is weak on the crests and more or less non-existent in the deep parts of the karst which are liable to flooding. Finally, a preliminary analysis of an observation of neotectonic traces is presented.


Modelling of karst structures by geophysical methods. An example: the doline of S Pietro dei Monti (Western Liguria), 1998, Armadillo E, Massa F, Caneva G, Gambetta M, Bozzo E,
Integrated geophysical investigations of karat structures were carried out in Liguria and Piedmont (NW Italy); this paper refers to the S. Pietro dei Monti doline, in the karat area of Mt. Carmo (Savona). The techniques used in the integrated study were magnetics, electromagnetics and seismic refraction. The target was to identify, without drilling, the nature of the doline, for example if it is of dissolution or collapse type. A preliminary susceptibility sampling of the outcrop and topsoil and the diffuse fractures with a probable water seepage suggested magnetics and VLF electromagnetics. Such methods applied in an area with an extremely low cultural noise allowed modelling of the buried structure of the doline

Palaeomagnetic Research of a Fossil Cave in the Highway Construction at Kozina, SW Slovenia, 2000, Bosá, K Pavel, Knez Martin, Otrubová, Dana, Pruner Petr, Slabe Tadej, Venhodová, Daniela

A fossil channel was filled by sandy sediments of light brown to ochreous color with dynamic structures and textures (lower sequence) unconformably overlain by remains of collapsed roof with brown and ochreous matrix (upper sequence). The sedimentary profile was about 5 m high. In all 38 samples taken from the profile, only one was cemented. Samples were demagnetised by alternating field (AF) at 10 to 1,000 Oe. The cemented one was demagnetised by gradual thermal process from 80 to 560 °C in the MAVACS apparatus. Detected remanent magnetisation in a natural state varied between 95 and 36,470 pT, values of volume magnetic susceptibility are from 55 to 998 x 10-6 SI. Rocks showed low or medium magnetisation. Normal and inverse polarization was detected after demagnetisation. The primary component of magnetisation and resulting polarity could not be stated in samples with expressive viscose component (up to 90 %). According to arrangement of individual magnetozone, it can be stated that sediments are older than the top of Olduvai chron (1.77 Ma), as the magnetostratigraphic profile at Kozina terminated by reverse polarised magnetozone and contains two normal polarised zones. The profile can be correlated with the Divača profile, not only from the palaeomagnetic point of view, but also from a lithological point of view. We suppose, as in Divača, that the cave is a result of the Messinian speleogenetic epoch and its fossilization was connected with rapid base level uplift after refilling of the Mediterranean basin by water. If this hypothesis is close to reality, the fossilization process can be dated from about 5.2 Ma up.


Geophysical surveys over karst recharge features, Illinois, USA, 2001, Carpenter Pj, Ahmed S,
Karst aquifers supply a significant fraction of the world's drinking water. These types of aquifers are also highly susceptible to pollution from the surface with recharge usually occurring through fractures and solution openings at the bedrock surface. Thickness of the protective soil cover, macropores and openings within the soil cover, and the nature of the weathered bedrock surface all influence infiltration. Recharge openings at the bedrock surface, however, are often covered by unconsolidated sediments, resulting in the inadvertent placement of landfills, unregulated dump sites, tailing piles, waste lagoons and septic systems over recharge zones. In these settings surface geophysical surveys, calibrated by a few soil cores, could be employed to identify these recharge openings, and qualitatively assess the protection afforded by the soil cover. In a test of this hypothesis, geophysical measurements accurately predicted the thickness of unconsolidated deposits overlying karstic dolomite at a site about 100 km south of Chicago, Illinois. Zones of elevated electrical conductivity and high ground-penetrating radar (GPR) attenuation within the sediments coincided with subcropping solutionally-enlarged hydraulically active bedrock fractures. These fractures extend to over 12-m depth, as shown by 2-D inverted resistivity sections and soil coring. Anomalous electromagnetic (EM) conductivity and GPR response may be due to higher soil moisture above these enlarged fractures. An epikarstal conduit at 2.5-m depth was directly identified through a GPR survey. These results suggest that surface geophysical surveys are a viable tool for assessing the susceptibility of shallow karst aquifers to contamination

Gamma-ray spectrometric (U, Th) and magnetosusceptibility patterns (Fe) on sedimentary cycle boundaries in pure limestone, San Salvador Island,, 2002, Bosak P. , Hladil J. , Slavik L. , Pruner P. , Venhodova D. , Chadima M. , Hercman H. , Nowicki T. , Mylroie J. E. , Carew J. L.

High-resolution magnetostratigraphy of speleothems from Snežna jama, Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia, 2002, Bosá, K Pavel, Hercman Helena, Mihevc Andrej, Pruner Petr

The Snežna jama Cave is located in the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, NE Slovenia, in a Raduha Ridge. The cave is a huge, more or less horizontal fossil phreatic/epiphreatic conduit. It is penetrated by vertical shafts - invasion vadose (proglacial) caves. Close to the cave entrance, there is about 3 m high wall composed of speleothems - a complex sequence of flowstone with numerous breaks in deposition, six of them are principal. The lower part of the profile (about 85 cm) contains abundant terrigenous component (terra rossa-derived clay). Stalagmites developed in several periods are completely buried by nearly horizontal younger sequences of flowstone. Continuous speleothem log was recovered from the profile in a total length of about 2.4 m. The rock column was cut to cubes in the laboratory (2x2x2 cm) and studied both by thermal demagnetisation (23 samples, 12 steps - 20 to 620 °C) and alternating field method (98 samples, 14 steps - 1 to 100 mT). Magnetic properties identified the lithological boundary. In contrast to the upper part, the lower one shows both higher magnetic susceptibility and higher remanent magnetisation. The turn point can indicate important palaeogeographical change. Magnetostratigraphic log is composed of 7 normal and 6 reverse polarised magnetozones. The age of speleothems detected by the U-series alpha-counting spectrometry falls outside the method range, i.e. over 350 ka. Uranium isotopic equilibria indicate the age over 1.2 Ma. The age of the fill is pre-Quaternary, clearly older than 1.77 Ma. The most probable age from correlation with geomagnetic polarity timescales is about 3.0 to 5.0 or 1.8 to 3.6 Ma. Both possibilities can indicate the growth rate of speleothems of about 1.1 to 1.3 m per 1 Ma. The age of speleogenesis can be compared to some of unroofed caves in the area of the Classical Karst (SW Slovenia) connected with the Messinian period. Snežna jama was uplifted to high altitudes by younger (Plio-Pleistocene) uplift of the Alpine chain.


Surface sediment characteristics and tower karst dissolution, Guilin, southern China, 2003, Tang Tao,
Dissolution of extensive outcrops of limestone and dolostone in humid tropical and subtropical southern China produced numerous caves and residual hills that are referred as tower karst. This study identifies and relates the physical and chemical characteristics of the surface sediment with the limestone bedrock in Guilin to assess the influence of the limestone dissolution process on sediment composition.The results of this study indicated that (i) both limestone and dolostone of the region are very pure (99.5% and 98.5% of CaCO3 and MgCO3, respectively); (ii) the material composition of limestone and dolostone is different from that of soil and sediment of the region: constituents of surface sediments are highly related with the clastic sedimentary rocks, such as the mudstone, but show negative correlation with limestone and dolostone; (iii) the limestone formations are highly resistant to physical weathering and disintegration; their durability versus physical weathering and their high susceptibility to chemical dissolution account for why residual towers can form and persist; (iv) a dual-zone environmental structure exists vertically downward from the surface in Guilin: the zone of unconsolidated clastic sediments that is predominantly acidic, and the zone of karstified limestone that is predominantly basic. The evidence suggests that the environment and processes differ in these two zones. The chemical dissolution of limestone that formed tower karst of the region is not mainly responsible for the accumulation of clastic sediment on the surface

Characterization of ground water flow from spring discharge in a crystalline rock environment, 2004, Gentry Wm, Burbey Tj,
Recent investigations describing the hydrogeology of the Blue Ridge Province of Virginia suggest the occurrence of multiple aquifers and flow paths that may be responsible for the variable flow behavior of springs and seeps appearing throughout the region. Deep, confined aquifers associated with ubiquitous faults and shallow, variably confined saprolite aquifers may contribute water to spring outlets resulting in significantly different quantities of discharge and water quality. Multiple analyses are required to adequately identify the flow paths to springs. In this investigation, hydrograph analyses, surface electrical resistivity surveys, aquifer tests, and nitrate concentrations are used in conjunction with previously reported analyses from borehole logs and age dating of ground water to identify two distinct flow paths. Results indicate that base flow occurs from a deep fault zone aquifer and such discharge can be maintained even during prolonged periods of drought, while increased discharge identified on hydrograph peaks suggests the occurrence of rapid flow through the saprolite aquifer within a radius of about 25 meters of the spring orifice. Springflow hydrograph analysis is suitable for rapid characterization of flow paths leading to spring outlets. Rapid characterization is important for evaluation of potential water quality problems arising from contamination of shallow and deep aquifers and for evaluation of water resource susceptibility to drought. The techniques evaluated here are suitable for use in other locations in fractured crystalline rock environments

Intrt des sdiments dtritiques endokarstiques en tant quarchive naturelle ? Discussion autour des dpts lacustres souterrains (Grottes de Choranche - Vercors), 2006, Perroux Annesophie
Interest of endokarstic detritic sediments as a natural archive? Discussion on underground lacustrine deposits (Choranche Caves Vercors) - Among the various natural environmental archives, the underground detritic deposits remained hitherto forgotten, in particular for high resolution analyses and treatments. Through the study of the sedimentary accumulation of the Cathedral Lake (Choranche Caves, Vercors), this paper shows the potential of information which these deposits contain. Sedimentary cores were sampled in the lake, various data are measured (granulometry, spectrocolorimetry, magnetic susceptibility and gray level imagery), then submitted to statistical processing (PCA, Passega images...) and signal treatment (wavelet decomposition). The stratigraphy of charcoal fragments trapped in the sediment and dated by the 14C method, does not appear sufficiently coherent to propose a satisfying age-depth model. Only some dates make it possible to suppose that the sedimentary filling of the lake covers at least the 4000 last years, with an average rate of sedimentation estimated at 1.87mm/yr. The other results of this work make it possible to understand transport and deposition dynamics of the sedimentary particles in an endokarstic lake, in particular with regard to flooding episodes. The Cathedral lake has a binary functioning, with mainly a fine sedimentation (decantation), punctually stopped by flooding episodes, which on their turn have two different dynamics (brutal or progressive phenomena in sedimentation). Lastly, the study of various signals highlights a great number of sedimentation control factors; these factors seem to act mainly on small time scales (more than 80 % of the granulometric signal variation are linked to phenomena with a period inferior to 40 years, according to the chronological framework supposed in the first assumption). This work carried in Choranche shows that endokarstic detritic sediments contain high resolution archives of the environmental evolutions. Subject to a chronological positioning more precise than the one we have today, paleoenvironmental interpretations and reconstitutions will make it possible to go further in their reading.

Heinrich H1 and 8200 yr B.P. climate events recorded in Hall's Cave, Texas, 2006, Ellwood Bb, Gose Wa,
Measurements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been performed on a continuous set of samples from a well-dated [~]3 m sequence of sediments collected from Hall's Cave, Edwards Plateau, central Texas. Three major climatic events are represented by distinctive MS increases in the sequence: (1) the Heinrich event H1 (from 17,500 to 17,000 yr B.P.); (2) the end of full glacial conditions on the Edwards Plateau at 14,200 yr B.P.; and (3) the 8200 yr B.P. climatic event (from 8250 to 8050 yr B.P.). In addition, a minor event at 4400 yr B.P. is also well defined here and in Canada, indicating that it is a broadly regional event. These data indicate that all four events represent a shift toward milder climatic conditions accompanied by increased rainfall at this location. The general climatic trends interpreted from the MS data are consistent with independent vertebrate assemblages, floral indicators, and isotopic data recovered from the cave

Stratigraphic variation of complex impurities in platform limestones and possible significance of atmospheric dust: a study with emphasis on gamma-ray spectrometry and magnetic susceptibility outcrop, 2006, Hladil J. , Gersl M. , Strnad L. , Frana J. , Langrova A. , Spisiak J. ,

Evaluating the effectiveness of a fixed wellhead delineation: Regional case study, 2006, Hodgson J. Y. S. , Stoll J. R. , Stoll R. C. ,
The 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act amendments mandated that every state must determine the hydrogeologic origin of each public drinking water system and assess the degree to which each system may be adversely affected by potential sources of contamination. Wisconsin delineated and assessed one specific class of systems, transient noncommunity drinking water wells, with the least stringent standards of all governed system types. This study evaluates the effectiveness of Wisconsin's arbitrarily fixed radius approach used in determining susceptibility to potential contamination from 1,872 transient noncommunity ground water wells. Nearly 28 percent of the wells with contaminated water did not have any recorded potential sources of contamination within the delineation radii. Additionally, regression models derived from potential contaminant inventories within the delineation radii could not accurately predict actual incidences of water contamination. Differences between observed and expected frequencies of contamination further suggest that some transient noncommunity systems should probably be delineated with larger and more sophisticated methods that would account for varying geology and contaminant susceptibility. The majority of contamination cases without recorded potential sources of contamination within the delineation radii were in a karst area. Subsequently, the arbitrarily fixed radius delineation method should not be used in areas with karst aquifers

Magnetic prospection as an efficient tool for doline detection: a case study in the central Ebro Basin (northern Spain), 2007, Mochales T. , Pueyo E. L. , Casas A. M. , Soriano M. A. ,
The presence of alluvial dolines in the Ebro Basin causes problems to both agricultural and urban areas. At present, new urbanization of former farming areas requires new tools to detect karst zones and so diminish the hazard linked to collapses. In the surroundings of Zaragoza, dolines (developed mainly on Quaternary alluvial terraces covering a Tertiary gypsum substratum) are commonly filled with alluvial deposits, agricultural soils, urban debris, etc. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility show a remarkable contrast between host rocks and cavity fillings, demonstrating the value of magnetic surveying. A field test was made in a recently collapsed (September 2003) doline filled currently with urban debris. A magnetic survey was carried out following a 130 m2 grid, with 1-10 m spacing between profiles. A proton magnetometer with gradiometer was utilized, and the total field intensity and gradient measurements were taken. The magnetic survey demonstrated a strong anomaly with a dipole defined by more than 650 nT and a gradient of about 100 nT m-1. The 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) modelling of the magnetic anomaly fits well with the known geometrical data. Two other dolines (that are not clearly defined at the surface) were also detected during the survey. These results validate the starting hypothesis and open a new research approach to the problem. The magnetic survey output allows the construction of realistic geological models

Palaeomagnetic research on karst sediments in Slovenia, 2010, Zupan Hajna N. , Mihevc A. , Pruner P. , Bosk P.
We have conducted palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic research on karst sediments in Slovenia since 1997. More than 2,000 samples were taken and analysed in 36 different profiles at 21 locations in caves and on the surface. Standard palaeomagnetic analyses were used (thermal and alternating field demagnetisation, magnetic susceptibility measurements, etc.). There is no evidence of younger marine deposition than Eocene in the SW part of Slovenia. Younger sediments occur only in caves and very rarely on the karst surface (different soils and a few remains of terrigeneous sediments). Marine and terrestrial Tertiary to PlioQuaternary deposition occurs in the SE and E Slovenia. Chronostratigraphy of cave sediments in SW Slovenia completed by Rado Gospodari? in the 1980s was based on Pleistocene warm/cold cycles. Later Th/U dating indicated that speleothems from different caves in Slovenia are older. New dating principally results from palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments calibrated, in some sites, by Th/U, palaentological and geomorphological analyses. Calibrated data contributed to the reconstruction of speleogenesis, deposition in caves, and indirectly to the evolution of karst surfaces and succession of tectonic movements. The evolution of caves in the Slovenian territory took part within one post-Eocene karstification period. This period continues to the present, and can be subdivided into individual, but not well limited, phases related to Cenozoic palaeogeographical changes. The period contains distinct phases of massive deposition in caves with as yet still preserved sediments dated to about 5.44.1 Ma (MiocenePliocene), 3.61.8 Ma (Pliocene) and Quaternary, following the cessation of Miocene deposition in the Pannonian Basin in the central, E and SE Slovenia and post-Messinian evolution in the SW and W Slovenia.

Palaeomagnetic research on karst sediments in Slovenia, 2010, Zupan Hajna N. , Mihevc A. , Pruner P. , Bosk P.

We have conducted palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic research on karst sediments in Slovenia since 1997. More than 2,000 samples were taken and analysed in 36 different profiles at 21 locations in caves and on the surface. Standard palaeomagnetic analyses were used (thermal and alternating field demagnetisation, magnetic susceptibility measurements, etc.). There is no evidence of younger marine deposition than Eocene in the SW part of Slovenia. Younger sediments occur only in caves and very rarely on the karst surface (different soils and a few remains of terrigeneous sediments). Marine and terrestrial Tertiary to Plio–Quaternary deposition occurs in the SE and E Slovenia. Chronostratigraphy of cave sediments in SW Slovenia completed by Rado Gospodarič in the 1980s was based on Pleistocene warm/cold cycles. Later Th/U dating indicated that speleothems from different caves in Slovenia are older. New dating principally results from palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments calibrated, in some sites, by Th/U, palaentological and geomorphological analyses. Calibrated data contributed to the reconstruction of speleogenesis, deposition in caves, and indirectly to the evolution of karst surfaces and succession of tectonic movements. The evolution of caves in the Slovenian territory took part within one post-Eocene karstification period. This period continues to the present, and can be subdivided into individual, but not well limited, phases related to Cenozoic palaeogeographical changes. The period contains distinct phases of massive deposition in caves with as yet still preserved sediments dated to about 5.4–4.1 Ma (Miocene–Pliocene), 3.6–1.8 Ma (Pliocene) and Quaternary, following the cessation of Miocene deposition in the Pannonian Basin in the central, E and SE Slovenia and post-Messinian evolution in the SW and W Slovenia.


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