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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That annual frost zone is the top layer of ground subject to annual freezing and thawing [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for swallow hole (Keyword) returned 33 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 33
The Aggitis karst system, Eastern Macedonia, Greece: Hydrologic functioning and development of the karst structure, , Novel Jean Paul, Dimadi Agoro, Zervopoulou Anna, Bakalowicz Michel,
SummaryThe Aggitis karst system developed in the marbles of the Rhodope massif. The conditions of the development of its karst drainage network are determined from the geological and geomorphologic settings by means of a microstructural analysis, following Eraso's method. This analysis shows that the karst conduit network intensely developed in the western part of the mountain Falakro where the majority of the open fractures oriented in the same direction as the hydraulic gradient, while the two directions are perpendicular in its eastern part drained by the spring of Drama.The behaviour of the system was analysed by means of hydrodynamic and water geochemical techniques. Despite the extension of the cave system and of the favourable development conditions of conduits, the functioning appears complex, with a significant storage, and a slow infiltration as well as an easy drainage. On the contrary the Drama karst system, characterised by a low variability in its hydrological and geochemical characteristics does not show any karst functioning.In the Aggitis karst system the initial groundwater flow conditions in combination with the aperture planes of which the directions are in agreement with the hydraulic gradient, favoured the rapid development of a drainage network system. The recharge from a large surface catchment area on non-karstic rocks, through swallow holes in a wide polje contributed to increase the groundwater flow through the karst part of the system, facilitating the development of the conduits

Karst-like features in badlands of the Arizona Petrified Forest, 1963, Mears Brainerd,
Sinks, disappearing streams, hanging valleys, and natural bridges add a karst-like element to the miniature mountain topography represented in badlands. The Chinle Formation [Triassic] of the Petrified Forest in Arizona largely consists of compact, montmorillonitic and illitic claystones. Sinks in it result from disaggregation of swelling clay minerals rather than solution which affects limestone in true karsts. Ravines whose bottoms are pierced by sinks may develop into hanging valleys because their channels, robbed of surface flow downstream from these swallow holes, cannot keep pace with downcutting in the master drainage to which they are tributary. Growth of the sinks soon creates a disappearing stream that continues to deepen the upstream segment of a ravine. Thus the abandoned downstream segment beyond the sinks, no longer eroded by the stream, develops into a transverse barrier. Where the abandoned channel was initially short, the barrier may be eventually narrowed by weathering and slope erosion to form a natural bridge. Other bridges consist of jumbled material. that has collapsed from steep valley walls, undercut by small stream meanders

Rapid groundwater flow in fissures in the chalk: an example from south Hampshire, 1974, Atkinson Tc, Smith Di,
Projected road improvements in south Hampshire included plans to dispose of surface drainage into soakaways to be sited near an area of swallow holes in the Chalk. An experiment was undertaken to establish if there was a direct connection between the swallow holes, located near the junction of the Chalk and the Lower Tertiary strata, and major springs used for water supply in the Havant area. As the swallow holes are dry except in periods of storm rainfall a tracer, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine WT, was injected together with a large volume of water into one of the swallow holes. Water samples were collected from the springs at Havant and analysed for Rhodamine WT using a Turner fluorometer. The tracer was found at both sets of springs sampled and the straight line velocity from input point to spring was in excess of 2 km per day. Computations based on the concentration of dye recovered from the springs show that in the event of a tanker spillage within the proposed drainage scheme severe contamination would be expected to occur at the springs. The experiment and the results obtained make it clear that extreme caution should be exercised to avoid contamination of fissure-flow within the Chalk aquifer

Hydrogeological Observations at the Water End Swallow Hole Complex, North Mimms, Hertfordshire, 1982, Walsh P. T. , Ockendon A. C.

Hydrogeological Observations at the Water End Swallow Hole Complex, North Mimms, Hertfordshire, 1982, Walsh P. T. , Ockendon A. C.

Towards the prediction of subsidence risk upon the Chalk outcrop, 1983, Edmonds Cn,
Surface karst landforms such as solution pipes, swallow holes and dolines are well developed on the Cretaceous chalk outcrop in Britain. The local frequency of these solution features on the chalk can be as high as on any of the best developed karst areas on other British limestones. However, the overall frequency of solution features for major regions of the chalk outcrop is much lower. Solution pipes, swallow holes and dolines often represent an engineering hazard because of metastable conditions, which, if disturbed, can result in ground subsidence. The research described here is aimed at producing a model to predict areas of subsidence risk upon the chalk outcrop. Considerations for the prediction of subsidence risk are outlined with preliminary analysis for two areas

Les msaventures des sources de l'Estavelle et de l'Inversac en Languedoc Mditerranen, 1987, Gze Bernard
The Estavelle and the Inversac are two celebrated springs in the Mediterranean Languedoc (South of France). Unfortunately, the first one has been chosen as a type for the karstic cavities alternatively absorbing or discharging the waters, according to the season, which has never been the case. On the opposite, the second one can be taken as model for this alternation as swallow hole or emergence.

Observations morphologiques sur le gosystme karstique du Rupt du Puits (Meuse, Lorraine), 1995, Jaillet S. , Gamez P.
The karst system of Rupt-du-Puits is situated east of the Paris basin (Barrois and Perthois), in the Portlandian limestones covered by sands and clays of Lower Cretaceous. It presents 21 km of surveyed passages in several networks (catchment = 13 km2). In this typical covered karst (cryptokarst), we observe two kinds of alimentation: rapid (swallow holes) and slow (wet soils). On the exokarst, the valleys move by retreat of swallow holes and karst stepping. In the endokarst, the variations of the base level determine several stages of stream piracy (elbows of capture). The karst morphology depends on climatic changes and the evolution of the drainage pattern during the Upper Pleistocene.

Discussion on 'The Chalk as a karstic aquifer: evidence from a tracer test at Stanford Dingley, Berkshire, UK': Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 28, S31-S38, 1996, Banks D, Davies C, Davies W,
M. Price writes: Banks et al. (1995) address the nature of the permeability of parts of the Chalk aquifer, provide useful data from a tracer test, and draw attention to the potential dangers of disposing of agricultural and road run-off to swallow holes. The paper includes a calculation of fissure conductivity and aperture from the results of the tracer test. In this it has to be emphasized that the calculations relate to Darcian flow in an equivalent smooth, plane, parallel-plate opening, not the more likely turbulent flow in a natural fissure. The true average aperture of the fissure is therefore likely to be significantly greater than that calculated (Price 1987, 1996). The situation described at Stanford Dingely is one where drainage originating from impermeable Tertiary strata flows onto the Chalk and sinks into the aquifer. The majority of active Chalk sinks appear to be of this type; the drainage sinking into them originates as run-off from other strata. Rain falling anywhere on the outcrop of the Chalk is normally able to infiltrate, so water flowing across the Chalk outcrop is almost invariably allogenic drainage or water that has infiltrated the Chalk and emerged as baseflow. Drainage to sinks is therefore a minor component of recharge to the Chalk. The tracer test undertaken into at Stanford Dingley involved introducing tracer into a known point of entry in the aquifer, and observing its arrival at a known point of emergence. Such tests almost inevitably measure the speed of groundwater movement along a ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Comparison of stormwater management in a karst terrane in Springfield, Missouri - case histories, 1999, Barner Wl,
Control of stormwater in sinkhole areas of Springfield, MO has involved the utilization of several standard approaches: concrete-lined channels draining into sinkholes; installation of drainage pipes into the sinkhole 'eyes' (swallow holes); filling of sinkholes; elaborate drains or pumps to remove stormwater from one sinkhole and discharging into another drainage basin or sinkhole; and enlargement of swallow holes by excavation to increase drainage capacity. Past planning considerations and standard engineering approaches have resulted in flooding of sinkholes and drainage areas, including residential, industrial and commercial developments. Having recognized the inadequacy of existing designs to control flooding and the need to accommodate increased runoff from future development, the City of Springfield adopted an ordinance (effective 19 June 1989 and modified in 1990 and 1993) in response to public pressure and concerns over flooding in sinkholes and sinkhole drainage areas. Three sites were analyzed to examine the effectiveness of contrasting design approaches to stormwater management. These sites differ in vegetation, on-site/off-site considerations, and types of development proposed. All three sites are located within the East Cherry Street Sinkhole Area. The first site, a wooded tract with unmodified sinkholes was cleared and developed for residential use. Discharge of stormwater was directed into sinkholes, and erosion control consisted of hydro-mulching and sedimentation fences in sinkhole areas. East of this location are two parcels which differ in removal of vegetation and off-site drainage relationships. Stormwater design in these sites was adapted for modifications made to sinkholes during railroad and highway construction several decades earlier. Sediment fencing, hydro-mulching and detention berms augment infiltration, restrict erosion, retard discharge to sinkholes, and incorporate off-site considerations. Ongoing observations of stormwater behavior indicate problems of flooding and sediment control at the western site but minimal disruptions of existing drainage patterns at the eastern sites. Design calculation for the western site show adequate volume retention in sinkholes, but different design approaches were implemented to 'soften' the impact of stormwater discharging into these sinkholes, allowing for minimal disruptions in the natural drainage network. The lack of recognition of sinkholes as integral parts of dynamic hydrologic systems may result in problems with on-site/off-site drainage. Standard engineering designs for stormwater detention are not appropriate for the hydraulic characteristics of the shallow karst drainage network. While runoff estimations are conservative, the design calculations fall short of adequately addressing actual stormwater runoff characteristics. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Karst and caves in salt diapirs, SE Zagros Mts. (Iran), 1999, Bosá, K Pavel, Bruthans Jirí, , Filippi Michal, Svoboda Tomá, š, , Š, Mí, D Jakub

About 200 salt diapirs (plugs) have been known in the region of the Persian Gulf. numerous are still active. Karst rocks are represented by a rock salt, less frequently by gypsum and anhydrite. Karst developed especially in relics of planated surfaces. Karst forms are completely comparable with karsts in classical carbonate rocks. Different forms can be distinguished: karren, solution pipes, solution dolines, solution-collapse dolines, uvala-like to polje-like depressions, blind valleys, canyon-like forms, ponors, springs and caves. Two World longest caves in salt were discovered and explored here. Long caves are developed especially in a watertable, large ones in plugs near the seacoast. Caves are often outlets of closed depressions (polje-like). Some caves at bottoms of collapse-solution dolines or swallow holes are subvertical. Karst processes are caused dominantly by dissolution of salt, less frequently of gypsum. The process of subrosion of halite under gypcretes plays the main role. Deep circulation of meteoric waters was proved in some plugs.


Reconstruction of the development history of karstic water networks on the southern part of the Gšmšr-Torna karst on the basis of ruined caves and landforms, 1999, Já, Nos Mó, Ga

The author demonstrates the surface development of the Gomor-Torna karst situated on the Hungarian-Slovakian border from the Tertiary until the present day. He follows the process of transition from the covered karst conditions to the open karst on the karst plateau, and its effect upon the landforms and the karstic water network. He studied the evolution of surface and sub-surface water networks, and the regularity of the movements of underground rivers based on water tracing. He reconstructed the ancient surface outflow directions of the covered karst from the scarce remains of the epigenetic valleys inherited from cover deposits onto the limestone surface, from ruined swallow hole lines in valleys, as well as from decaying water conducting tubes generated in earlier phases.


La grotte et le karst de Cango (Afrique du Sud), 2000, Martini, J. E. J.
The author describes a small karst area in the extreme south of the African Continent, with special reference to the Cango Cave, which is a major tourist attraction. Compared with the other karsts of Southern Africa, this area is unique. The karst is typically exogenic, with caves forming by stream disappearance into swallow holes, where the thalweg intersects steeply dipping Precambrian limestone. Wet caves are vadose, with only short phreatic segments and exhibit rectilinear, longitudinal sections. Passages are low, but wide with bevelled ceilings, often terraced. This peculiar morphology is typical of the caves developing exactly on the water-table and seems to be controlled by the abundance of sediments introduced from the swallow holes. If one excepts a short active lower level, Cango is a dry cave of the same type than the wet ones. It is practically linear in plan and in profile, with a length of 2.6 km from entrance to end for a total of 5.2 km of passages. The age of the speleogenesis has been estimated as early Pleistocene from the entrance elevation, which is in between the altitude of the actual thalweg and the one of the Post African I erosion surface, which started to be eroded during the Upper Pliocene. This relatively young age is in contrast with a Miocene model, which was accepted by most of the previous authors. Cango is well adorned with speleothems, in particular with outstanding abundant shields, monocrystalline stalagmites and pools coated with calcite crystals. In the first chambers from entrance, the speleothems have been deeply corroded by bat guano, with deposition of hydroxylapatite. Previously this corrosion was attributed to resolution due to several rises of the paleowater-table. The meteorology is discussed, in particular the high carbon dioxide, which indicates that the cave is poorly ventilated and which constitutes a problem for management and conservation.

Function feeding groups of macroinvertebrates in the Reka river (Slovenia), 2000, Pipan, Tanja

This ecological study deals with the structure of the fauna in a Karst river, classified into different feeding. From the source to the swallow hole the proportion of suspension feeders, filterer-collectors and shredders diminished, but the proportion of deposit feeders and grazers increased. The proportion of predators was roughly the same at all sampling sites. Biological research showed that in the Reka river optimal food exchange with slightly increased trophic activity takes place, but it does not have a negative effect on the community structure of macroinvertebrates.


Predicting natural cavities in chalk, 2001, Edmonds Cn,
Introduction Chalk is a soluble carbonate rock with extensive karst development. Natural cavity occurrence initially appears to be random. In an area where the degree of influence of all cavity formational factors is similar, but dissolution is focused on one set of joints rather than another, then solution feature occurrence is perhaps random. This might be termed the microscale' view, measured at a scale of metres. However, if the pattern of natural cavity occurrence is considered at a macroscale' level, say measured in hundreds of metres or kilometres, then spatial patterns emerge suggesting dissolution is not as random as it might first appear. Spatial characteristics of natural cavity occurrence on the Chalk In order to analyse the spatial characteristics of natural cavity occurrence it was first necessary to collect as many records of solution feature occurrence as possible from published and unpublished sources including local authorities, Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA), Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), Building Research Establishment (BRE), National House Building Council (NHBC), the Environment Agency, water companies, and site investigation reports. Particular emphasis was placed on fieldwork to record new features revealed in a wide range of engineering works, road and motorway construction, and on visits to large numbers of working/disused chalk quarries and aggregate workings. A database of 2226 natural cavities was compiled, composed mainly of solution pipes, sinkholes (dolines) and swallow holes. The spatially related database (each cavity location being recorded by National Grid Reference) was carefully scrutinized to determine ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

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