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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That microhabitat is a miniature habitat within a larger one; a restricted area where environmental conditions differ from those in the surrounding area. a sheltered nook in a cave wall is an example of a microhabitat within the cave [23].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tatra mts. (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
On the possible hydrothermal origin of the Dziura Cave (Tatra Mts.). [in Polish], 1978, Bacmoszaszwili Maria, Rudnicki Jan

New structural elements of the Organy unit situated between the Koscieliska and the Mi?tusia Valleys. [in Polish], 1978, Grodzicki, Jerzy

A reconnaissance isotope study of waters in the karst of the Western Tatra mountains, 1988, Rozanski K. , Dulinski M. ,
Presented are results of isotope investigations of waters collected in the karstic area of the Western Tatra Mts. Altogether 35 groundwater samples have been analysed (tritium content, [delta]D, [delta]18O). They represent groundwaters collected on the earth surface (springs, streams, exurgences) as well as waters found in caves. Parallel, systematic isotope analyses of monthly precipitation collected at the Ornak station located in the center of the investigated area were also carried out. The results of isotope investigations fully confirm earlier suggestions that the karst system of the Western Tatra Mts consists of separate independent subsystems exhibiting weak (if any) hydraulic interconnections. Tritium data allow a semi-quantitative assessment of the mean residence time of the baseflow component in the investigated system. It is equal to at least 7/8 years. Eventual further measurements of tritium content should allow a more precise determination of this parameter. [delta]D and [delta]18O analyses of the investigated waters provide a basis for assessment of the Is/I ratio i.e. the ratio of infiltration originating from summer precipitation to the total yearly infiltration. It appears that groundwaters collected in caves exhibit on the average significantly higher D and 18O content compared to groundwaters collected on the surface. Possible reasons of this effect are discussed thoroughly in the paper

On the geology of the Magurska Cave (the High Tatra Mts., Southern Poland). [in Polish], 1989, Hercman, Helena

The stationary field research on chemical denudation of carbonate karst in the catchment area of Chocho?owski and Koscieliski streams (Western Tatra Mts.). [in Polish], 1998, Barczyk, Grzegorz

Glaciokarst of subalpine and alpine zone of the Mala làka Valley, Tatra Mts., Poland, 1999, Gà, Dek Bogdan, Litwin Leszek

The results of the analysis of the location, origin and age of glacial and karst forms in the Mala làka Valley (the Polish Western Tatras) indicate some interactions between the glacier which existed here in Würm and the karst substratum. During the last glacial period, part of the subglacial water drained underground karst systems. This limited the velocity of the glacier slide on the bedrock which, in turn, led to the decrease of glacier erosional force and to the decrease of glacier front. The older karst relief of the valley surface became devastated but the cave systems became rejuvenated.


Caves of High Mountains in Poland, 1999, Klarenbach, Tomasz

Mountains of alpine origin - Tatra Mts. cover only small part of Poland. Karstified rocks occur in Western Tatra Mts. and cover ca. 50 km2. Within this small area 600 caves are known, the longest and deepest in Poland among them. Three caves are over 10 km long and 15 over 1 km long. There are three caves with denivelation over 500 m and 14 over 100 m. Recent intensive exploration has resulted in the discovery of many new cave galleries. Most important cave in Tatra Mts. is Wielka Ânie›na - Litworowa Cave System (814 m of denivelation and over 20 km long), the deepest and longest cave in Poland. Caves are grouped mostly in the upper part of the Polish Western Tatra Mts., and are of different genetical type and age. Parts of them are of preglacial origin or were transformed by glacial water in Pleistocene.


Molluscan assemblages from deposits filling small karst forms in the Tatra Mountains (Southern Poland), 2001, Alexandrowicz, Witold Pawel

Numerous shells of molluscs were found in loamy sediments rich in limestone and dolomite scree filling small karst forms and forming debris fans. They have been analysed from several logs in the Tatra Mountains. Woodland and open-country snails are the main components of fauna. Relations between two mentioned ecological groups of molluscs indicate climatic changes and moving the timberline. Three phases of warming separated by two stages of the colder climate were recognised. They can be related to following ages: XIII and first half of XIV centuries AD (warm phase), second half of XIV - XVII centuries AD (cold phase), XVIII and the first half of XIX centuries (warm phase), second half of the XIX century (cold phase) and finally to XX century (warm phase).


Morphology of Czarna Cave and its significance for geomorphic evolution of the Kościeliska Valley (Western Tatra Mts.), 2002, Gradziń, Ski Michał, , Kiciń, Ska Ditta

Czarna Cave represents phreatic cave with multiple loops. No cave level developed at the water table was detected. The cave was later modified by invasion vadose waters and breakdown processes. The phreatic paleoflow directions were analysed from the asymmetry of scallops. The paleoflow was directed from the east to the west, that is in a direction of Kościeliska Valley. Therefore, this valley represented the main discharge zone of the region during the formation of Czarna Cave.


Circulation in present-day karst systems sourcing the vaucluse springs in the Polish Tatra Mts., based on tracer methods and limnimetric observations, 2003, Barczyk G,
The paper reviews research into karst system recharging the vaucluse springs in the Tatra Mts. Investigations of present-day karst systems are carried out directly with tracer methods, as well as based on interpretations of stationary observations in springs. Direct methods lead to the determination of groundwater migration routes and their rates, with further information from interpretations of results obtained from monitoring the vaucluse springs of the area

Karst and vaucluse springs from the Polish Tatra Mts. Results of long-term stationary investigations, 2003, Barczyk, Grzegorz

Karst (vaucluse) springs, transporting water from fissure-karst systems, result from karst development in the area. At the same time, they are the main source of information on the hydrography of the investigated karst area. Continuous monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters in the Tatra Mountains in Poland takes place for a long time. In the mid-70-ties, the team of Prof. D. Malecka organized an observation network, with water marks along the main Tatra streams right to their outlets from the massif, and with observation points of the largest springs and vaucluse springs. Readings from water marks were collected several times each month by the observers (usually Tatra National Park employees). In 1998 the National Committee for Scientific Research approved a three-year research project entitled: "Determination of retention abilities and the dynamics of denudation in the karst areas of the Polish Tatra Mountains basing on stationary investigations of vaucluse springs". In accordance with this project, between November and December 1998 automatic limnimeters were installed in selected vaucluse (five) springs.


Recent results of the dye tracer tests of the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring karst system (Western Tatra Mts.), 2004, Barczyk G,
The region of the Bobrowiec Massif, crucial in underground flows within the Chocholowski Stream catchment area, was not studied in details until the 50ies. The Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is recharged mainly by karst systems, including that of the Szczelina Chocholowska - Jaskinia Rybia caves. The remaining 20% of water in the system comes from surface waters of the Chocholowski Stream. First successful dye tests were conducted on this system in 1971/1972. The paper presents data and interpretation of the recent dye-tracer experiments for the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring recharge area. The results of these tests prove that the connection between the Szczelina Chocholowska - Rybia caves karst system and the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is of a karst-fissure character. This hydraulic connection is a typical example of a sub-channel circulation, where flow through a karst-fissure system takes place beneath the bottom of an existing river channel. Comparing the time of dye flow through the system with water stages indicates that the system of fissures linking the sinkhole zone with the vaucluse spring is at least three fold. The inverse relation between watermark stands reflecting the degree of watering in the massif and the time, at which dye penetrates the system, is also distinctly visible

.Evolution of paleoflows direction in the west part of Lodowe Spring Cave System, 2005, Kici?ska, Ditta

TECTONIC CONTROL OF CAVE DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF THE BYSTRA VALLEY IN THE TATRA MTS., POLAND, 2015,

Tectonic research and morphologi calobservations were carried out in six caves (Kalacka, Goryczkowa, Kasprowa Ni¿na, Kasprowa OErednia, Kasprowa Wy¿nia and Magurska) in the Bystra Val ley, in the Tatra Moun -tains. There are three cave lev els, with the youn gest ac tive and the other two in ac tive, re flect ing de vel op ment partly un der epiphreatic and partly un der phreatic con di tions. These stud ies dem on strate strong con trol of the cave pat tern by tec tonic fea tures, in clud ing faults and re lated frac tures that orig i nated or were re ju ve nated dur ing up lift,last ing from the Late Mio cene. In a few lo cal cases, the cave pas sages are guided by the com bined in flu ence of bed ding, joints and frac tures in the hinge zone of a chev ron anticline. That these cave pas sages are guided by tec tonic struc tures, ir re spec tive of lithological dif fer ences, in di cates that these proto-con duits were formed by “tec tonic in cep tion”. Dif fer ences in the cave pat tern be tween the phreatic and epiphreatic zones at a given cave level may be a re sult of mas sif re lax ation. Be low the bot tom of the val ley, the ef fect of stress on the rock mass is re lated to the re gional stress field and only in di vid ual faults ex tend be low the bot tom of the val ley. Thus in the phreatic zone, the flow is fo cused and a sin gle con duit be comes en larged. The lo cal ex ten sion is more in tense in the epiphreatic zone above the val ley floor and more frac tures have been suf fi ciently ex tended to al low wa ter to flow. The wa ter mi grates along a net work of fis sures and a maze could be form ing. Neotectonic dis place ments (of up to 15 cm), which are more re cent than the pas sages, were also iden ti fied in the caves. Neotectonic ac tiv ity is no lon ger be lieved to have as great an im pact on cave mor phol ogy as pre vi ously was thought. Those faults with dis place ments of sev eral metres, de scribed as youn ger than the cave by other au thors, should be re clas si fied as older faults, the sur faces of which have been ex posed by speleogenesis. The pos si ble pres ence of neotectonic faults with greater dis place ments is not ex cluded, but they would have had a much greater mor pho log i cal im pact than the ob served fea tures sug gest.


Tectonic control of cave development: a case study of the Bystra Valley in the Tatra Mts., 2015, Szczygieł Jacek, Gaidzik Krzysztof, Kicińska Ditta

Tectonic research and morphological observations were carried out in six caves (Kalacka, Goryczkowa, Kasprowa Niżna, Kasprowa Średnia, Kasprowa Wyżnia and Magurska) in the Bystra Valley, in the Tatra Mountains. There are three cave levels, with the youngest active and the other two inactive, reflecting development partly under epiphreatic and partly under phreatic conditions. These studies demonstrate strong control of the cave pattern by tectonic features, including faults and related fractures that originated or were rejuvenated during uplift, lasting from the Late Miocene. In a few local cases, the cave passages are guided by the combined influence of bedding, joints and fractures in the hinge zone of a chevron anticline. That these cave passages are guided by tectonic structures, irrespective of lithological differences, indicates that these proto-conduits were formed by "tectonic inception”. Differences in the cave pattern between the phreatic and epiphreatic zones at a given cave level may be a result of massif relaxation. Below the bottom of the valley, the effect of stress on the rock mass is related to the regional stress field and only individual faults extend below the bottom of the valley. Thus in the phreatic zone, the flow is focused and a single conduit becomes enlarged. The local extension is more intense in the epiphreatic zone above the valley floor and more fractures have been sufficiently extended to allow water to flow. The water migrates along a network of fissures and a maze could be forming. Neotectonic displacements (of up to 15 cm), which are more recent than the passages, were also identified in the caves. Neotectonic activity is no longer believed to have as great an impact on cave morphology as previously was thought. Those faults with displacements of several metres, described as younger than the cave by other authors, should be reclassified as older faults, the surfaces of which have been exposed by speleogenesis. The possible presence of neotectonic faults with greater displacements is not excluded, but they would have had a much greater morphological impact than the observed features suggest.


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