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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That subcutaneous flow is lateral and vertical flow that occurs within the epikarst zone under saturated conditions. lateral flow distances can exceed hundreds of meters and several meters per day while vertical within discrete percolation drains (subcutaneous drains) may allow flow rates in excess of several hundred meters per hour. see also epikarst zone; subcutaneous drain; subcutaneous zone; transition zone.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for tectonic structure (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 26
The influence of bedding planes on the development of karst caves (in Slovenian and with an English summary and abstract), PhD thesis, 1996, Knez, M.

There have been much less researchers looking for the initial water ways in karst along the bedding-planes than those who deduced the origin of cave channels from tectonic structures. The aim of my research was to focus scientific attention on the sphere where the answers within the sedimentology might be expected. The study identified that the basic idea of bedding-plane importance at the initiation of cave channels was correct but also, that the interrelation is different from how it had been supposed. Single lithological, petrological or stratigraphical parameters of the inception are only partly known, or merely guessed. My research threw light on the problem of initial channels met in Velika dolina in Skocjanske jame. Cave passages, or their fragments and other traces of the underground karstification do not appear scattered at random on the walls but they are obviously gathered along a small number of so-called bedding-planes.
The basic working method was to locate the phreatic channels or their fragments, to sample and microscope those parts of the layers adjacent to a bedding-plane. Somewhere a whole layer was considered. Other methods were: regional distribution of caves, photographing, inventarisation and classification of speleogens and complexometry, the latter providing the purity of limestones.
The original channels are practically gathered along only three formative bedding-planes (out of 62 measured); their close vicinity differs from the others in several important properties: typically damaged rock, higher level of calcium carbonate, smaller porosity and others. Consequently the mentioned concordance cannot possibly be only apparent.
From the lithological point of view, I got neither substantial argument nor explanation for selective karstification. However, it was identified that at least in respect of a concrete example from Velika dolina, the inception started along interbedded slides that without doubt pushed the beds aside leaving an interval.


Holocene development of three isolated carbonate platforms, Belize, central America, 1998, Gischler E. , Hudson J. H. ,
Locally operating factors such as topography of the reef basement and exposure to waves and currents rather than regionally effective factors such as the post-glacial sea level rise in the western Atlantic explain the different Holocene developments of the three isolated carbonate platforms Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands offshore Belize. A series of NNE-striking tilted fault-blocks at the passive continental margin forms the deep basement of the Belize reefs. Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs are located on the same fault-block, while Turneffe Islands is situated west of Lighthouse Reef on an adjacent fault-block. The three platforms are surrounded by deep water and have surface-breaking reef rims. Significant differences exist between platform interiors. Glovers Reef has only 0.2% of land and an 18 m deep, well-circulated lagoon with over 800 patch reefs. Lighthouse Reef has 3% of land and a well-circulated lagoon area. Patch reefs are aligned along a NNE-striking trend that separates a shallow western (3 m) and a deeper eastern (8 m) lagoon. Turneffe Islands has 22% of land that is mainly red mangrove. Interior lagoons are up to 8 m deep and most have restricted circulation and no patch reefs. Surface sediments are rich in organic matter. In contrast, the northernmost part of Turneffe Islands has no extensive mangrove development and the well-circulated lagoon area has abundant patch reefs. Holocene reef development was investigated by means of 9 rotary core holes that all reached Pleistocene reef limestones, and by radiometric dating of corals. Maximal Holocene reef thickness reaches 11.7 m on Glovers Reef, 7.9 m on Lighthouse Reef, and 3.8 m on Turneffe Islands. Factors that controlled Holocene reef development include the following. (1) Holocene sea level. The margin of Glovers Reef was flooded by the rising Holocene sea ca. 7500 YBP, that of Lighthouse Reef ca. 6500 YBP, and that of Turneffe Islands between 5400 and 4750 YBP. All investigated Holocene reefs belong to the keep-up type, even though the three platforms were flooded successively and, hence, the reefs had to keep pace with different rates of sea level rise. (2) Pre-Holocene topography. Pleistocene elevation and relief are different on the three platforms. This is the consequence of both tectonics and karst. Different elevations caused successive reef initiation and they also resulted in differences in lagoon depths. Variations in Pleistocene topography also explain the different facies distribution patterns on the windward platforms that are located on the same fault-block. On Lighthouse Reef tectonic structures are clearly visible such as the linear patch reef trend that is aligned along a Pleistocene fault. On Glovers Reef only short linear trends of patch reefs can be detected because the Pleistocene tectonic structures are presumably masked by the higher Holocene thickness. The lower Pleistocene elevation on Glovers Reef is probably a consequence of both a southward tectonic tilt, and stronger karstification towards the south related to higher rainfall. (3) Exposure to waves and currents. Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and the northernmost part of Turneffe Islands receive the maximum wave force as they are open to the Caribbean Sea. Adjacent lagoons are well-circulated and have luxuriant patch reef growth and no extensive mangrove development. By contrast, most of Turneffe Islands is protected from the open Caribbean Sea by Lighthouse Reef to the east and is only exposed to reduced wave forces, allowing extensive mangrove growth in these protected areas. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V

Tectonic structure of Postojnska jama Cave System., 1998, Sebela S.

Book Review: ''Tectonic structure of [the] Postojnska jama cave system'' by Stanka Sebela, 1999, Lowe D. J.

Gypsum karst features as evidence of diapiric processes in the Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain, 1999, Calaforra Jm, Pulidobosch A,
In the Triassic evaporite deposits of the Betic Cordillera, halokinesis has played a fundamental role in the morphodynamic evolution of gypsum karst, as evidenced by the morphology and distribution of dolines and poljes, by data obtained from caves, and from the types of water associated with evaporite domes. Distribution patterns of major exokarstic forms display a subcircular array with collapse sinkholes located in the centre of the domes and solution drawdown dolines on the outer limits of the diapiric forms. In addition, the least mineralized waters are situated in association with the caprock gypsum; hypersaline waters, which are also hotter, drain deeper flow systems that flow out at the edges of the halokinetic structures. The morphodynamic and hydrogeological information constitute a valuable tool for the correct interpretation of the tectonic structure of such complex areas. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

The role of deep karst in the formation of latitudinal structures of Verkhnekamskoye Salt Deposits (based on example of Durinsky sag), 2000, Kudryashov Aleksiejivanovich, Moloshtanov Vladimiraleksandrovich

The influence of tectonic structures on karst flow patterns in karstified limestones and aquitards in the Jura Mountains, Switzerland., 2000, Herold ?. , Jordan P. , Zwahlen F.

The influence of tectonic structures on karst flow patterns in karstified limestones and aquitards in the Jura Mountains, Switzerland, 2000, Herold T. , Jordan P. , Zwahlen F. ,
The development of karst systems is often assumed to be related to tectonic structures, i. e. joints and faults. However, detailed studies report many of these structures to be indifferent ui even obstacles to karst development. The aim of our study is to present a systematic which helps to explain or even predict whether a specific fault or joint, or a class of such structures are permeable (and therefore likely to be widened to karat conduits) or impermeable. Therefore three extended multi-tracer experiments followed by three months of monitoring were performed at some 95 springs and streams in the Eastern Jura fold-and-thrust belt. In addition, detailed mapping of tectonic and hydrogeological structures, including sinkholes and some 600 springs, has been carried out. The study area is characterised by two large anticlines, which have been affected by pre-fold normal faulting and synorogenic folding and thrusting as well as oblique reactivation of pre-existing faults. Hydrogeologically, two karst aquifers can be distinguished, the lower Mid Jurassic Hauptrogenstein (Dogger Limestone) and the upper Late Jurassic Malm Limestone. Both karst aquifers are confined and separated From each other hy impermeable layers. This study has shown that karst development and groundwater circulation is strongly controlled by tectonic structures resulting in specific meso- to macro-scale anisotropies. Fast long distance transport along fold axes in crest and limb at cas of anticlines is found to be related to extension joints resulting from synorogenic folds. Concentrated lateral drainage of water now from anticline limbs is exclusively related to pre-orogenic normal faults, which have been transtensively reactivated during folding. The same structures are also responsible for the significant groundwater exchange between the lower (inner) and upper (outer) aquifer. This water now, through otherwise impermeable layers, which is reported at several places and in both directions, is suspected to take place in porous calcite fault gouges or fault breccias. Transpressively reactivated normal faults and synorogenic reverse faults, on the other band. are found to have no influence on karst development and groundwater circulation. It is proposed that the systematic found in the Weissenstein area, i.e. that karst conduit development is mainly controlled by extensive or transtensive (reactivated) joints and faults, may also be applied to other tectonically influenced karat regions. Transpressive structures have no significant influence on karst system development and may even act as obstacles

Tracer Study on the Tectonic Controll of the Drainage System in the Contact Karst Zone of Lake Voralp (Swiss Alps), 2001, Ross Janhenning, Rieg Alfred, Leibundgut Chris

Lake Voralp is a small karst lake, dammed up by a Pleistocene rockslide and without any surface drainage. A dye tracer test under flood conditions shows a widespread drainage system to remote springs and direct afflux to the porous aquifer of the Rhine Valley. These karstwater passages are leading through nonkarstified flysch and a marly layer. Both layers are lithologically rather impermeable and karstwater passages through these layers indicates water leading fault zones. Properties of the drainage patterns strongly depend on the hydrological situation.


Interpretation of recent structures in an area of cryptokarst evolution - neotectonic versus subsidence genesis, 2002, Dias Rp, Cabral J,
The study area (Algarve) is located near the Eurasia-Africa plate boundary, experiencing significant tectonic and seismic activities. Regional geology is characterised by the presence of Mesozoic and Miocene carbonate rocks which are affected by karst phenomena. This karst is covered by terrigenous sediments of Upper Miocene and Pliocene-Pleistocene age. In the study area, the Pliocene-Quaternary cover deposits are affected by a large number of mesoscopic structures, including joints, faults, and a few folds, which indicate neotectonic activity. However, these sediments also present similar structures that result from underground karst evolution, raising the need to differentiate the neotectonic structures from those of non-tectonic origin. In fact, a variety of ductile, semi-brittle and brittle structures develop in the sediments that fill up the karst wells, controlled by different theological behaviour of the cover deposits, various strain rates associated with sudden collapse or progressive sinking, and the variable shape of the karst pits walls. The structure's geometry, geographical dispersion and directional scattering were used as criteria to infer a non-tectonic genesis. It is discussed whether some karst related structures may be controlled by the contemporary tectonic stress field and consequently are interpreted in the regional geodynamical framework. (C) 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

Osovniška jama, the cave in isolated karst in the east of Slovenia, 2002, Zupan Hajna, Nadja

Osovniška jama has been discovered in 2001 during the exploitation of the Middle Miocene limestone in Pijevci quarry in the E part of Slovenia. Isolated subpanonian karst is typical of this part of Slovenia. This karst developed on small isolated patches of shallow limestone. Subpanonian isolated karst is a special type of karst on Lithothamnian limestone, where the surface karst forms are very well developed but no long caves were known. Osovniška jama is about 290 m long and now is the longest cave in this part of Slovenia. In this area the general dip of limestone beds is towards SE at dip angle 20°. The main tectonic structures of the area are in NW-SE and E-W directions. In the quarry, reef limestone is massive and fissured in E-W, NW-SE and N-S directions. The cave generally follows the NW-SE direction. The shape of channels still shows its formation in phreatic conditions; but mostly the transformation and formation of its channels in the vadose zone is expressed. At some time in this cave development allochtonous clastic sediments filled up the upper parts of the cave; afterwards they were almost entirely washed away. There are a lot of flowstone formations in this cave.


The use of structural geological terms and their importance for karst caves, 2003, Š, Ebela Stanka

Structural geological studies on karst areas operate with the same structural geological terms as on other geological regions. But because of special geomorphologic terms characterized for karst areas, some structural geological elements, which are in a special way connected with particular karst forms, are used as a special terms, different from those used on non-karstic areas. For Slovene karst we need to divide two most important structural elements that are important for development of cave passages, bedding planes and tectonic structures. And between bedding planes the ones that are tectonically disrupted are very favorable for development of initial cave passages. In the longest Slovene karst caves as Postojnska jama caves, Predjama and Škocjanske jame caves interbedded movements, thrusting and folding deformations, and tectonically broken zones (fissured, broken and crushed zones) are very favorable for initial, and also for older and younger stages of passage development.


The caves of the contact karst of Beka and Ocizla, the SW Slovenia, 2004, Zupan Hajna, Nadja

The cave system of Beka-Ocizla is developed in the area of contact between Palaeocene limestone and Eocene flysch at 350 m a.s.l. in south-western Slovenia. The beds of limestone could generally be traced in the direction towards NW; the most distinct tectonic structures are in the Dinaric direction and transversely to the Dinaric direction. Three bigger streams and one smaller flow from the flysch on the contact with limestone, which sink into the limestone. The following caves are connected to the cave system: Ocizeljska jama, Blažev spodmol, Maletova jama s slapom, Jama z naravnim mostom, Jurjeva jama v Lokah and Jama S-4 / Socerb; the entrances of four of those caves function as occasional ponors. The least close entrances are 500 m away from each other. The water in the system simultaneously flows on various levels and drains in the direction of Boljunec. The system of parallel fault planes with dip 220/50-80 is the most important for the development of the cave system, the general direction of the cave's passages and the flow of water in the system.


Relation between karst forms of Smole?-Niegowonice Range and tectonic activity of Cracow-Wielu? Upland base. [in Polish], 2005, Pulina Marian, ?aba Jerzy, Polonius Adam

Lakes and springs of the Near-Ol'khom area (Baikal): tectonic control of their localization and water composition, 2005, Sklyarova Olgaa. , Sklyarov Eugenev. , Fedorovsky Valentines.

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