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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bone-breccia is 1. cave breccia including much bone [10]. 2. a breccia containing many bone fragments. (scientific attention should be drawn to the finding of such in caves [25].)?

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Your search for teeth (Keyword) returned 24 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 24
Neobisium (Roncobisium) allodentatum n. sg., n. sp. of Neobisid pseudoscorpion (Arachnida) living in a cave of the Department of Saone-et-Loire, France., 1967, Vachon Max
Neobisium (Roncobisium) allodentatum, a species inhabiting a cave in Saone-et-Loire, France, belongs to a new subgenus of Neobisium of which the essential characters are the possession of accessory teeth on the chelae (fig. 14) and a relative position of trichobothria eb and esb (fig. 8) recalling that of the species of Roncus. A determination key fixes the position of this new subgenus with respect to the four other known subgenera of Neobisium.

A new genus of Bulgarian cave spider (Protoleptoneta bulgarica n.g., n.sp., Leptonetidae)., 1972, Deltshev Christo
A new genus Protoleptoneta (P. bulgarica n. g., n. sp.) is described, which was collected in caves of the Western Balkan mountains; Bulgaria. The new genus unites features of the genera Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta but there are many differences, which divide it from these genera. It differs from Leptoneta as follows: the tarsus of male palp does not possess the characteristic apophysa of Leptoneta; the tarsus is less depressed and does not branch out; the teeth of chelicerae are equable and equidistant. It differs from Paraleptoneta as follows: the femora of male palp is spineless; near the top of tarsus, on ectal side, there is a thicker spot, provided with a strong spine longer than others; the tarsus is more depressed. Paraleptoneta italica is placed in the new genus Protoleptoneta. The origin and relationships between the genera Protoleptoneta, Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta are discussed; a hypothesis is that the genera Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta had been developing as independent phyletic groups and the origin of the two had been Protoleptoneta.

The cuticular surfaces of the gnathopods of two Amphipod Crustaceans: Niphargus (hypogean Gammarid) and Gammarus (epigean Gammarid)., 1972, Sellem Evelyne
Niphargus virei and N. schellenbergi (hypogean Gammarids) as also Gammarus pulex pulex (epigean Gammarid) show on the Gn1 and Gn2 of both sexes ornamented areas which were studied with a scanning electron microscope. The ornamentations are built up of teeth. These are simple in Gammarus pulex pulex and present a sexual dimorphism on the meropodite. In N. schellenbergi and N. virei they are as often as not grouped by three. In Orchestia (Talitrid) the teeth have their bases fusioned which forms pectinate scales showing a sexual dimorphism. Outside these areas, the gnathopod cuticle of N. virei, N. schellenbergi and Gammarus pulex pulex is ornamented with ovoid papilla, each of them surmounted by a finger-like process covering over a depression.

A new genus of Bulgarian cave spider (Protoleptoneta bulgarica n.g., n.sp., Leptonetidae)., 1972, Deltshev Christo
A new genus Protoleptoneta (P. bulgarica n. g., n. sp.) is described, which was collected in caves of the Western Balkan mountains; Bulgaria. The new genus unites features of the genera Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta but there are many differences, which divide it from these genera. It differs from Leptoneta as follows: the tarsus of male palp does not possess the characteristic apophysa of Leptoneta; the tarsus is less depressed and does not branch out; the teeth of chelicerae are equable and equidistant. It differs from Paraleptoneta as follows: the femora of male palp is spineless; near the top of tarsus, on ectal side, there is a thicker spot, provided with a strong spine longer than others; the tarsus is more depressed. Paraleptoneta italica is placed in the new genus Protoleptoneta. The origin and relationships between the genera Protoleptoneta, Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta are discussed; a hypothesis is that the genera Leptoneta and Paraleptoneta had been developing as independent phyletic groups and the origin of the two had been Protoleptoneta.

The cuticular surfaces of the gnathopods of two Amphipod Crustaceans: Niphargus (hypogean Gammarid) and Gammarus (epigean Gammarid)., 1972, Sellem Evelyne
Niphargus virei and N. schellenbergi (hypogean Gammarids) as also Gammarus pulex pulex (epigean Gammarid) show on the Gn1 and Gn2 of both sexes ornamented areas which were studied with a scanning electron microscope. The ornamentations are built up of teeth. These are simple in Gammarus pulex pulex and present a sexual dimorphism on the meropodite. In N. schellenbergi and N. virei they are as often as not grouped by three. In Orchestia (Talitrid) the teeth have their bases fusioned which forms pectinate scales showing a sexual dimorphism. Outside these areas, the gnathopod cuticle of N. virei, N. schellenbergi and Gammarus pulex pulex is ornamented with ovoid papilla, each of them surmounted by a finger-like process covering over a depression.

Origination of stone forests in China., 1986, Song Linhua
The stone forests are widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical climatic areas. The stone forests may be divided into hilltop stone forest, hill slope stone forest and the stone forest in the depressions or valleys. The conditions for stone forest development should be (1) thick and pure limestone, (2) gentle dipping of limestone formation, generally less than 150, (3) a lot of vertical joint and fissure networks, (4) the soil covering on the limestone surface inhomogeneous, thick in the fissures and thin on the rock top surface, and (5) the soil should be wet and contain rich organic materials and CO2. In the above conditions, the stone teeth may develop to the stone forest. If lack of organic soil, low humidity and stable depth of soil erosion zone occurs, only the stone teeth are developed.

Lithobius nuragicus n.sp., a new Lithobius from a Sardinian cave (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha)., 1996, Zapparoli Marzio
A new species of Lithobius from a Sardinian cave (Cagliari, Santadi, loc. Su Benatzu, Grotta "Pirosu", 576 Sa/Ca, m 270) is described. Lithobius nuragicus n. sp. belongs to the subgenus Lithobius s. str. and is related to Lithobius variegatus Leach, 1814, occurring in the British Isles, Brittany, Channel Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Maghreb, Sicily and Southern Italy. This new species is differentiated from L. variegatus by the number of prosternal teeth (3+3), the number and arrangement of ocelli (1+3; little, depigmented, not contiguous to each other, in the center of a depigmented area, posterosuperior ocellus larger than the other ocelli), the size of the organ of Tmsvry (larger), the number of antennal articles (79-86), the number of dorso-lateral and dorso-median setae and the shape and size of the claw of the female gonopods (4-5; 10-11; short, with a small lateral denticle on the internal side).

Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam, 1996, Ciochon R, Long Vt, Larick R, Gonzalez L, Grun R, Devos J, Yonge C, Taylor L, Yoshida H, Reagan M,
Tham Khuyen Cave (Lang Son Province, northern Vietnam) is one of the more significant sites to yield fossil vertebrates In east Asia, During the mid-1960s, excavation in a suite of deposits produced important hominoid dental remains of middle Pleistocene age, We undertake more rigorous analyses of these sediments to understand the fluvial dynamics of Pleistocene cave infilling as they determine how skeletal elements accumulate within Tham Khuyen and other east Asian sites, Uranium/thorium series analysis of speleothems brackets the Pleistocene chronology for breaching, infilling, and exhuming the regional paleokarst, Clast analysis indicates sedimentary constituents, Including hominoid teeth and cranial fragments, accumulated from very short distances and under low fluvial energy, Electron spin resonance analysis of vertebrate tooth enamel and sediments shows that the main fossil-bearing suite (S1-S3) was deposited about 475 thousand years ago, Among the hominoid teeth excavated from S1-S3, some represent Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki, Criteria are defined to differentiate these teeth from more numerous Pongo pygmaeus elements, The dated cooccurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus blacki at Tham Khuyen helps to establish the long co-existence of these two species throughout east Asia during the Early and Middle Pleistocene

Thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-series dating of a hominid site near Nanjing, China, 2001, Zhao Jian Xin, Hu Kai, Collerson Kenneth D. , Xu Han Kui,
Mass spectrometric U-series dating of speleothems from Tangshan Cave, combined with ecological and paleoclimatic evidence, indicates that Nanjing Man, a typical Homo erectus morphologically correlated with Peking Man at Zhoukoudian, should be at least 580 k.y. old, or more likely lived during the glacial oxygen isotope stage 16 ([~]620 ka). Such an age estimate, which is [~]270 ka older than previous electron spin resonance and alpha-counting U-series dates, has significant implications for the evolution of Asian H. erectus. Dentine and enamel samples from the coexisting fossil layer yield significantly younger apparent ages, that of the enamel sample being only less than one-fourth of the minimum age of Nanjing Man. This suggests that U uptake history is far more complex than existing models can handle. As a result, great care must be taken in the interpretation of electron spin resonance and U-series dates of fossil teeth

The first discovery of a complete skeleton of a fossil orang-utan in a cave of the Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam, 2001, Bacon Am, Long Vt,
Here we provide a description of the first complete adult fossil orang-utan skeleton from the Asian mainland. This specimen, and remains of a juvenile orang, were collected in a late Pleistocene cavern in the Hoa Binh Province of The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The results confirm the suggestions by Hooijer (1948) Zool. Meded. Leiden 29, 175-301 and later by Schwartz et al. (1995) Anthrop. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. I-list. 76, 1-24, that ancient orang-utans had bigger teeth than those of modem Pongo pygmaeus (P. p. pygmaeus and P. p. abelii), while the dental morphology is similar. Body proportions of the adult individual of Hoa Binh show a large skull with very large teeth but proportionally a small body. This individual is also singular in having high intermembral. and brachial indices, in comparison with those of modem subspecies.

Symposium Abstract: Coupled ESR and U-series dating of equid teeth from archaeological sites, 2003, Hoffmann R.

A partial short-faced bear skeleton from an Ozark cave with comments on the paleobiology of the species, 2003, Schubert, B. W. , Kaufmann, J. E.
Portions of an extinct giant short-faced bear, Arctodus simus, were recovered from a remote area within an Ozark cave, herein named Big Bear Cave. The partially articulated skeleton was found in banded silt and clay sediments near a small entrenched stream. The sediment covered and preserved skeletal elements of low vertical relief (e.g., feet) in articulation. Examination of a thin layer of manganese and clay under and adjacent to some skeletal remains revealed fossilized hair. The manganese in this layer is considered to be a by-product of microorganisms feeding on the bear carcass. Although the skeleton was incomplete, the recovered material represents one of the more complete skeletons for this species. The stage of epiphyseal fusion in the skeleton indicates an osteologically immature individual. The specimen is considered to be a female because measurements of teeth and fused postcranial elements lie at the small end of the size range for A. simus. Like all other bears, the giant short-faced bear is sexually dimorphic. A review of A. simus records revealed that only small individuals have been recovered from cave deposits. This association of small A. simus specimens with caves suggests that females used these subterranean shelters for denning.

Dental morphology of the Dawenkou Neolithic population in North China: implications for the origin and distribution of Sinodonty, 2003, Manabe Y. , Oyamada J. , Kitagawa Y. , Rokutanda A. , Kato K. , Matsushita T. ,
We compare the incidence of 25 nonmetric dental traits of the people of the Neolithic Dawenkou culture (6300-4500 BP) sites in Shandong Province, North China with those of other East Asian populations. The Dawenkou teeth had an overwhelmingly greater resemblance to the Sinodont pattern typical of Northeast Asia than to the Sundadont pattern typical of Southeast Asia. Multidimensional scaling using Smith's mean measure of divergence (MMD) statistic place the Dawenkou sample near the Amur and the North China-Mongolia populations in the area of the plot indicating typical Sinodonty. The existence of the Sinodont population in Neolithic North China suggests a possible continuity of Sinodonty from the Upper Cave population at Zhoukoudian (about 34,000-10,000 BP) to the modern North Chinese. The presence of Sinodonty in Shandong Province shows that the Japan Sea and East China Sea were strong barriers to gene flow for at least 3000 years, because at this time the Jomonese of Japan were fully Sundadont. In addition, we suggest that the descendants of the Dawenkou population cannot be excluded as one of the source populations that contributed to sinodontification in Japan. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Der neue Stammbaum der alpinen Hhlenbren., 2004, Rabeder G. , Hofreiter M.
In the Upper Pleistocene the Alps were inhabited by at least three taxa of cave bear (group) which differ in their mitochondrial DNA as well as in metrical and morphological criteria. The possibilities of distinguishing these evolutionary lineages in the fossil record are described and discussed. Two high Alpine dwarf forms are described as possible subspecies of U. spelaeus (U. s.? ladinicus and U. s.? eremus), the third taxon is separated as an independent species (U. ingressus). By means of numerous diagrams an attempt is made to find metrical and morphological differences in the teeth and limb bones in order to distinguish the three Alpine taxa. A new phylogenetic tree is drawn. [Hhlenbren-Forschung in Europa, DNA-Untersuchungen]

Der neue Stammbaum der alpinen Hhlenbren, 2004, Rabeder G. , Hofreiter M.
In the Upper Pleistocene the Alps were inhabited by at least three taxa of cave bear (group) which differ in their mitochondrial DNA as well as in metrical and morphological criteria. The possibilities of distinguishing these evolutionary lineages in the fossil record are described and discussed. Two high Alpine dwarf forms are described as possible subspecies of U. spelaeus (U. s.? ladinicus and U. s.? eremus), the third taxon is separated as an independent species (U. ingressus). By means of numerous diagrams an attempt is made to find metrical and morphological differences in the teeth and limb bones in order to distinguish the three Alpine taxa. A new phylogenetic tree is drawn.

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