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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That potential is any of several different scalar quantities, each of which involves energy as a function of position or of condition; e.g., the fluid potential of ground water [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for temperatures (Keyword) returned 195 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 195
Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo-Arabian Desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel, , Vaks A. , Barmatthews M. , Ayalon A. , Matthews A. , Frumkin A. , Dayan U. , Halicz L. , Mogilabin A. , Schilman B. ,
Speleothem bearing karstic caves of the northern Negev Desert, southern Israel, provides an ideal site for reconstructing the paleoclimate and paleo-location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo-Arabian Desert. Major periods of speleothem deposition (representing humid periods) were determined by high resolution 230Th-U dating and corresponding studies of stable isotope composition were used to identify the source of rainfall during humid periods and the vegetation type. Major humid intervals occurred during glacials at 190-150[no-break space]ka, 76-25[no-break space]ka, 23-13[no-break space]ka and interglacials at 200-190[no-break space]ka, 137-123[no-break space]ka and 84-77[no-break space]ka. The dominant rainfall source was the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, with a possible small contribution from southern tropical sources during the interglacial periods. When the interglacial interval rainfall was of Eastern Mediterranean origin, the minimum annual rainfall was ~ 300-350[no-break space]mm; approximately twice than of the present-day. Lower minimum amounts of precipitation could have occurred during glacial periods, due to the cooler temperatures and reduced evaporation. Although during most of the humid periods the vegetation remained steppe with mixed C3 C4 vegetation, Mediterranean C3 type steppe-forest vegetation invaded southward for short periods, and the climate in the northern Negev became closer to Mediterranean type than at present. The climate was similar to present, or even more arid, during intervals when speleothem deposition did not occur: 150-144[no-break space]ka, 141-140[no-break space]ka, 117-96[no-break space]ka, 92-85[no-break space]ka, 25-23[no-break space]ka, and 13[no-break space]ka-present-day.Precipitation increase occurred in the northern Negev during the interglacial monsoonal intensity maxima at 198[no-break space]ka, 127[no-break space]ka, 83[no-break space]ka and glacial monsoonal maxima at 176[no-break space]ka, 151[no-break space]ka, 61[no-break space]ka and 33[no-break space]ka. However, during interglacial monsoonal maxima at 105[no-break space]ka and 11[no-break space]ka, the northern Negev was arid whereas during glacial monsoonal minima it was usually humid. This implies that there is not always synchroneity between monsoonal activity and humidity in the region.Oxygen isotopic values of the northern Negev speleothems are systematically lower than contemporaneous speleothems of central and northern Israel. This part is attributed to the increased rainout of the heavy isotopes by Rayleigh fractionation processes, possibly due to the farther distance from the Mediterranean coast

On Cave Temperatures [Data from Salzburg Caves], 1949, Abel Gustave

Influence of Surface Conditions on Temperatures in Large Cave Systems, 1965, Cropley, J. B.

Paleotemperatures and Chronology at Archeological Cave Site Revealed by Thermoluminescence, 1965, Dort W, Zeller Ej, Turner Md, Vaz Je,
Contrasting values of remnant thermoluminescence of limestone samples from Jaguar Cave, eastcentral Idaho, reveal temperature differences attributable to position within the cave microenvironment. Absence of recorded temperature change during cave-filling by rock and human debris indicates brevity of human occupation, which was near the end of Wisconsin (Pinedale) time

The Last Interglacial: Paleotemperatures and Chronology, 1971, Emiliani C,
The O$^{18}$/O$^{16}$ analysis and Th$^{230}$/Pa$^{231}$ dating of deep-sea cores showed that the last interglacial age, with an early major temperature maximum followed by two smaller ones, extended from 100,000 to 70,000 years ago and was preceded by a glacial age extending from 120,000 to 100,000 years ago. The O$^{18}$/O$^{16}$ analysis and Th$^{230}$/U$^{234}$ dating of speleothems confirm and refine these ages

Temperature and relative humidity responses of two Texas cave-adapted Millipedes, Cambala speobia (Cambalida: Cambalidae) and Speodesmus bicornourus (Polydesmida: Vanhoeffeniidae)., 1972, Bull Eddie, Mitchell Robert W.
The temperature and relative humidity preferences and tolerances of two Texas species of cave-adapted millipedes, Cambala speobia (Chamberlin) and Speodesmus bicornourus Causey, were studied. Both species showed gross preferences when tested in gradient chambers for temperatures and relative humidities approximating those of their cave environments. But C. speobia, the less adapted species morphologically, was the more selective of the two species for such conditions. S. bicornourus was far less tolerant of elevated temperatures and reduced relative humidities than was C. speobia. Discussed is a possible reason why a terrestrial troglobite like S. bicornourus would combine intolerance with a lessened ability to perceive those factors to which it is intolerant. Discussed also are the possible causes of the present distribution of Cambala and Speodesmus in the caves of central Texas.

Temperature and relative humidity responses of two Texas cave-adapted Millipedes, Cambala speobia (Cambalida: Cambalidae) and Speodesmus bicornourus (Polydesmida: Vanhoeffeniidae)., 1972, Bull Eddie, Mitchell Robert W.
The temperature and relative humidity preferences and tolerances of two Texas species of cave-adapted millipedes, Cambala speobia (Chamberlin) and Speodesmus bicornourus Causey, were studied. Both species showed gross preferences when tested in gradient chambers for temperatures and relative humidities approximating those of their cave environments. But C. speobia, the less adapted species morphologically, was the more selective of the two species for such conditions. S. bicornourus was far less tolerant of elevated temperatures and reduced relative humidities than was C. speobia. Discussed is a possible reason why a terrestrial troglobite like S. bicornourus would combine intolerance with a lessened ability to perceive those factors to which it is intolerant. Discussed also are the possible causes of the present distribution of Cambala and Speodesmus in the caves of central Texas.

Observations on marked and unmarked Trichoptera in the Barehohle in Lonetal (Swabian Jura)., 1973, Dobat Klaus
1.The Brenhhle, one of the ten caves situated in the episodically water-bearing valley of the Lone (Swabian Jura), serves as summer quarters for the total of ten species of Trichoptera, most of which are Micropterna nycterobia and Stenophylax permistus. 2.Counts carried out in this cave from 1967-1972 and observations of flood and dry-periods of the Lone during the same years make evident that the number of Trichoptera flying into the cave seems to depend in a large measure on the seasonal activity of the creek: a steady flow of water makes the undisturbed development of larvae possible and results in high numbers of individuals entering by air, while intermittent water-flow disturbs the development of the larvae and results in few individuals entering. 3.Such factors as darkness, humidity, and temperature which cause or favour the active entrance by air of Trichoptera into the cave as well as the "diapause" taking place in the subterranean region are considered. 4.Dynamically climatized caves or caves which are too small are rarely occupied by Trichoptera; they evidently prefer larger caves with climatically balanced regions (comparatively low temperatures and high atmospheric moisture) not too far from the entrance. 5.Trichoptera start flying into the Barenhohle generally in May; the highest number of individuals and copulating couples may be found as early as July. They start flying out by the end of July or in August/September, the last of them leaving the cave generally in September or October. 6.Two attempts at marking (on 28th June all Trichoptera to be found in the cave were marked with black ink, on 4th July all yet unmarked with red ink) gave better evidence of their disposition and time of copulation as well as of the number of arriving unmarked and departing marked specimens. 7.The Trichoptera marked with black ink stayed in the cave for a maximum of 85 days, the ones marked with red ink for a maximum of 79 days. Food intake was not observed during this period, and there was no indication of the insects' leaving the cave during their diapause. 8.Trichoptera are characterized by a remarkably long time of copulation: a specimen marked twice was in copula for 22 days, and before copulation it had been in the cave for 49 days.

Temperate preference responses of some aquatic, cave-adapted Crustaceans from Central Texas and Northeastern Mexico., 1973, Elliot William R. , W. Mitchell Robert
The temperature preference responses of five species of troglobite crustaceans were studied in a 15-30C gradient. Stygonectes hadenoecus, S. russelli and Asellus reddelli had no discernible temperature preferenda. Speocirolana bolivari had a weak preference for 20-30C. Cirolanides texensis had a pronounced preference for 20-30C, temperatures much warmer than that of its habitat. The lack of temperature preferenda in three species agrees with the hypothesis that imprisoned troglobites tend to lose responses to those environmental variables which are constant in caves. S. bolivari may retain its temperature selectivity because of a slow rate of cave-adaptation. It is hypothised that C. texensis is recently descended from a tropical, epigean, freshwater ancestor.

Observations on marked and unmarked Trichoptera in the Barehohle in Lonetal (Swabian Jura)., 1973, Dobat Klaus
1.The Brenhhle, one of the ten caves situated in the episodically water-bearing valley of the Lone (Swabian Jura), serves as summer quarters for the total of ten species of Trichoptera, most of which are Micropterna nycterobia and Stenophylax permistus. 2.Counts carried out in this cave from 1967-1972 and observations of flood and dry-periods of the Lone during the same years make evident that the number of Trichoptera flying into the cave seems to depend in a large measure on the seasonal activity of the creek: a steady flow of water makes the undisturbed development of larvae possible and results in high numbers of individuals entering by air, while intermittent water-flow disturbs the development of the larvae and results in few individuals entering. 3.Such factors as darkness, humidity, and temperature which cause or favour the active entrance by air of Trichoptera into the cave as well as the "diapause" taking place in the subterranean region are considered. 4.Dynamically climatized caves or caves which are too small are rarely occupied by Trichoptera; they evidently prefer larger caves with climatically balanced regions (comparatively low temperatures and high atmospheric moisture) not too far from the entrance. 5.Trichoptera start flying into the Barenhohle generally in May; the highest number of individuals and copulating couples may be found as early as July. They start flying out by the end of July or in August/September, the last of them leaving the cave generally in September or October. 6.Two attempts at marking (on 28th June all Trichoptera to be found in the cave were marked with black ink, on 4th July all yet unmarked with red ink) gave better evidence of their disposition and time of copulation as well as of the number of arriving unmarked and departing marked specimens. 7.The Trichoptera marked with black ink stayed in the cave for a maximum of 85 days, the ones marked with red ink for a maximum of 79 days. Food intake was not observed during this period, and there was no indication of the insects' leaving the cave during their diapause. 8.Trichoptera are characterized by a remarkably long time of copulation: a specimen marked twice was in copula for 22 days, and before copulation it had been in the cave for 49 days.

Temperate preference responses of some aquatic, cave-adapted Crustaceans from Central Texas and Northeastern Mexico., 1973, Elliot William R. , W. Mitchell Robert
The temperature preference responses of five species of troglobite crustaceans were studied in a 15-30C gradient. Stygonectes hadenoecus, S. russelli and Asellus reddelli had no discernible temperature preferenda. Speocirolana bolivari had a weak preference for 20-30C. Cirolanides texensis had a pronounced preference for 20-30C, temperatures much warmer than that of its habitat. The lack of temperature preferenda in three species agrees with the hypothesis that imprisoned troglobites tend to lose responses to those environmental variables which are constant in caves. S. bolivari may retain its temperature selectivity because of a slow rate of cave-adaptation. It is hypothised that C. texensis is recently descended from a tropical, epigean, freshwater ancestor.

The animal population of the hyporheic interstitial in a primary rock stream under the influence of the supply of allochthonous organic matter., 1976, Pieper Hansgerd
The Mettma, a mountain stream in the Black Forest, W. Germany, was investigated for effects of input of nutrients and energy by domestic waste water and effluent from a brewery introduced at one specific point. The investigation time ranged from May 1970 to February 1971. Initially, there is an impoverishment and structural changes of the biocoenosis in the hyporheic interstitial. There is an almost complete O2-depletion immediately after the waste water has been added. In winter, temperatures in the interstitial were higher than those in the current. No direct correlation between population densities and amount of organic matter were observed where allochthonous nutrients had been added. Population densities of multicellular animals were from 0 to 1.2 X 105 per 0.1 m3 of sediment. 4.1 km further downstream the fauna is similar to that above the waste water inlet, while at 7.35 km downstream of it is slightly less dense.

Identification of the origin of oreforming solutions by the use of stable isotopes, 1977, Sheppard S. M. F. ,
SynopsisThe four major different types of water -- magmatic, metamorphic, sea water and/or connate, and meteoric water -- have characteristic hydrogen (D/H) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope ratios. Applied to the analysis of isotopic data on hydrothermal minerals, fluid inclusions and waters from active geothermal systems, these ratios indicate that waters of several origins are involved with ore deposition in the volcanic and epizonal intrusive environment. Water of a single origin dominates main-stage mineralization in some deposits: magmatic -- Casapalca, Peru (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu); meteoric -- Butte, Montana (Cu-Zn-Mn), epithermal deposits, e.g. Goldfield, Tonopah, Nevada (Ag-Au), Pachuca, Mexico (Ag-Au), San Juan Mountains District, Colorado (Ag-Au-Pb-Zn); sea water -- Troodos, Cyprus (Fe-Cu), Kuroko, Japan (Fe-Cu-Pb-Zn). Solutions of more than one origin are important in certain deposits (magmatic and meteoric -- porphyry copper and molybdenum deposits) and are present in many. In the porphyry Cu-Mo deposits the initial major ore transportation and alteration processes (K-feldspar-biotite alteration) are magmatic-hydrothermal events that occur at 750-500{degrees}C. These fluids are typically highly saline Na-K-Ca-Cl-rich brines (more than 15 wt % equivalent NaCl). The convecting meteoric-hydrothermal system that develops in the surrounding country rocks with relatively low integrated water/rock ratios (less than 0.5 atom % oxygen) subsequently collapses in on a waning magmatic-hydrothermal system at about 350-200{degrees}C. These fluids generally have moderate to low salinities (less than 15 wt % equivalent NaCl). Differences among these deposits are probably in part related to variations in the relative importance of the meteoric-hydrothermal versus the magmatic-hydrothermal events. The sulphur comes from the intrusion and possibly also from the country rocks. Deposits in which meteoric or sea water is the dominant constituent of the hydrothermal fluids come from epizonal intrusive and sub-oceanic environments where the volcanic country rocks are fractured or well jointed and highly permeable. Integrated water/rock ratios are typically high, with minimum values of 0.5 or higher (atom % oxygen) -- the magmatic water contribution is often drowned out'. Salinities are low to very low (less than 10 wt % equivalent NaCl), and temperatures are usually in the range 350-150{degrees}C. The intrusion supplies the energy to drive the large-scale convective circulation system. The sulphur comes from the intrusion, the country rocks and/or the sea water. Argillic alteration, which occurs to depths of several hundred metres, generated during supergene weathering in many of these deposits is isotopically distinguishable from hydrothermal clays

Phreatische Fauna in Ljubljansko polje (Ljubljana-Ebene, Jugoslavien); ihre oekologische Verteilung und zoogeographische Beziehungen., 1981, Sket Boris, Velkovrh Franci
The phreatic basin of Ljubljansko polje (polje = plain, field) recharges its water supply mainly from the Sava river-bed and at a few other locations where connections with karstic subterranean waters might exist and only up to 15% from precipitation. An important zone of infiltration in the river-bed is the bottom and not the bank which is to a large extent watertight due to organic debris (rests of Sphaerotilus e.g.). The main water-body moves about 10 m/day, there are however some local jets with far higher speeds. Yearly amplitudes of water temperatures are high near the river but in the centre of the plain only a couple of centigrades. Oxygen saturation is in the open river-water 100%, dropping to 40-60% just 1 m into the phreatic. True stygopsammal animals are represented here only by a few species and specimen in spite of the fact, that the interstices in the gravel are mostly filled with finer sediments. Remarkable is also the scarcity of Nematodes and the near absence of Acarina (compare with Danielopol 1976). Only a few specimen of the river benthos (Chironomidae, Tipulidae, Leuctra supp., Baets spp.) penetrate the interstitial water (compare with Ruffo 1961, Danielopol 1976) and only Naididae are more frequent there. However, many epigean animals occur in interstitial waters in the periodically flooded gravel-banks; one can explain this with oscillations of the water level. Some epigean animals (creno- and troglophilic) are quite regularly represented in the phreatic near the river, but have not been found in the river-bed. The distribution of phreatic species within the studied water-body seems to be controlled mainly by the presence of food supplies and the consequent competition among species. The same is true for the speed of the water current and some other factors which are less easily defined. The characteristics of the substratum as well as O2-saturation and other characteristics of the water seem to have little influence on the fauna. The energetically (food-) rich neighbourhood of the river is inhabited by a number of species in quite dense populations while the central parts of the phreatic water body exhibit a great poverty of species and of specimen. However, some species live here, which don't occur in the presence of larger food supplies and of greater competition (Niphargus serbicus). The higher current speed seems to prevent settlement of some species (Cyclopoida, Proasellus deminutus) while some are bound to such habitats (Proasellus vulgaris). Some species exhibit a high degree of euryvalency inside the stygopsephale habitats (Niphargus longidactylus e.g.), while some are highly specialized. Some of them form dense populations (comparatively dense even in energetically poor places) while others exhibit even in most favourable conditions very low densities (Niphargus jovanovici multipennatus). The present fauna is zoogeographically very diverse. Some species are distributed throughout Europe; some reach from Central Europe to the borders of Dinaride Karst (Bogidiella albertimagni) and some even penetrate it (Trichodrilus pragensis, Acanthocyclops kiefer). Bogidiella semidenticulata. Niphargus pectinicauda, Hadziella deminuta seem to be limited to the higher reaches of the Sava River. All of the above mentioned animals live regularly in interstitial waters and only sporadically in karstic hypogean waters. Niphargus stygius is here the only animal of a certainly karstic provenience; inside the plain it is limited to a completely special habitat. It is very likely that the entire Proasellus-deminutusgroup has developed in interstitial waters of larger plains which are in contact with karstic areas; some species penetrated from the plains into the karst rather than the reverse. To the contrary (judging from the distribution of the genera) karstic waters seem to be the cradle of Hauffenia and Hadziella. Such a sharp delimitation between cave- and interstitial fauna resp. in this area is very noteworthy. Both faunas live here in abundance and in close contact. It is very probable that particularly high competition and specialization of both faunas, caused by their richness and diversity, prevent mixing of species.

Isotopic Composition of Precipitation, Cave Drips and Actively Forming Speleothems at Three Tasmanian Cave Sites, 1982, Goede A. , Green D. C. , Harmon R. S.

Monthly samples of precipitation and cave drips were collected from three Tasmanian cave sites along a north-south transect and their 18O/16O ratios determined. At one station D/H ratios were also measured and the relationship between delta 18O and delta D values investigated. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios of monthly precipitation show marked seasonality with values correlating strongly with mean monthly temperatures. The effect of temperature on 18O/16O ratios appears to increase as one goes southwards and is at least twice as strong at Hastings (.61 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C) as it is shown at Mole Creek (.28 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C). Irregularities in the seasonal pattern of 18O/16O change are particularly pronounced at Hastings and in the Florentine Valley and can be attributed to the amount effect. For delta 18O values > -5.5 deg /oo the combined data from the three Tasmanian stations show an amount effect of .026 deg /oo SMOW/mm. Cave drips show apparently random, non-seasonal variation in the 18O / 16O isotopic compostion but the weighted mean of the 18O/16O isotope composition of precipitation provides a good approximation to their mean 18O/16O isotopic composition. In contrast to their D/H ratios for a cave drip site in Little Trimmer Cave, Mole Creek, show a distict seasonal pattern. The 18O/16O and 13C/12C ratios have been determined for a number of actively forming speleothems. With respect to 18O/16O it is found that speleothems the three sites are being deposited under conditions approaching isotopic equilibrium. The 13C/12C ratios of these speleothems are highly variable but the generally less negative values found in Frankcombe Cave (Florentine Valley) compared with the other two sites may reflect the effects of recent clearfelling in the area.


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