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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That dispersion zone is a zone of intermixing in miscible flow or in sea water encroachment. see also transition zone [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tests (Keyword) returned 164 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 164
Predicting travel times and transport characterization in karst conduits by analyzing tracer-breakthrough curves, , Morales Tomas, De Valderrama Inigo, Uriarte Jesus A. , Antiguedad Inaki, Olazar Martin,
SummaryThis paper analyzes data obtained in 26 tracer tests carried out in 11 karstic connections following solutional conduits in karst aquifers in the Basque Country. These conduits are preferential drainage pathways in these aquifers and so they confer a marked anisotropy and high vulnerability to them. Consequently, their consideration in protection and management studies and projects is a priority.The connections studied cover a wide hydrogeological spectrum (a wide range of sizes, slopes, geomorphic and hydrologic types) and the tests have been carried out at different hydrodynamic states. It is noteworthy that they all follow a similar trend, which has allowed for the development of a statistical approximation for the treatment of the whole information.Relationships have been established involving velocity, solute time of arrival, attenuation of peak concentration and time of passage of tracer cloud. These relationships are a valuable tool for management and supporting decision-making and allow for making estimates in connections in which the information available was scarce. This information is especially useful, given that the complexity of transport in karst conduits gives way to important deviations between real data (empirical observations) and the data obtained by simple approaches based on the Fickian-type diffusion equation

Transport and variability of fecal bacteria in carbonate conglomerate aquifers, , Goeppert N. , Goldscheider N.

Clastic sedimentary rocks are generally considered non-karstifiable and thus less vulnerable to pathogen contamination than karst aquifers. However, dissolution phenomena have been observed in clastic carbonate conglomerates of the Subalpine Molasse zone of the northern Alps and other regions of Europe, indicating karstification and high vulnerability, which is currently not considered for source protection zoning. Therefore, a research program was established at the Hochgrat site (Austria/Germany), as a demonstration that karst-like characteristics, flow behavior and high vulnerability to microbial contamination are possible in this type of aquifer. The study included geomorphologic mapping, comparative multi-tracer tests with fluorescent dyes and bacteria-sized fluorescent microspheres, and analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in spring waters during different seasons. Results demonstrate that (i) flow velocities in carbonate conglomerates are similar as in typical karst aquifers, often exceeding 100 m/h; (ii) microbial contaminants are rapidly transported towards springs; and (iii) the magnitude and seasonal pattern of FIB variability depends on the land use in the spring catchment and its altitude. Different ground water protection strategies than currently applied are consequently required in regions formed by karstified carbonatic clastic rocks, taking into account their high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability.


Anomalous behaviour of specific electrical conductivity at a karst spring induced by variable catchment boundaries: the case of the Podstenjšek spring, Slovenia, , Ravbar, N. , Engelhardt, I. , Goldscheider, N.

Anomalous behaviour of specific electrical conductivity (SEC) was observed at a karst spring in Slovenia during 26 high-flow events in an 18-month monitoring period. A conceptual model explaining this anomalous SEC variability is presented and reproduced by numerical modelling, and the practical relevance for source protection zoning is discussed. After storm rainfall, discharge increases rapidly, which is typical for karst springs. SEC displays a first maximum during the rising limb of the spring hydrograph, followed by a minimum indicating the arrival of freshly infiltrated water, often confirmed by increased levels of total organic carbon (TOC). The anomalous behaviour starts after this SEC minimum, when SEC rises again and remains elevated during the entire high-flow period, typically 20–40 µS/cm above the baseflow value. This is explained by variable catchment boundaries: When the water level in the aquifer rises, the catchment expands, incorporating zones of groundwater with higher SEC, caused by higher unsaturated zone thickness and subtle lithologic changes. This conceptual model has been checked by numerical investigations. A generalized finite-difference model including high-conductivity cells representing the conduit network (“discrete-continuum approach”) was set up to simulate the observed behaviour of the karst system. The model reproduces the shifting groundwater divide and the nearly simultaneous increase of discharge and SEC during high-flow periods. The observed behaviour is relevant for groundwater source protection zoning, which requires reliable delineation of catchment areas. Anomalous behaviour of SEC can point to variable catchment boundaries that can be checked by tracer tests during different hydrologic conditions.

A Report on Some Fluorescein Tests at Starnes' Cave, 1949, Lawrence, Joe

Algae and their mode of life in the Baradla cave at Aggletek II., 1964, Claus George
The author provides additional data to his publication of 1955. In a table he shows his results concerning 81 algal species which were returned to the cave of Aggtelek on June 22, 1954. When carrying out his control tests he found the decrease in the number of species to be 9 after 6 months and 18 after a further 8 months. In December 1957, after culturing on sun light however he was able to show again the presence of 17 species, but in his cultures Synechoccus elongatus, Phormidium dimorphum, Gloecoccus schrterii, Chlorococcum infusionum, Chlorella miniata and Protococcus anulatus, appeared with the largest individual numbers and not the Cyanophyta as could have been expected.

Study of the behaviour of Man in the subterranean environment (results of 5 experiments)., 1968, Saumande Pierre
In the course of live specially planned expeditions, the author studied the behaviour of man in the very special environment of caves. He explains the tests employed. The results obtained suggest that the human organism seems able to adapt to this uncommon environment but exhibits lethargy and reduced activity.

Study of the behaviour of Man in the subterranean environment (results of 5 experiments)., 1968, Saumande Pierre
In the course of live specially planned expeditions, the author studied the behaviour of man in the very special environment of caves. He explains the tests employed. The results obtained suggest that the human organism seems able to adapt to this uncommon environment but exhibits lethargy and reduced activity.

A population study of the cave beetle Ptomaphagus loedingi (Coleoptera; Leiodidae; Catopinae)., 1975, Peck Stewart B.
Baited pitfall traps were used in Barclay Cave, Alabama, in 1965 to study a blind Ptomaphagus beetle population. A 40m2 area in the cave yielded 95% of the 897 adult and larval beetles trapped in the cave at 9 stations. This represented a population density of about 13 beetles/m2. Tests of different baits showed decayed meat to be the most attractive. Adults were most abundant in mid-August when substrate conditions were moist, were reproductively active, and were not newly emerged from pupal cells. Larvae were most abundant in late August. The population was studied by mark-recapture methods for 8 years after the pitfall trapping, and it was judged to have recovered to former densities after about 6 to 8 years. The use of traps which kill cave invertebrates is not encouraged for most future cave ecology studies. Population densities of beetles at baits in Cold Spring Cave were found to be 139 adults/m2 in 1968, and to much lower in three later years.

Ecological and biogeographical trends in Harpacticoids., 1976, Jakobi Hans
The majority of harpacticoids show a great dependence on the peculiarities of their habitat. This research attempted to detect the possible existence of biogeographical and ecological trends. The limited biogeographical data is discussed, so this is applied the method of analysis of morpho-ecological correlation (Jakobi, 1962) developed to determine ecological trends. This way, all characteristics of the harpacticoidean body selected were studied to check their adaptative value. Based on those results it was possible to establish and to define ecological units. Data were then subjected to statistical tests of homogeneity for variance and significance. Graphs are used to demonstrate the natural adaptation process. Diagrams permit one to recognize the general tendencies as well as degrees of specific evolution. Nevertheless, quite different principles such as type formation and atomic orbit model analogy, were applied to understand biogeographic trends. The change of the endopodits of the 4th leg of adult males (Enp. P4 male) is utilized as an example.

Ergebnisse eines Hhlenseil-Tests., 1983, Kirchmayr, H.

Ergebnisse eines Hhlenseil-Tests, 1983, Kirchmayr, H.

Le karst superficiel, tude des coulements hypodermiques sur un site exprimental, 1985, Guyot, J. L.
The Superficial KARST: HYPODERMIC FLOW ON EXPERIMENTAL AREA - The superficial karst plays a specific part in the genesis and dynamic of karst aquifer. In the northern region of Montpellier the experimental area of Corconne (Gard) gave the opportunity of studying the superficial karst, especially hypodermic flow. Tracing and water injection tests have been done in 47 sinking spots. They experimentally proved that flow with horizontal component exists on several dozen metres in the non-saturated area.

Pile foundation problems in Kuala Lumpur Limestone, Malaysia, 1987, Bergado Dt, Selvanayagam An,
The geology and karstic nature of the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) limestone are described in relation to pile foundation problems of heavily loaded structures. The presence of cavities, pinnacles, cantilever slabs, floating slabs and pockets of soft silty clay and loose sand in the underlying limestone bedrock presents formidable challenges to foundation engineers. Other problems include insufficient seating and damage to pile tips due to irregular and sloping bedrock surfaces. There is also the added difficulty of detecting the location and extent of cavities. Empirical design methods and local construction techniques have been successfully used such as: (i) bridging limestone cavities and slabs by filling with concrete, (ii) utilizing numerous small diameter high yield stress piles to distribute the loads and to withstand high driving stresses, (iii) filling cavities with concrete, and (iv) using micropiles to redistribute the loads. Two case histories are presented, consisting of an access ramp and a tall building. In each of these case histories, the soil investigation methods, the pile bearing capacity calculations, the selection of pile types, the pile load tests, the pile driving criteria, and construction problems are outlined and discussed. The pile foundation used consisted of H-section, high yield stress, 355 x 368 mm, driven steel piles with capacities of 750 kN to 1280 kN for the access ramp structures and the same H-section steel piles with pile capacities of 965 kN to 1070 kN for the tall building

The karst aquifer of the well-known Fontaine de Vaucluse has been recently studied, results have been got about delimitation of the system and its working. Geological data (lithology and structure) have allowed to delimit an 1115 Km2 intake area including Ventoux-Lure north facing range (1,909-1,826 m) and the Plateau which is prolonging it southwards (Fig. 1 and 2). The average altitude of the whole area, obtained by balancing elevation belt surfaces, is about 870 m. This elevation squares with results of tracing tests (Fig. 3), environmental physical, chemical and isotopic tracings, that allow to value a 850 m average altitude for the intake area (Fig. 4). The moisture balance has been computed from an altitude belts climatic model, using local rain an temperature gradients (Fig. 5 and Table II), because the weather network is not representative. So, rainfalls rise of about 55 mm per 100 m elevation and temperature decreases of about 0.5-degrees-C per 100 m. The consequence of these two antagonist phenomena is the quasi constant value of actual evapotranspiration on each altitude belt. With the Fig. 7 organigram, curves of effective rainfalls and infiltration coefficient versus elevation can be plotted (Fig. 6). This computation shows that 3/4 of the total and the whole of dry season effective rainfalls are provided by the part of the intake area situated above the average altitude: on the lowest belt, effective rainfalls are only 120 mm per year and increase to 1380 mm on the upper section (Fig. 8 and Table 1). The weighted effective rainfalls are about 570 mm per year for the whole intake area. Hydrodynamical and physico-chemical studies show, despite its large size, the weak inertia of the system, so proves its good karstification, that confirms for the whole system the pin-point speleological observations. The discharge of the spring, which average value is 21 m3.s-1 (only 18 for the last ten years), can exceed 100 m3.s-1 and the minimum has never been lower than 3.7 m3.s-1 (Fig. 9). When it rains on the intake area, the increase of the discharge is very sudden in a rainy period : one to four days. This short delay is due to seepage through epikarst and unsaturated zone. During dry periods, the spring reaction is deadened, due to storage in the unsaturated zone. The silica content distribution was plotted during several hydrokinematical phases (Fig. 10). It shows: an almost unimodal distribution for the 8 km2 fissured limestone aquifer of Groseau; a multimodal one for the 1115 km2 karst aquifer of Fontaine de Vaucluse. This proves that karstification is more important than size in the response of the system. Weak summer rainfalls do not influence the discharge, nevertheless they influence chemistry of the spring water, and so interrupts the water depletion phasis. Then, the decrease of discharge can continue after the end of the chemical depletion phasis, water which is overflowing after summer rainfalls (in a dry period) is influenced hy the chemistry of seepage water : on the graph of a principal components analysis, done on chemical variables. an hysteresis phenomenon can be seen (Fig. 11). A discriminant analysis (Fig. 12) confirms that these autumn waters, with high ratio seepage tracers, are not reserve waters from the saturated zone. The ratio of reserve water in the total discharge, is preponderant: 3/4 and 2/3 respectively of the yearly runoff volumes for 1981 and 1982 (Fig. 13), but an important part of these reserves can be stored in the unsaturated zone. This storage capacity can be valued by different means: transposing to Vaucluse (1115 km2) the volume measured on another karst system in the Pyrenees (13 km2); it gives about 100 million m2; using setting parameters of Bezes model (1976) on the same aquifer: it gives 113 million m3; using depletion curves, that show, for instance during the 1989 summer and autumn dry period, a 80 million m3 volume. In all cases, we get a value of about one hundred million m3 for the storage capacity of the unsaturated zone. With a 20 m range of fluctuation for the water table and with a 10(-2) specific yield, on a 500 to 1,000 km2 saturated zone, the zone of fluctuation can release about 10 to 20 million m3. Then, the volume of water stored in the whole saturated zone, with a 300 m minimum thickness (depth of the waterlogged pit of the Fontaine), a 500 km2 minimum surface and a 10(-3) specific yield, is about 150 million m3, including 27 million m3 stored in the channels. So, the unsaturated zone represents a significant part of the whole storage capacity and most of the yearly renewable reserves. Paradoxically, the biggest french spring is not tapped at all; as its intake area is neither a regional nor a national park, no general protection covers it : because of its good karstification, the vulnerability of the system is important. Good quality of water is attributable to the low population and human activities density on the intake area (4 A great part of the intake area is uncultivated (large forest and ''garrigues'' areas). Due to the lack of surface water and scantness of soils, agriculture is not intensive (lavender, thyme, sage and bulk wheat fields. meadowlands). On the mountainous zone, roads are salted in winter and snowmelt water can reach a significantly high chloride ratio than in a natural climatic functioning (for instance 25 mg.l-1 in Font d'Angiou where the ratio would have been 3 mg.l-1). As tourism is developing both on the mountain and on the plateau, the management of the highest intake area must be carefully held: its part is preponderant in the feeding of the system

Selected problems of karst hydrology and hydrogeology in carbonate rocks. [in Polish], 1993, Motyka Jacek, Pulidobosch Antonio, Pulina Marian

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