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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That summation curve is a curve of cumulated values [16].?

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Your search for the stone forest (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
Origination of stone forests in China., 1986, Song Linhua
The stone forests are widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical climatic areas. The stone forests may be divided into hilltop stone forest, hill slope stone forest and the stone forest in the depressions or valleys. The conditions for stone forest development should be (1) thick and pure limestone, (2) gentle dipping of limestone formation, generally less than 150, (3) a lot of vertical joint and fissure networks, (4) the soil covering on the limestone surface inhomogeneous, thick in the fissures and thin on the rock top surface, and (5) the soil should be wet and contain rich organic materials and CO2. In the above conditions, the stone teeth may develop to the stone forest. If lack of organic soil, low humidity and stable depth of soil erosion zone occurs, only the stone teeth are developed.

The pinnacle karst of the Stone Forest on Lunan, Yunnan, China: an example of a subjacent karst, 1986, Chen Z. , Song L. , Sweeting M. M.

EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GROUND-WATER FROM THE STONE FOREST KARST AQUIFERS OF SOUTH CHINA, 1992, Huntoon P. W. ,
Stone forest aquifers are the most widely exploited sources for ground water in the vast south China karst belt. These aquifers occupy a thin epikarst zone that has been infilled with clastic sediments. The aquifers are characterized by large lateral permeabilities and small reservoir capacities owing to their thinness. The carbonate rocks which comprise the framework for the aquifers are usually buried under the karst plains and large karst depressions where development is desired. The stone forest aquifer exploration procedure must first locate saturated zones. Second, those parts of the saturated zone having the greatest dissolution porosity must be identified because the infilled dissolution voids contain the water. The best indicators of saturation include the combination of low topography and the presence of active karst features such as springs, karst windows (natural openings exposing the water table), and live surface streams. These elements are readily observed on intermediate scale (1:20,000) aerial photography. The depth and degree of carbonate dissolution porosity is a function of several geologic and hydrologic factors including carbonate rock type, carbonate purity, fracture density, specific discharge, age of the circulation system, etc. These variables cannot be measured directly because the carbonate rocks are usually buried under a thin mantle of clastic sediments. However, if it is recognized that the ground-water system has already exploited the most favorable geology and that dissolution is an ongoing process, a simple indirect method can be used to identify the areas having the greatest porosity. The presence of karst depressions and recent sinkholes are indicative of the most intensely karstified and hydraulically active parts of the epikarst zone. Mapping of these surface features from stereo aerial photography is a simple geomorphology exercise that can be used to directly identify the most favorable well sites. Current well construction practices in the south China karst belt involve both dug and drilled wells. Dug wells are preferred in many locations owing to both cost-effectiveness associated with cheap labor and lack of available drilling equipment. The dug wells look and function identically to karst windows and thus conform to timeless water use traditions in the region

HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DEFORESTATION OF THE STONE FOREST KARST AQUIFERS OF SOUTH CHINA, 1992, Huntoon P. W. ,
Stone forest aquifers comprise an important class of shallow, unconfined karstic aquifers in the south China karst belt. They occur under flat areas such as floors of karst depressions, stream valleys, and karst plains. The frameworks for the aquifers are the undissolved carbonate spires and ribs in epikarst zones developed on carbonate strata. The ground water occurs within clastic sediments which infill the dissolution voids. The aquifers are thin, generally less than 100 meters thick, and are characterized by large lateral permeabilities and small storage. The result is that the aquifers are difficult to manage because recharge during the rainy season moves rapidly out of the aquifers. Water levels fall sharply as the dry season progresses and the ground-water supply falls off accordingly. The magnitude and duration of the seasonal recharge pulse that replenishes the stone forest aquifers have been severely impacted by massive post-1958 deforestation in the south China karst region. Water that was formerly retained beyond the wet season in the forested uplands, later to be released to the stone forest aquifers under the lowland plains, now passes quickly through the system during the wet season. The loss of this seasonal upland storage has resulted in both a reduction in the volume of recharge to the lowland stone forest aquifers and a shortening of the seasonal recharge event. The result is accelerated water-level declines in the stone forest aquifers as the dry season progresses which, in turn, causes premature dewatering of wells and decreased spring discharges. This response is compounded by increased ground-water withdrawals as the people attempt to offset the declining supply. Management of the total water-supply system requires not only tinkering with the aquifer, but massive reforestation efforts to restore dry season water retention in the upland parts of the watersheds

Subcutaneous stone forest (Trebnje, central Slovenia), 2003, Knez Martin, Otonič, Ar Bojan, Slabe Tadej

The stone forest is generally being formed on the dolomitised limestone and dolomite breccia under a thick layer of soil. The stone columns are of regular shape, they attenuate towards their tops and display the typical subcutaneous rock relief.


Landuse and Land Cover Change in the Lunan Stone Forest, China, 2003, Zhang Chuanrong, Day Michael, Li Weidong

The Lunan Stone Forest is the World's premier pinnacle karst landscape, with attendant scientific and cultural importance. Ecologically fragile, it is also a major tourist attraction, currently receiving over 1.5million visitors each year. Conservation efforts have been undermined by conflicting economic priorities, and landscape degradation threatens the very foundation of the national park. Assessment of the current land cover in the 35km2 core of the Stone Forest and an analysis of land cover change since 1974 in the 7km2 Major Stone Forest reveal the extent of recent landscape change. Exposed pinnacle karst covers 52% of the 35km2 study area, and about half of this is vegetated. Land use is dominated by agriculture, particularly in the valleys, but much of the shilin is devegetated and about six percent of the area is now built-up. Within the 7km2 Major Stone Forest the built-up area increased from 0.15ha in 1974 to 38.68ha by 2001, and during that same period road length increased by 95%, accompanied by a 3% decrease in surface water area. Between 1980 and 2001, annual visitor numbers increased from 139,000 to 1,500,000 - a ten-fold increase. The need to reconcile economic development and landscape conservation involves both short-term versus long-term benefit and also the conservation of natural and cultural heritage.


The role of aerial algae in the formation of the landscape of the Yunnan Stone Forest, Yunnan Province, China, 2004, Tian Y. P. , Zhang J. , Song L. H. , Bao H. S. ,
Aerial algae on the surface of carbonate rocks at the Stone Forest, Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China, and their bioerosion were investigated in the field and studied in the laboratory in detail. Through the observation, identification and statistics of more than one hundred algal samples and rock samples with the optical microscopes (stereomicroscope, biological microscope) and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), the relationships between erosional forms on the surface of the Stone Forest and algae and/or algal communities and the genetic mechanism for the formation of erosional forms were analyzed. It is suggested that aerial algae play an active role in bioerosive processes that may affect the formation of karst erosional forms. These effects include both direct and indirect ones. The direct effect is the initiative control ('algal shape-controlling role') of algae on the formation of karst forms of various scales, mostly micro-scale (<10(-3) m) and minor-scale (10(-3)-10(-1) m) erosional forms. The algal shape-control ling roles can be divided into the algal individual shape-controlling role and the algal community shape-controlling role. The former mostly controls the formation of micro-scale erosional forms, while the latter mostly controls the formation of micro-scale and smaller minor-scale erosional forms. The indirect effect refers to the 'promoting role' of algae in the formation of karst forms, which may affect the formation of karst forms of all types and scales. The bioerosion of algae accelerates the weathering process of the whole Stone Forest karst landforms

Towards Establishing Effective Protective Boundaries for the Lunan Stone Forest Using an Online Spatial Decision Support System, 2005, Zhang Chuanrong, Li Weidong, Day Michael

The Lunan Stone Forest is the World's premier pinnacle karst landscape, and was established as a national park in 1982. The existing boundaries are essentially arbitrary, based on notional scenic value, and take into consideration neither the physical landscape nor the existing pattern of urban development. Moreover, the location of the boundaries is not clear to the local community, rendering them largely ineffective. Developing an online Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) potentially provides a way to establish protective boundaries that are meaningful from the perspective of karst science, yet also readily identifiable by the local community within the context of the existing urban fabric. The 7km2 "core area" of the Stone Forest Park is used to illustrate the use of the SDSS.


Major stone forest, litomorphogenesis and development of typical shilin (Yunnan, China), 2012, Knez M. , Slabe T. , Liu H.

Major stone forest excellently reveals most characteristics of the formation of the various stone forests. The relatively thick stratification and evenly composed rock clearly display the development of stone forests from subsoil karren. This is evident from the shape of individual parts of the stone forest and the shape and rock relief of pillars that comprise the forest. It is the most typical example of development of karren from subsoil to rain and vegetation exposed stone forest. With it we can compare stone forests shaped on different rock and geomorphological and hydrological conditions. Type of rock is clearly reflected in the intensity of corrosion and erosion and with it in the formation and morphological appearance of individual stone pillars and larger blocks of rock. The rock relief on the pillars in stone forests reveals the interwoven traces of the original shaping of the rock below soil and sediment, of the lowering of the level of soil and sediment, and of the younger but distinct transformation of pillars by rainwater, which naturally dominates on the tops. The exceptional character and picturesqueness of this karst phenomenon is the reason for the successful development of the stone forest as an international tourist attraction that was deservedly placed on the UNESCO world heritage list.


Major stone forest, litomorphogenesis and development of typical shilin (Yunnan, China), 2012, Knez Martin, Slabe Tadej, Liu Hong

Major stone forest excellently reveals most characteristics of the formation of the various stone forests. The relatively thick stratification and evenly composed rock clearly display the development of stone forests from subsoil karren. This is evident from the shape of individual parts of the stone forest and the shape and rock relief of pillars that comprise the forest. It is the most typical example of development of karren from subsoil to rain and vegetation exposed stone forest. With it we can compare stone forests shaped on different rock and geomorphological and hydrological conditions. Type of rock is clearly reflected in the intensity of corrosion and erosion and with it in the formation and morphological appearance of individual stone pillars and larger blocks of rock. The rock relief on the pillars in stone forests reveals the interwoven traces of the original shaping of the rock below soil and sediment, of the lowering of the level of soil and sediment, and of the younger but distinct transformation of pillars by rainwater, which naturally dominates on the tops. The exceptional character and picturesqueness of this karst phenomenon is the reason for the successful developmentof the stone forest as an international tourist attraction that was deservedly placed on the UNESCO world heritage list.


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