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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That spring, sublacustrine is a spring emerging in the bed of a lake predominantly in karst areas [20]. synonyms: (french.) source sous lacustre; (german.) unterwaberquelle, sublacustre quelle; (greek.) ypovrichios pighi; (italian.) sorgente sublacustre; (russian.) istocnik na dne ozera; (spanish.) fuente sublacustre; (turkish.) golalti kaynagi. see spring, drowned.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for tiankeng (Keyword) returned 35 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 35
Study on Karst Landscape and World Natural Heritage Value of Tiankeng-Difeng Tourist Site, Fengjie, Chongqing, 2003, Chen W. , Zhu D. , Zhu X.

Large collapse chambers within caves, 2006, Eavis Andy
In the karsts of China and Mulu (Sarawak) large chambers and tiankengs are associated with much smaller cave passages. They have developed mainly on fracture zones, some within the phreas, where rock collapse is not associated only with vadose drainage.

Turloughs and tiankengs: distinctive doline forms, 2006, Gunn John
Tiankengs lie at one extreme of the collapse doline spectrum, and a key question is whether there is a distinctive tiankeng process or whether the distinction is purely morphological. At the opposite end of the doline spectrum, the turloughs of Ireland are broad closed depressions with seasonal lakes. They may be differentiated from poljes by their smaller dimensions, gentler surrounding slopes and processes of formation. In particular, turloughs are only found in areas where there are glacial deposits and are, at least in part, glaciokarstic landforms whereas poljes occur in many climatic zones and their locations frequently demonstrate a structural influence. Turloughs have been recognised by the European Union as special karst landforms with a distinctive vegetation assemblage, although the term is not widely used because, with one exception, they are confined to Ireland. There are clear parallels with tiankeng the majority of which are in China and which are distinguished from collapse dolines by their large size, and special processes of formation. It is argued that the terms turlough and tiankeng should both become established in the karst geomorphology lexicon.

Giant dolines of the Muller Plateau, Papua New Guinea, 2006, James Jm
The Muller Plateau lies within the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, and is distinguished by its giant dolines. Many of these have exceptionally large dimensions and a morphology comparable to that of the megadolines of the Nakanai Mountains on New Britain and the tiankengs of the South China karst. They are all caprock dolines. The geology, physical geography and hydrology of the Muller Plateau are compared with those of the Nakanai Mountains and the South China karst. Proposed mechanisms for the formation of three groups (Rogorepo, Mamo and Atea) of giant dolines on the Muller Plateau are discussed. The Muller Plateau giant dolines, like the megadolines and the tiankengs, formed during the Pleistocene. The Muller Plateau dolines have formed in an environment that has many similarities to the other giant dolines. However, it is unlikely that they will ever evolve to the magnificence of the Nakanai megadolines or the aesthetics of the Chinese tiankengs, as a controlling factor in their development is a siltstone caprock and impure interbeds within the Darai Limestone.

Cave un-roofing as a large-scale geomorphic process, 2006, Klimchouk Alexander
A morphogenetic approach appears to be the most sensible in defining the tiankeng as a typological category. Tiankengs are giant collapse dolines formed over large river caves, with continuous precipitous perimeter and a diameter-to-depth ratio between 0.5 and 2. The term bears an evolutionary meaning, referring to the youthful stage of open collapse doline development, and the relationship of tiankengs to large underground rivers. The latter criterion separates tiankengs from other types of giant collapse features, such as caprock collapses over evaporates or large collapses over hydrothermal cavities. The South China karst offers evidence that un-roofing of caves is a large-scale geomorphic process playing an important role in the formation of cone and tower karst. It is probably the major process in the origin of large depressions, gorges and valleys in tropical karst, although other geomorphic processes contribute to shaping and maturation of a landscape and eventually obscure the origin in unroofed caves. Many saddles between hills and towers in fengcong and fenglin karst may owe their origin to cave un-roofing.

Hydraulic processes in the origin of tiankengs, 2006, Palmer An, Palmer Mv
Tiankengs are formed most commonly by the collapse of bedrock into underlying caves that contain active rivers. The collapse propagates itself by blocking and diverting the underground streams, so that hydraulic gradients become steeper and the solutional and erosional capacities are enhanced. Most of the volume of a tiankeng is produced by removal of mass by the cave streams. A large and fluctuating discharge is most favorable. As diversion passages form and enlarge, they foster further collapse and diversion. Stress release around the collapse encourages the opening of new fractures with trends that differ from regional fracture patterns. These processes account for the large scale of tiankengs in comparison to the original cave passages.

Tiankengs of the world, outside China, 2006, Waltham T
An inventory of tiankengs that are known outside China is accompanied by brief descriptions and comments on their features and origins. Available data suggests that there are only 26 known tiankengs outside China. Some other very large collapse dolines are compared.

The 2005 Tiankeng Investigation Project in China, 2006, Waltham Tony
A summary report of the Tiankeng Investigation Project, hosted by Prof. Zhu Xuewen in China in 2005. This included an extremely successful field tour to tiankengs (giant collapse dolines) in the karst of Chongqing and Guangxi, and an indoor meeting in the Karst Research Institute in Guilin when the definition of a tiankeng was formalised.

Collapse processes at the tiankengs of Xingwen, 2006, Waltham Tony
The karst of Xingwen, China, contains the Xiaoyanwan tiankeng, alongside the degraded tiankeng of Dayanwan and also the potential collapse chambers in the Zhucaojing cave system. These three sites appear to represent an evolutionary sequence, whereby a tiankeng develops from multiple cave collapses, and subsequently degrades to the profile of a large doline.

Size scales for closed depression landforms: the place of tiankengs, 2006, White Wb, White El
Development of large collapse structures in karstic terrain requires an interaction between mechanical instability and chemical removal of collapsed rock. Upward migration of pre-existing voids can choke out if there is no mechanism for the efficient removal of fallen blocks. Rates of dissolution, size of initial cavity, and overlying bedrock characteristics determine the size of the final surface landform. Collapse features range in scale from small sinkholes to hundreds of meters in such features as the Golondrinas collapse pit in Mexico. Tiankengs are interpreted as end members features on a continuous scale.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai
China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

Tiankeng: definition and description, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Waltham Tony
A tiankeng is a type of very large collapse doline that has evolved by roof collapse over a large cave chamber where a huge mass of breakdown debris has been removed by a substantial cave river. Described first in China, the term tiankeng is recognised as a useful term within the worldwide lexicon of karst.

The 2005 Tiankeng Investigation Project in China, 2006, Waltham, Tony

A summary report of the Tiankeng Investigation Project, hosted by Prof. Zhu Xuewen in China in 2005. This included an extremely successful field tour to tiankengs (giant collapse dolines) in the karst of Chongqing and Guangxi, and an indoor meeting in the Karst Research Institute in Guilin when the definition of a tiankeng was formalised.


Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai

China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.


Tiankengs of the world, outside China, 2006, Waltham, Tony

An inventory of tiankengs that are known outside China is accompanied by brief descriptions and comments on their features and origins. Available data suggests that there are only 26 known tiankengs outside China. Some other very large collapse dolines are compared.


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