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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That clusterite is see botryoid.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for time series (Keyword) returned 60 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 60
A Triple Dye Tracing Experiment At Yarrangobilly, 1976, Spate A. P. , Jennings J. N. , Ingle Smith D. , James Julia M.

Rhodamine WT, leucophor HBS and fluorescein were inserted into Deep, Eagles Nest and Traverse Creeks respectively, all sinking wholly or partly into the limestone at Yarrangobilly, as part of a program to determine the catchment area of Hollin Cave. Hollin Cave and three other major springs, together with the Yarrangobilly River above, between and below these springs, were sampled for various periods manually or by machine. Heavy rains began a day after dye insertion. Various lines of evidence and analysis, including the plotting of regression residuals between different wavebands as time series, showed that the relevant fluorescent wavebands were affected by rises in natural fluorescence in the runoff, probably of organic origin. Green was affected most, then blue, and orange only slightly. It was possible to identify a dye pulse of rhodamine at Hollin Cave, most probably representing all the dye put in. A leucophor dye pulse was also identifiable here but a load curve could not be constructed because of probable interference by changing natural fluorescence. Tracing by fluorescein became impossible. Interference between the three dyes was demonstrated. The implications for future quantitative tracing here are discussed.


Locomotor responses of the cave fish Astyanax jordani (Pisces, Characidae) to periodic and aperiodic light and temperature signals., 1978, Thins Georges, Weyers M.
The locomotory activity of adult cave fishes Astyanax jordani was recorded in isolation in the following light and temperature conditions: constant conditions (100 Lx; 200C), in a light cycle (LD:11/11 -10 Lx -100 Lx) and in a temperature cycle (11/11; 17/20, 19/22, 20/23, 27/30 C). All longitudinal time series extended for a minimum of 30 days. Results show: (1) That no circadian regulation appears in constant conditions; (2) that passive entrainment occurs in LD (Amplitude: 90 Lx) and in periodic temperature conditions (Amplitude: 3C). The entrainment effect damps out and varies individually; (3) that the mean activity increases with temperature; (4) The adjustment of activity to periodic signals is individually stable. These results suggest that A. Jordani is devoid of any endogenous oscillator of the circadian type. The observed thermal adaptation could have the following functions: (1) To increase the level of activity in function of the thermal level under the form of passive entrainment; (2) To enhance the exploratory behaviour of the fish in search of a thermal preference allowing the animal to keep inside a well defined zone of the subterranean biotope in relation to small local temperature changes.

GROUNDWATER GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE CARBONATE KARST AQUIFER, SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY, USA, 1993, Hess J. W. , White W. B. ,
Analyses of 441 water samples from 15 sample sites, mainly springs and sinking creeks in the southcentral Kentucky karst, were used to determine hardness, P(CO2), and state of saturation with respect to calcite and dolomite. Most of the waters are undersaturated with respect to calcite and more undersaturated with respect to dolomite, in agreement with recent kinetic models. Time series data revealed chemical fluctuations on both weekly and seasonal time scales. Much of the short-term variation and some of the seasonal variation in the hardness and saturation index parameters can be accounted for by dilution effects from storm and seasonal runoff. Seasonal cycles in CO2 partial pressure arise from a dependence of soil CO2 on temperature and the growing season. Waters from different locations in the aquifer system are chemically distinct and fit into the concept of a hydrochemical facies

TEMPORAL CYCLES OF KARST DENUDATION IN NORTHWEST GEORGIA, USA, 1994, Kiefer R. H. ,
Time patterns of karst denudation in northwest Georgia (U.S.A.) were investigated at three spring sites for 12 months and at five stream sites for 10 years. Rainfall was evenly distributed and showed no significant seasonality. At the springs, as well as the streams, water hardness was largely controlled by discharge. At the springs, Soil PCO2 and water pH were strongly correlated (r = -0.69 to -0.83). Solute transport in spring waters was highly seasonal, with two conduit flow springs removing more limestone in the winter, and the diffuse flow spring removing more during the growing season. At the stream sites, most denudation occurred during the winter and spring seasons, and least during the summer. Fourier analysis showed that variations in denudation occur on deterministic (long-wave) as well as stochastic (short-wave) time scales. As contributing variables, discharge varied in short-wave and long-wave cycles, whereas soil PCO2 showed only a long-wave cycle. The 12 month deterministic cycles were the most important, with changes in discharge taking precedence over Soil PCO2. Time series regression explains up to 69 per cent of changes in denudation through rain and soil pCO2. Time cycles in available water are the key controlling factor of denudation, and amounts of available Soil CO2 may not be as important in the temporal patterns of karst downwearing as has been believed previously

THE DISCHARGE VARIABILITY OF SOME KARST SPRINGS IN BULGARIA STUDIED BY TIME-SERIES ANALYSIS, 1995, Pulidobosch A. , Padilla A. , Dimitrov D. , Machkova M. ,
The discharge variability of some karst springs in Bulgaria has been investigated in detail within a region situated in the semiarid zone where most of the principal processes controlling spring outflow (evapotranspiration, snow accumulation, karstic functioning) are significant. While the karstification was notable in the Kotel and Bistretz springs with a predominance of quickflow, in the Beden system the baseflow was higher and had a behaviour similar to a porous aquifer. Univariate and bivariate spectral analyses were applied as a suitable tool in preparation for a further application of precipitation-discharge relationship models

One-dimensional springflow model for time variant recharge, 1997, Bhar Ak, Mishra Gc,
The linear mathematical model for springflow suggested by Bear (1979) can simulate springflow for an initial instantaneous recharge. A springflow model has been developed, using the Bear model and Duhamel's approach, which can simulate springflow for time variant recharge. The suggested model can also be used to compute the time variant recharge to the springflow domain from a given springflow time series. The inverse problem, which contains linear recharge terms and nonlinear depletion terms, has been solved using the Newton-Raphson method for solving a set of nonlinear equations. The model has been tested to compute recharge for Kirkgoz spring, a first magnitude karst spring in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The estimated annual recharge computed by the model on a monthly basis compared well with the annual recharge which had been estimated (Korkmaz, 1990) using the Bear model

Drip flow variations under a stalactite of the Pere Noel cave (Belgium). Evidence of seasonal variations and air pressure constraints, 1998, Genty D, Deflandre G,
The study of drip rate and seepage water electrical conductivity (hereafter called conductivity) under one stalactite in the Pere Noel cave (Belgium), with data produced from an automatic station since 1991, demonstrates several previously unobserved features: (1) measurement of drop volume shows that, for 94% of the time series, drop volume is constant (= 0.14 ml), but when discharge exceeds 48.2 drips min(-1), drop volume decreases, probably because of secondary drop formation; (2) the interannual drip rate variation is correlated to the annual water excess and its correlant, rainfall (R-2 = 0.98; exponential model); this result introduces a new improvement in the understanding of the previously investigated relationships between stalagmite annual laminae thickness and mean annual rainfall; (3) the drip rate shows a well marked seasonality: it increases abruptly in late fall or early winter and decreases slowly during spring, summer and fall. Increased discharge is accompanied by an increase in conductivity, which suggests that the flushed water is more mineralized and was stored in the karst aquifer for several months; (4) superimposed on these seasonal variations, there are two kinds of flow regimes which are driven by the atmospheric pressure: (i) a 'wiggles regime', whose duration is 1-7 days in length and which is inversely proportional to the air pressure wiggles; it is explained by either a ''shut-off faucet'' process due to the rock formation stress, or to a change in the two-phases flow component proportions (air/water); (ii) an 'unstable regime' characterized by abrupt switches (<2 h) or oscillations with variable periodicities, from a few minutes to a few hours. These occur when the drip rate reaches a threshold (i.e. 240 drops 10 min(-1)); the chaotic behaviour of this phenomenon is discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Contribution of correlation and spectral analyses to the regional study of a large karst aquifer (Charente, France), 1998, Larocque M. , Mangin A. , Razack M. , Banton O. ,
The purpose of the study is to demonstrate that correlation and spectral analyses can contribute to the regional study of a large karst aquifer. An example is presented for the La Rochefoucauld karst aquifer (Charente, France). Different types of spatially distributed time series provide valuable spatio-temporal information for the karat aquifer. The available time series consist of the spring flow rates, the flow rates at different locations in sinking streams, the piezometric levels, the electrical conductivity and temperature of the water, the atmospheric pressure and the precipitation The analysis of the flow rates at the springs shows that the aquifer empties very slowly and has a large storage capacity. Hydrodynamic links were established between three of the four rivers flowing on the aquifer and the springs. The results also demonstrate the important spatial heterogeneity of the aquifer and indicate that the most rapid flow occurs in the northern part of the aquifer. Hourly piezometric and electrical conductivity time series indicate that the transmissivity of the aquifer varies when some conductive channels become desaturated during the low water period. The delays between the distributed recharge and the piezometric level, between the localized river input and the how rates at the springs and between the electrical conductivities in rivers and the main spring provide information on the travel times in the aquifer, The observation of earth tides and barometric effects indicate that this apparently unconfined aquifer has a confined behaviour. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Some notes about landscape evolution in the Trieste Karst. Reading of the topographic maps time series (map 1:25000 "Poggioreale del Carso", foglio 40a iiso) , 1998, Castiglioni, Benedetta

Three editions (1915, 1926, 1962) of the same topographic map - 1:25,000 scale - were analysed in order to obtain some information about karst landscape evolution during the present century. Both natural and human landscape were observed, expecially landforms, vegetation and soil use. The analysis gives prominence in particular to progressive forest growing. Two main difficulties were met in this analysis. First, the scale 1:25,000 is not very suitable for looking at the extremely fragmented karst plateau landscape. Second, the comparison between the three maps is not always possible because they are drafted with different mapping techniques.


Fluorescence wavelength and intensity variations of cave waters, 1999, Baker A, Genty D,
The fluorescence properties of groundwaters percolating into four cave systems have been monitored over the period 1997-1998. Fluorescence was excited between 220 and 400 nm and the emission measured from 300 to 500 nm using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Three fluorescence centres were observed; one at the excitation-emission pair of 290-340:395-430 nm, (humic-like, probably fulvic acid), one at 265-280:300-370 nm (protein like) and a less defined region of high fluorescence at 230-280:310-420 nm (humic and/or protein like). The most consistent fluorescence intensity was observed in the excitation-emission pair of 290-340:395-430 nm, attributed to a fulvic acid source. Subtle differences (5%) in the fluorescence excitation and emission wavelength of this fluorescence peak in the groundwater were observed between the four sites, and the fluorescence intensity varied considerably ( x 60) between the four sites. Both the wavelength and the intensity variations in fluorescence are caused by the differences in the vegetation cover, soil type and humification. Data from the most intensely monitored site (Brown’s Folly Mine, England; 9 sample stations, 10-20 days frequency sampling) revealed no spatial variability in the 290-340:395-430 nm (fulvic acid) fluorescence; in contrast time-series analysis suggests that the seasonal variations do occur, with a decrease in the emission wavelength correlating with the first (autumn) peak in fluorescence intensity, and a decrease in the excitation wavelength correlating with a second (winter) fluorescence intensity peak. Results demonstrate the potential of utilising fluorescence wavelength variations in sourcing karst groundwaters, and as a possible palaeoenvironmental proxy of the overlying soil conditions if trapped within the cave speleothems

Linear systems analysis in a karst aquifer, 1999, Long A. J. , Derickson R. G. ,
A linear systems analysis applied to ground-water flow is presented as an alternative modeling technique to traditional discretized ground-water models (i.e. finite-difference and finite-element), which require elaborate parameters and boundary conditions. Linear systems analysis has been used extensively for surface-water modeling and to 3 lesser extent for groundwater applications. We present a method for the analysis of an aquifer's response in hydraulic head to recharge that comprises two major components. The first component is to predict the drop in hydraulic head over time if recharge is eliminated. By fitting logarithmic curves to selected short-term hydraulic head recession periods, a long-term recession or 'base head' can be established. The estimation of base head is necessary for the second component of the method, which is the derivation of an impulse response function or transfer function. The transfer function H-as derived by deconvolution of two time series data sets - estimated recharge and the measured response in hydraulic head. An aquifer's response to recharge can be characterized and modeled by using the transfer function. which also establishes the time to peak response. the response time distribution, and the total memory length of the system. The method requires fitting smooth curves to the oscillatory transfer function derived by deconvolution in the Fourier transform domain. The smooth curve is considered to be the physically valid transfer function. In this analysis, curve fitting was more effective than other smoothing techniques commonly used. We applied the method to the karstic Madison aquifer and found that thr time to peak response is less than one month, the system's total memory is about six years, and a logarithmic curve best fits the system response. This method has potential to be useful as 3 predictive tool in aquifer management. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

A high-resolution proxy record of rainfall and ENSO since AD 1550 from layering in stalagmites from Anjohibe Cave, Madagascar, 1999, Brook Ga, Rafter Ma, Railsback Lb, Sheen Sw, Lundberg J,
Two stalagmites from Anjohibe Cave have annual layers made up of inclusion-rich calcite over inclusion-free calcite or of darker aragonite over clear aragonite. Geochemical evidence indicates that the basal units are deposited slowly in the wet season and the upper units more rapidly in the dry season. For the period with rainfall and temperature data (ad 1951-1992), layer thickness correlates well with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), as well as rainfall, water surplus, and actual evapotranspiration (AET) at nearby Majunga. Com parison of the layer record for one stalagmite with 1866-1994 SOI data indicates that layer thickness correlates best with the frequency and intensity of warm, low-phase SO (El Nino) events, not with average SOI conditions. In addition, the 415-year layer thickness time-series from that speleothem agrees remarkably well with historical records of El Nino frequency, with Galapagos (Ecuador) coral records of sea-surface temperature in the eastern Pacific, and with accumulation rates on the Quelccaya Ice Cap of Peru, which are lower at times of high El Nino frequency

Transient-state history matching of a karst aquifer ground water flow model, 2000, Larocque M. , Banton O. , Razack M. ,
Ground water flow modeling in a karst aquifer presents many difficulties. In particular, the hydrodynamic properties and the now behavior can vary over time. History matching of transient-state conditions is required to test the accuracy of the model under varying hydrodynamic conditions. The objective of this study was to illustrate how transient-state conditions can be used to history match a ground water flow model of a large aquifer, the La Rochefoucauld karst (Charente, France). The model used a porous medium equivalent and was based on a steady-state calibration of hydraulic conductivities. The history match consisted of studying the simulated heads and spring flow rates to test the capacity of the model to reproduce different aspects of the aquifer behavior, The simulated heads and flow rates were analyzed as new data using correlation and spectral analyses to compare the temporal structures of the measured and simulated time series. The analyses provided information on the storage capacity of the aquifer, the input-output delays, the degree of correlation between input and output, and the length of the impulse response of the aquifer, These data were used to study the impact of the hypotheses underlying the model (hydraulic conductivities, storage coefficient, representation of rivers, use of a porous medium equivalent). The results show that the model adequately simulates the overall behavior of the studied aquifer, The model can be used under variable hydrodynamic conditions to simulate ground water flow on a regional scale. This case study illustrates how a complete history match of a simplified representation of reality can lead to an adequate mathematical tool

Rainfall-runoff relations for karstic springs. Part I: convolution and spectral analyses, 2000, Labat D. , Ababou R. , Mangin A. ,
Karstic basins contain large reserves of subsurface water. In this paper, three karstic systems located in the Pyrenees Mountains (Ariege, France) are studied. Long records of rainfall and discharge rates for these karstic springs are available, sampled at different rates: daily, hourly and half-hourly. This study aims at illustrating and assessing the capabilities and limitations of linear black-box methods for analysing rainfall-runoff type relationships and reconstructing runoffs from rainfall rate data using such systems. In this study, precipitation and discharge rates are considered as two autocorrelated and cross-correlated stochastic processes. A Linear and stationary rainfall-runoff model is adopted, which is used for identification and simulation purposes. Different versions are analysed, including a model based on a convolution integral between the precipitation rate P(tau) and a transfer function h(t - tau) which can be thought of as the unit impulse response of the system. It is shown that this linear stochastic model (i.e. the statistical version), although accurate in some respects, does not represent the hydraulic behaviour of the system very well during low flow episodes and floods. It is also shown that the use of Fourier analysis, alone, does not lead to a satisfactory reconstitution of observed runoff sequences. For these reasons, the use of non-linear random process input-output models based on Volterra integral series is proposed and discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Climate-change impacts in a regional karst aquifer, Texas, USA, 2000, Loaiciga H. A. , Maidment D. R. , Valdes J. B. ,
Climate-change scenarios were created from scaling factors derived from several general circulation models to assess the likely impacts of aquifer pumping on the water resources of the Edwards Balcones Fault Zone (BFZ) aquifer, Texas, one of the largest aquifer systems in the United States. Historical climatic time series in periods of extreme water shortage (1947-1959), near-average recharge (1978-1989), and above-average recharge (1975-1990) were scaled to 2 x CO2 conditions to create aquifer recharge scenarios in a wanner climate. Several pumping scenarios were combined with 2 x CO2 climate scenarios to assess the sensitivity of water resources impacts to human-induced stresses on the Edwards BFZ aquifer. The 2 x CO2 climate change scenarios were linked to surface hydrology and used to drive aquifer dynamics with alternative numerical simulation models calibrated to the Edwards BFZ aquifer, Aquifer simulations indicate that, given the predicted growth and water demand in the Edwards BFZ aquifer region, the aquifer's ground water resources appear threatened under 2 x CO2 climate scenarios. Our simulations indicate that 2 x CO2 climatic conditions could exacerbate negative impacts and water shortages in the Edwards BFZ aquifer even if pumping does not increase above its present average level. The historical evidence and the results of this article indicate that without proper consideration to variations in aquifer recharge and sound pumping strategies, the water resources of the Edwards BFZ aquifer could be severely impacted under a warmer climate. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

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