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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That infiltrability is the ease of infiltration [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tims (Keyword) returned 22 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 22
First Responder Care for Cave Accident Victims, 1987, Osborne R. A. L. , (read By) Steenson R.

Although cave accidents are fairly rare events in New South Wales there is a need for Police, Ambulance and V.R.A. personnel to be aware of the problems presented by cave rescues and to be able to act should a cave accident occur. The N.S.W. Cave Rescue Group is available to provide advice and training in cave rescue and, in the event of an accident taking place, can be mobilised through the Police Disaster and Rescue Branch. Like most members of the caving community, the Cave Rescue Group is a largely Sydney based organisation and its response time for an authentic call out is likely to be between 3 to 5 (or even more) hours. In the event of a cave accident there will be a delay of at least an hour before initial reporting, (members of the victim's party must leave the cave and summon help, or a party is reported overdue). As caving areas are some distance from major centres the first responders are not likely to reach the accident scene in less than two hours after the accident has taken place. With some N.S.W. cave areas it is reasonable to assume that an accident victim may be 24 hours or more away from first responder care. It is vital that the first responders to a cave accident are aware of the type of acre required by cave accident victims and of the hazards that caves present.


1997 Paleoclimatic reconstruction and timing of sea level rise at the end of the Penultimate Glaciation, from detailed stable isotope study and TIMS dating of submerged Bahamian speleothem., 1997, Lundberg, J.

Symposium Abstract: The reconstructon of the Palaeoclimate of the late Quaternary warm periods through Tims U/Th and Pollen analysis of British and Irish Speleothems, 1998, Mcgarry S.

Co-seismic ruptures and deformations recorded by speleothems in the epicentral zone of the Basel earthquake, 1999, Lemeille Francis, Cushing Marc, Carbon David, Grellet Bertrand, Bitterli Thomas, Flehoc Christine, Innocent Christophe,
The study of growth anomalies of speleothems in a karstic environment can provide potential evidence for palaeoearthquakes. These data are used to study the recurrence times of major earthquakes in areas where evidence for historic seismicity is lacking. A study has been carried out in the epicentral area of the 1356 Basel earthquake (epicentral intensity = VII-VIII, macroseismic magnitude = 6.2). The Battlerloch and Dieboldslochli caves, situated in the area of greatest damage, show growth anomalies of speleothems possibly related to a seismic event (several breaks of speleothems and offsets of the axis of the regrowths). The first U/Th disequilibrum measurements by alpha spectrometry show recent ages (less than several tens of thousands of years and probably historic). 14C dating by AMS of carbonate laminations taken on both sides of the anomalies confirm the evidence of a seismic event around 1300 AD. More accurate darings by U/Th TIMS are carried out in order to compare the information provided by the two different dating methods.ResumeL'etude des anomalies de developpement des speleothemes en milieu endokarstique peut permettre de retrouver la trace de paleoseismes. Ces donnees sont utilisees pour etudier les periodes de retour des seismes majeurs dans les regions ou la sismicite historique n'est pas suffisante. Une etude a ete menee dans la zone epicentrale du seisme de Bale de 1356 (intensite epicentrale = VII-VIII, magnitude macrosismique = 6,2). Dans l'aire de degats majeurs, les grottes du Battierloch et du Dieboldslochli ont montre l'existence d'anomalies de croissance des speleothemes pour lesquelles une origine sismique est possible (nombreuses ruptures de speleothemes et decalage de l'axe de croissance des repousses). Les premieres mesures de desequilibres U/Th par spectrometrie alpha indiquent des ages recents (inferieurs a quelques dizaines de milliers d'annees et probablement historiques). Les datations 14C par AMS de carbonates des lamines preleves de part et d'autre de ces anomalies confirment l'empreinte d'un evenement destructif brutal vers 1300 AD. Des datations plus precises par U/Th TIMS sont en cours de realisation afin de confronter les informations apportees par ces deux chronometres

Continental Oxygen Isotopic Record of the Last 170,000 Years in Jerusalem, 1999, Frumkin A, Ford Dc, Schwarcz Hp,
A long radiometrically dated oxygen isotopic record of continental climatic variations since the penultimate glaciation was obtained from a stalagmite deposited in a sealed cave in Jerusalem. This record shows that speleothems have the potential of assigning dates to long- and short-term climatic events, with possible refining of Milankovitch tuning of ice and marine records which themselves are not datable. Short-term (~1000-yr) events are very significant in the region, reaching ~50% of glacial/interglacial fluctuations. The Mediterranean Sea was the most probable source of local precipitation throughout the last glacial cycle

Calibration of the speleothem delta function: an absolute temperature record for the Holocene in northern Norway, 1999, Lauritzen Stein Erik, Lundberg Joyce,
The speleothem delta function (SDF) provides a new transfer function between the d18O signal of speleothem calcite and surface ground temperature. The function is based on physical principles, relating d18O of the calcite to thermodynamic fractionation, and to the dripwater function, which in turn relates d18O of dripwaters to that of the local precipitation and thus to the modification of source water in relationship to the geographical position of the site. The SDF must be calibrated against at least two reliable and well-dated palaeotemperature points. The end product is a reconstruction of absolute cave and surface temperatures. The technique is tested using a Holocene speleothem from north Norway, SG93, dated by 12 TIMS U-Th dates. The reconstructed temperature curve is presented and compared with the GISP2 ice-core record and with the historic record. In both cases the correlation with SG93 is impressive, indicating the validity of the technique

Speleothems and climate: a special issue of The Holocene, 1999, Lauritzen Stein Erik, Lundberg Joyce,
Speleothems (cave dripstones) are formed as a part of the meteoric water cycle and therefore vari ations in their growth rate and composition reflect environmental changes on the land surface above the cave. Since they are continental deposits, and possess a remarkably accurate dating potential, using TIMS U-series techniques, speleothems are important palaeoclimatic archives for the terrestrial environment, complementing the marine and ice-core records. The climatic proxies that can be deciphered from speleothems are growth rate, stable isotope composition (d18O, d13C), organic (humic) matter and trace element composition, as well as luminescent laminae, which may display annual rhythms. The nine papers in this special issue ofThe Holocene present the latest results in palaeoclimatic analysis from speleothems

Trace element variations in coeval Holocene speleothems from GB Cave, southwest England, 1999, Roberts Mark S. , Smart Peter L. , Hawkesworth Chris J. , Perkins William T. , Pearce Nicholas J. G. ,
We report trace element (Mg, Sr and Ba) records based on laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) from three coeval Holocene speleothems from Great Chamber in GB Cave, southwest England. The trace element records are placed on a common timescale on the basis of a suite of TIMS 230Th-234U ages. This permits assessment of the reproducibility of the trace element record in coeval speleothems. The trace element records are not coherent, raising dobuts over the reliability of individual trace element records as potential archives of palaeoenvironmental information. Mg/Sr in speleothem calcite has been proposed as a potential palaeothermometer as Mg partitioning into calcite from water is temperaturedependent, while Sr partitioning into calcite is temperature-independent. However, we present the results of calculations which demonstrate that the observed Mg/Sr values in the three stalagmites cannot have been produced by Holocene temperature changes alone and that other processes must play a dominant role. We present a model which suggests that the observed trace element variations in the three speleothems reflect hydrological mixing of waters in the epikarstic zone above the cave which have interacted with two geochemi cally distinct source rocks (calcite and dolomite)

Mid-Pleistocene cave fills, megafaunal remains and climate change at Naracoorte, South Australia: towards a predictive model using U-Th dating of speleothems, 2000, Moriarty Kevin C. , Mcculloch Malcolm T. , Wells Roderick T. , Mcdowell Matthew C. ,

Stable isotope stratigraphy of Holocene speleothems: examples from a cave system in Rana, northern Norway, 2001, Linge H. , Lauritzen S. E. , Lundberg J. , Berstad I. M. ,
High-precision TIMS U-series dates and continuous stable oxygen and carbon isotope profiles of a 4000 year stalagmite record from Rana, northern Norway, are presented and compared with data from two other speleothems from the same cave. The dating results yield ages from 387534 to 2963 years before AD2000, with 2[sigma] errors from 0.5 to 1%. The overall growth rate is 35 mm/ka, corresponding to a temporal resolution of 29 years/mm. The stalagmite is tested for isotopic equilibrium conditions, where all `Hendy' tests, except one, indicate isotopic equilibrium or quasi equilibrium deposition. Both the stable oxygen and carbon isotope records reveal a strong and abrupt enrichment in the near-top measurements. This corresponds in time to the opening of a second cave entrance in the late 1960s, which caused changes in the cave air circulation. The stable oxygen isotope signal is enriched compared to the modern value over the last 300 years, indicating a negative response to temperature changes. Likewise, the stable carbon isotope record is enriched in this period. However, both of the stable isotope records are shown to be significantly enriched compared to the isotope ranges displayed by other stalagmites in the same cave, and this questions the reliability of the proxy records derived from the presented stalagmite. Still, a general good correspondence of large scale fluctuations is found between the three stable oxygen isotope records from this cave. The stable carbon isotope records show large variations within the cave and are believed to be governed by soil-zone conditions, percolation pathways and possibly driprates

Speleothem rupture in karst: tectonic or climatic origin? U-Th dating of rupture events in Salamandre Cave (Gard, southeastern France), 2004, Ponsbranch, Hamelin B. , Brulhet J. , Bruxelles L. ,
Caves are relatively protected from the main external erosional factors. Therefore, they constitute potentially reliable places for long-term conservation of continental history. Moreover their secondary carbonated deposits, the speleothems, can be dated precisely on the 0-500 ka time-scale using U-series isotopes measured by thermo-ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). Tectonic events (tectonic displacements and earthquakes) may change cave morphology and induce speleothem breaking or displacement as has been shown by previous studies performed mainly in Italy [Forti et Postpischl, 1984; Postpischl et al., 1991 for example]. Nevertheless, collapses of speleothems observed today in caves are difficult to interpret as their origin may be linked to several other natural processes. We studied the Aven de la Salamandre cave located in southeastern France (Gard), an area between the Cevennes fault and the Nimes fault, where evidence of Quaternary vertical movements was previously described. However, this region is not considered to be a seismic active zone. The Aven de la Salamandre cave is characterized by numerous broken speleothems. Some of them are very large and a lot of them are covered by growth of new calcite or new speleothem generation. We report here 13 TIMS U/Th analysis performed on two broken speleothems recovered by second generation calcite growth. Dating results are discussed through time corrections due to detrital content of calcite. In the first sequence, a 7 0.35 ka fracture event is identified. In the second sequence, the age of the breakdown is between 1.1 0.1 and 6.3 2 ka. These events could thus be contemporary. Hypotheses for the origin of this fracture event are presented and discussed: (i) karstic catastrophic event due to intense climatic changes or to cavity collapse (break down of hanging wall, gravity, landslide...); (ii) co-seismic ruptures. The first conclusion of this study is that these collapse episodes in the Aven de la Salamandre cave cannot be due to the direct effect of an earthquake or climatic event. Only indirect effects of flooding (by mobilization of the argillaceous components of the floor and consecutive destabilization of the speleothems growing upon it) or earthquake effects (more likely by local effects than by wave front passage) are privileged. By comparing our dating with regional destructive known events (in other karsts, in cliffs and scarps), dated by relative chronology, we are lead to propose a regional generalized event precisely dated here at 7 ka. This second conclusion doesn't contradict the presence of unbroken speleothems older than 100 ka found in other caves in the neighborhood as local effects is one of the predominant factors relative to speleothem stability. As a final conclusion, this paper promotes the use of speleothems as reliable datable tools for assessing regional stability problems (sensitivity to seismic hazards, to destructive intense climatic events...) as is done for paleoclimatic reconstruction

Speleothem master chronologies: combined Holocene 18O and 13C records from the North Island of New Zealand and their palaeoenvironmental interpretation, 2004, Williams P. W. , King D. N. T. , Zhao J. X. , Collerson K. D. ,
The stable isotope records of four stalagmites dated by 19 TIMS uranium series ages are combined to produce master chronologies for {delta} 18O and {delta} 13C. The {delta} 18O records display good overall coherence, but considerable variation in detail. Variability in the {delta} 13C records is greater, but general trends can still be dis cerned. This implies that too fine an interpretation of the structure of individual isotopic records can be unreliable. Speleothem {delta} 18O values are demonstrated to show a positive relationship with temperature by comparing trends with other proxy records, but also to respond negatively to rainfall amount. Speleothem {delta} 13C is con sidered to be most influenced by rainfall. The postglacial thermal optimum occurred around 10.8 ka BP, which is similar in timing to Antarctica but up to 2000 years earlier than most Northern Hemisphere sites. Increasingly negative {delta} 18O values after 7.5 ka BP indicate that temperatures declined to a late mid-Holocene minimum centred around 3 ka BP, but more positive values followed to mark a warm peak about 750 years ago which coincided with the Mediaeval Warm Period' of Europe. Low {delta} 18O values at 325 years BP suggest cooling coincident with the Little Ice Age'. A marked feature of the {delta}13C record is an asymmetric periodicity averaging c. 2250 years and amplitude of c. 1.9{per thousand}. It is concluded that this is mainly driven by waterbalance variations with negative swings representing particularly wet intervals. The {delta}18O record shows a higher-frequency cyclicity with a period of c. 500 years and an amplitude of c. 0.25{per thousand}. This is most likely to be temperature-driven, but some swings may have been amplified by precipitation

A 6000-year high-resolution climatic record from a stalagmite in Xiangshui Cave, Guilin, China, 2004, Zhang Meiliang, Yuan Daoxian, Lin Yushi, Qin Jiaming, Bin Li, Cheng Hai, Edwards R. Lawrence,
Middle-to late-Holocene palaeoclimate change has been reconstructed at high resolution by the analysis of the carbon and oxygen isotopes from a thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) U/Th dated stalagmite from Xiangshui Cave, near Guilin, Guangxi Province, China. The carbon and oxygen isotopic records from the stalagmite suggest that changes in the Asian monsoon since the middle Holocene (6000 BP) can be divided into two periods: (1) an interval from 6000 to 3800 BP when a strong East Asian summer monsoon gradually weakened and climate was relatively warm and humid; (2) a cool period from 3800 to 373 BP when the East Asian summer monsoon was relatively weak and the winter monsoon was probably relatively strong. This cooler interval was interspersed with a number of short warm periods. A This interpretation is largely based upon the general increase in 6180 values of the stalagmite between 6000 and 3800 BP and shifts in 6180 about a relatively heavy mean value between 3800 and 373 BP. The 6000 to 3800 BP trend is probably associated with decrease in precipitation and temperature subsequent to the mid-Holocene climatic optimum

Ochtin Aragonite Cave (Slovakia): morphology, mineralogy and genesis, 2005, Bosk P. , Bella P. , Cilek V. , Ford D. C. , Hercman H. , Kadlec J. , Osborne A. , Pruner P. ,

Ochtiná Aragonite Cave is a 300 m long cryptokarstic cavity with simple linear sections linked to a geometrically irregular spongework labyrinth. The limestones, partly metasomatically altered to ankerite and siderite, occur as lenses in insoluble rocks. Oxygen-enriched meteoric water seeping along the faults caused siderite/ankerite weathering and transformation to ochres that were later removed by mechanical erosion. Corrosion was enhanced by sulphide weathering of gangue minerals and by carbon dioxide released from decomposition of siderite/ankerite. The initial phreatic speleogens, older than 780 ka, were created by dissolution in density-derived convectional cellular circulation conditions of very slow flow. Thermohaline convection cells operating in the flooded cave might also have influenced its morphology. Later vadose corrosional events have altered the original form to a large extent. Water levels have fluctuated many times during its history as the cave filled during wet periods and then slowly drained.
Mn-rich loams with Ni-bearing asbolane and birnessite were formed by microbial precipitation in the ponds remaining after the floods. Allophane was produced in the acidic environment of sulphide weathering. La-Nd-phosphate and REE enriched Mn-oxide precipitated on geochemical barriers in the asbolane layers. Ochres containing about 50 wt.% of water influence the cave microclimate and the precipitation of secondary aragonite. An oldest aragonite generation is preserved as corroded relics in ceiling niches truncated by corrosional bevels. TIMS and alpha counting U series dating has yielded ages of about 500-450 and 138-121 ka, indicating that there have been several episodes of deposition, occurring during Quaternary warm periods (Elsterian 1/2, Eemian). Spiral and acicular forms representing a second generation began to be deposited in Late Glacial (14 ka – Alleröd) times. The youngest aragonite, frostwork, continues to be deposited today. Both of the younger generations have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that they originated in conditions very similar, or identical, to those found at present in the cave.


Magmatic and Hydrothermal Chronology of the Giant Rio Blanco Porphyry Copper Deposit, Central Chile: Implications of an Integrated U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar Database, 2005, Deckart K, Clark Ah, Celso Aa, Ricardo Vr, Bertens An, Mortensen Jk, Fanning M,
The history of hypabyssal intrusion and hydrothermal activity in the northeastern and central parts of the be-hemothian (sensu Clark, 1993) Rio Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit is clarified on the basis of integrated U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Isotope dilution thermal ion mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb dates for zircon separates and ID-TIMS and sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dates for single zircon grains in pre-, syn- and late-mineralization volcanic and intrusive host rocks in the Rio Blanco, Don Luis, and Sur-Sur mining sectors provide a temporal framework for interpretation of incremental-heating and spot-fusion 40Ar/39Ar dates for, respectively, magmatic biotite and hydrothermal biotite, muscovite, and orthoclase. The ore deposit is hosted in part by 16.77 {} 0.25 to 17.20 {} 0.05 (2{sigma}) Ma andesitic volcanic strata of the Farellones Formation, but the major host rocks are units of the San Francisco batholith, including the 11.96 {} 0.40 Ma Rio Blanco granodiorite (mine terminology), the 8.40 {} 0.23 Ma Cascada granodiorite, and the 8.16 {} 0.45 Ma diorite. Hypabyssal dacitic intrusions (late porphyries) emplaced into the batholith yield 206Pb/238U ID-TIMS dates ranging from 6.32 {} 0.09 Ma (quartz monzonite porphyry), through 5.84 {} 0.03 Ma (feldspar porphyry) to 5.23 {} 0.07 Ma (Don Luis porphyry). The late-mineralization Rio Blanco dacite plug yields a SHRIMP zircon age of 4.92 {} 0.09 Ma. The 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for phenocrystic biotites in quartz monzonite porphyry, feldspar porphyry, and Don Luis porphyry, as well as the preore diorite, range only from 5.12 {} 0.07 to 4.57 {} 0.06 Ma. All are significantly younger than the corresponding zircons and exhibit no correlation with intrusive sequence. The 40Ar/39Ar ages for hydrothermal biotite and orthoclase veins within the San Francisco batholith units fall in a narrow interval from 5.32 {} 0.27 to 4.59 {} 0.11 Ma. Hydrothermal sericites (muscovite), one associated with chalcopyrite, yielded spot-fusion ages of 4.40 {} 0.15 Ma (Rio Blanco granodiorite hosted) and 4.37 {} 0.06 Ma (Don Luis porphyry hosted). Comparison with the ID-TIMS and SHRIMP zircon ages indicates that most of the 40Ar/39Ar ages, even 95 percent plateaus, do not record initial magmatic cooling or hydrothermal alteration-mineralization events, evidence for quasipervasive reheating to at least 300{degrees}C by successive intrusions. Published Re-Os ages for two molybdenite samples range from 5.4 to 6.3 Ma and overlap extensively with the zircon U-Pb ages for the late porphyries. They imply that Cu-Mo mineralization overlapped temporally with the emplacement of, at least, quartz monzonite porphyry and feldspar porphyry units of the late porphyry suite and was, therefore, contemporaneous with the rise of dacitic melts to subvolcanic levels. Hydrothermal activity is inferred to have continued until 4.37 {} 0.06 Ma, following intrusion of the Don Luis porphyry and the early stages of emplacement of the Rio Blanco dacite plug complex. Hypogene Cu-Mo mineralization therefore probably persisted for 2 m.y. The geochronologic data do not resolve whether ore formation was continuous or episodic, but the observed crosscutting relationships between intensely altered and mineralized country rocks and less altered and mineralized late porphyry bodies support a model in which the ascent of metal-rich brines from an unexposed zone of the parental magma chamber was periodically stimulated by magma perturbation and hypabyssal intrusion

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