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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That clay boil is a mud circle that suggests a welling-up or heaving of the central core.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tourist cave (Keyword) returned 28 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 28
Analysis of the main factors affecting the evaluation of the radon dose in workplaces: The case of tourist caves, , Quindos Luis Santiago, Sainz Carlos, Fuente Ismael, Nicolas Jorge, Quindos Luis,

Towards An Air Quality Standard For Tourist Caves : Studies of Carbon Dioxide Enriched Atmospheres In Gaden - Coral Cave, Wellington Caves, N.S.W., 1981, Osborne, R. Armstrong L.

Carbon dioxide enriched atmospheres are not uncommon in Australian caves and have posed a safety problem for cavers. Carbon dioxide enrichment of a tourist cave's atmosphere is a management problem which can only be approached when standards for air quality are applied. In Gaden - Coral Cave two types of carbon dioxide enrichment are recognised; enrichment by human respiration and enrichment from an external source. Standards for air quality in mines and submersible vehicles are applicable to tourist caves. A maximum allowable concentration of 0.5% carbon dioxide is recommended as the safe, but not the most desirable, air quality standard for tourist caves.


The Cleanup of Weebubbie Cave, 1987, Poulter, Norman

For many years Weebubbie Cave had been used as a water resource. This utilisation ceased somewhere around 1984. Although the active pump and piping were removed, the debris of previous exploiters remained. The description is given of the methods employed to remove the debris based on experience gained from an earlier cleanup in the Yallingup tourist cave. Weebubbie Cave 6N-2 is a large collapse doline located on the Hampton Tableland of the vast Nullabor Plain some 14km north of Eucla near the Western Australian border. The region is arid with an average rainfall of 125mm per year, although it has been known to fall (all) in one day. With summer temperatures sometimes reaching to 50 degree C, water is essential for survival. The predominating vegetation of saltbush and bluebush is well suited as stock feed.


The Restoration of the Jewel Casket, Yallingup Cave, W.A., 1987, Poulter, Norman

During the September school holidays 1985, vandals extensively damaged the Jewel Casket, one of the centre-pieces of the Yallingup tourist cave. Some of the broken pieces were stolen. This paper describes the restoration of the remaining pieces.


The Source of the Jenolan River, 1988, Kiernan, Kevin

Geomorphological and Hydrological investigation of un-mapped limestone outcrops and enclosed depressions that occur between North Wiburds Bluff and the headwaters of Bindo Creek has confirmed the presence of significant karst well to the north of the boundary of the Jenolan Caves Reserve and that karst drainage could conceivably breach the Great Dividing Range. The limestone becomes progressively less well dissected northwards with the karst being very subdued at the northern end of the belt. Fluoroscein testing has shown that a streamsink at the southern end of this area drains directly to Central River in Mammoth Cave, and thence to imperial Cave and Blue Lake. This indicates that at least some of the limestone in this area is continuous beneath the surficial covers with the main Northern Limestone rather than being a discrete lens. The situation has important management implications in view of expanding forestry operations in the area since these have the potential to seriously increase the sediment load of waters that pass through wild caves and the Jenolan tourist caves complex.


Radon hazard in caves: a monitoring and management strategy, 1992, Lyons, Ruth G.

Factors governing the accumulation of radon in caves are discussed. Preliminary measurements in some Australian caves show levels which vary by factors of 4 (seasonal) and 75 (diurnal), with the upper levels approaching recommended maximum exposure levels for some tourist cave guides.


Environmental management of tourist caves, 1993, Cigna Aa,

Effect of automobile emissions on the Jenolan Caves , 1998, James Julia M. , Antil Sarah J. , Cooper A. , Stone D. J. M.

Jenolan Caves are a major tourist attraction in NSW, Australia. One of the major features of the caves is a natural archway known as the Grand Arch, through which a road passes. Carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter were measured in an attempt to determine the associated risk to the caves. CO2 levels were above the average atmospheric concentration but below the limestone damage threshold of 2400 ppm. The SOx, NOx and VOCs concentrations were exceptionally low. Vehicle-produced particulate matter from the Grand Arch was found up to 100 m into the tourist caves but was prevented from further penetration by a barrier of moist cave air.


The potential corrosion of speleothems by condensation water , 1998, Linhua Song, Jingrong Yang, Laihong Wang

Because of the development of tourist activities and facilities in show caves, the closed system of the caves has been changed into complicated open system. The visitor flow and the high energy of landscape lights give a great deal of thermoenergy to the show cave system, which makes the temperature rise and reduces the humidity very fast. After the visitors leave and the lights are switched off, the temperature goes down and humidity increases even up to saturation, condensation takes place. The humidity of Yaolin cave reaches 97%-100% throughout the year. The visitors give average CO2 content of 13000-15000 ppm by breathing and one visitor breathes 40 litre of CO2 per hour. The visitors strongly influence the CO2 content of the cave atmosphere.


BIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN CAVES, 2002, Culver David C. , Sket Boris

In 1999, we described the twenty caves and karst wells that have 20 or more species of obligate cave organisms living in them. Among these caves five are developed as tourist caves &emdash; Postojna-Planina Cave System (Slovenia), Baget - Sainte Catherine System (France), Shelta Cave (Alabama, USA), Mammoth Cave (Kentucky, USA), and Vjetrenica Cave (Bosnia & Herzegovina). For these and other tourist caves, there is a special responsibility to protect this fauna. The very fact that caves with large numbers of visitors and with modifications to the cave can have high species diversity shows that the two are not incompatible. Many of the standard sampling techniques, may work in some caves only; they are of restricted use. Pollution may be either directly detrimental to the cave fauna or may enable surface species to outcompete the endemic cave fauna. Therefore, changes in the quantity of fauna have to be monitored as well as changes in its taxonomic composition. In the case of new tourist installations, the local cave and surface fauna has to be investigated prior to any modifications. For biological monitoring, we recommend one of the following: 1. minimum-time census, rather than minimum-area census; 2. baiting in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats; 3. pitfall traps (baited or unbaited) in terrestrial habitats.


Black carbon pollution of speleothems by fine urban aerosols in tourist caves, 2003, Jeong Gi Young, Kim Soo Jin, Chang Sae Jung,
Speleothems in the karst caves of South Korea, which receive many visitors, are losing their aesthetic appeal due to black coloring. Mineralogical, textural, and chemical analyses were conducted on the speleothems to discover the cause of the discoloration. An abrupt color change from the natural color seen in the inner zones to the black color of the outer zones suggests that pollution commenced just after the opening of caves to visitors, and has continued since then. The main mineral compositions of both the outer black and the inner layers are the same, but the concentration of non-carbonate carbon is much higher in the black layers than in the inner layers. Electron microscopy showed that chain-like agglomerates (ca. 0.2-1.1 {micro}m diameter) of sub-micrometer carbon spheres (ca. 0.02-0.05 {micro}m diameter) are absent from the inner layer but present in the black layer, as well as in the cave aerosol. On the basis of their sub-micrometer size, agglomeration pattern, and composition, the carbon spheres and their agglomerates are considered to originate mostly from automobile exhaust. They are presumed to have been carried into the caves by visitors from urban environments and then deposited on the surface of growing speleothems. Protection of speleothems from discoloration requires control of these fine anthropogenic aerosols

La grotte dAlisadr, un tmoin exceptionnel de lvolution morphologique du Zagros (Iran), 2004, Dumas, Dominique
Cave of Alisadr: a geomorphologic site of outstanding interest in the Zagros Mountains of Iran - The tourist cave of Alisadr, located on the eastern boundaries of the Zagros Mountains, is biggest subsurface cave visited in Iran. Most part of the karstic underground galleries is permanently filled with water: on the sides of the galleries former water table levels are indicated by numerous calcareous sinters. The sub-surface karst has preserved numerous relics and paleoenvironmental residual deposits, which show the geomorphologic karstic development. Dating of the three conspicuous calcareous levels in the cave and that of the surface basaltic mesa, to be established a few kilometres from the cave enable a chronology the stages of karstic evolution. The place of pre-quaternary vestiges in the landscapes of this country is also determined. For example, no typical landform of glacial erosion has been identified. The current karstic denudation rate is about 3 mm/Ky. The geomorphologic evolution of surface and sub-surface landforms during the quaternary era is shown and deduced from the processes, which have led to breccia formations in calcareous rocks.

Tourist Caves: Algae and Lampenflora, 2004, Aley T.

Tourist Caves, 2004, Hamiltonsmith E.

Tourist Caves: Air Quality, 2004, James J. M.

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