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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That nothephreatic is referring to water moving slowly in cavities in the phreatic zone [25].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

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Your search for tracer breakthrough curve (Keyword) returned 11 results for the whole karstbase:
The Hydrology of a Glacierised Alpine Karst Castlegaurd Mountain, Alberta, PhD Thesis, 1983, Smart, Charles Christopher

Alpine karst throughout the world has been affected by past glaciation, and yet little is known of the interactions between glacier ice and karst. This dissertation attempts to gain some understanding of the problem through the study of the Castleguard Area, Alberta, where a karst aquifer is presently overlain by temperate glacier ice.
Quantitative fluorometric tracing and hydrometric measurements generated a broad data base on aquifer behaviour. Tracer breakthrough curves were interpreted using a new systematic approach which considers an explicit set of processes likely to affect the particular tracer under the given experimental conditions. Non-linearity in aquifer behaviour and rapid groundwater velocities demonstrated the aquifer to be an extreme conduit type Conduit springs are elements in a vertical hierarchy in which the topmost springs are "overflows" and exhibit greater flow variability than their associated "underflows". A numerical model was developed to simulate a conduit aquifer. It demonstrated that pulse train and recession analysis widely accepted methods of karst aquifer investigation, could be rather misleading when applied to conduit aquifers.
Interactions between ice and groundwater were observed at two scales: regulation water appeared to feed a diffuse percolation system and supraglacial melt passed into subglacial conduits which entered open vadose shafts. Karst is unlikely to be entirely subglacial in origin because of the limited aggressiveness of subglacial waters.
The Castlegaurd karst appeared to have originated preglacially in response to the breaching of impermeable caprock. Glaciation re-ordered the landscape and produced abundant clastic debris which subsequently blocked or obstructed karst conduits. Much of the resulting karst is paragenetic and comparatively immature due to glacial disruption and slow growth rates. Geomorphic and hydrologic interactions between ice and karst depend intimately upon the relationship between the geographic zones of the glacier and the aquifer.

Karstic groundwater flow characteristics in the Cretaceous Chalk aquifer, Northern Ireland, 1999, Barnes S,
The Cretaceous Chalk in Northern Ireland (Ulster White Limestone Formation) is a locally important aquifer for both public and private supply, yet little is known about its groundwater flow regime. This issue is important for the protection of existing groundwater abstractions and for the development of new sources as it will help determine groundwater vulnerability and resource potential in the Chalk. The subject has been addressed using hydrochemical variations from individual springs, together with artificial and natural water tracing techniques employed from river-sinks located at outcrop. A common orientation has been established between traced groundwater flow routes and the dominant northwest-southeast fracture trend within the Ulster White Limestone Formation. Hydraulic gradient has also been shown to have little significance in controlling the flow direction, suggesting poor fracture connectivity and thus extreme aquifer heterogeneity. Tracer breakthrough curve characteristics and velocities (up to 2838 metres per day) are indicative of conduit rather than fracture flow. In addition, the highly variable water chemistry associated with all the proven river-sink supplied springs has been independently classified to meet conduit flow criteria. Conversely, the much less variable water chemistry associated with springs draining Chalk subcrop areas (with no influence from river-sinks) is consistent with a less active karstic regime

Quantitative analysis of tracer breakthrough curves from tracing tests in karst aquifers, 1999, Field M. S.
Numerical analysis of tracer-breakthrough curves allow quick reliable estimates for many of the basic hydraulic and geometric parametersTracer-breakthrough curve analysis relies on the application of a continuous mass balance model for transport parameter estimationReadily obtained hydraulic parameters required for modeling include peak arrival time and peak velocity, longitudinal dispersion, and Peclet numberGeometric parameters include volume, cross-sectional area, and diameterSome boundary-layer effects can also be roughly estimated

Dispersion, retardation and scale effect in tracer breakthrough curves in karst conduits., 2001, Hauns M. , Jeannin P. Y. , Atteia O.

Dispersion, retardation and scale effect in tracer breakthrough curves in karst conduits, 2001, Hauns M. , Jeannin P. Y. , Atteia O. ,
Characteristics of tracer breakthrough curves in karst conduits are examined and compared to results generated using well known equations applied to porous media. The equations of the turbulent dispersion lead to a transport equation similar to the classical advection-dispersion equation for porous media with a slightly different meaning for the dispersion and advection terms. For investigations at the meter length scale, we used a three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate tracer transport in several conduit geometries. The simulations show that turbulent dispersion can be considered as Fickian at a meter length scale of observation and that turbulent dispersivity depends linearly on the average flow velocity in the range of observed velocities. The simulations show that pools induce retardation (tailing of the breakthrough curve) due to flow reversal in eddies. Retardation has a complex relationship with the pool dimensions. Irregularity of the conduit cross-section along the investigated section clearly produces retardation. This is obvious at the meter length scale but may still be visible 10(3) m downstream from the injection point. A transfer function ('black box') approach is used for upscaling from a meter to a 10(3) m length scale. Before applying it to natural examples, the transfer function approach is tested by using the 3-D CFD code and appears to perform well. Several tests, based on numerical, laboratory and held experiments, of conduit segments which includes various dispersive features indicate that retardation tends to be transformed to symmetrical dispersion with distance. At large scale it appears that the dominant dispersion factor is the irregularity of the conduit geometry, which produces an increase in dispersivity with distance ('scale effect'), similar to that observed in porous media. In conclusion this suggests that retardation and high dispersion provide evidence of an irregular conduit, including either numerous dispersive features or large-scale ones (pools for example). Conversely no retardation and moderate dispersion (close to 0.012 m) must result from turbulent Row through a smooth conduit. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Surface and Groundwater Interaction of the Bela Stream and Vipava Springs in Southwestern Slovenia, 2001, Baker Gerry, Petrič, Metka, Parkin Geoff, Kogovš, Ek Janja

Previous studies suggest a hydrogeologic link between the Vipava springs and the neighbouring Bela surface stream. The Vipava springs drain the Nanos karst plateau. The Bela stream drains the very low permeable flysch to the north west of the Nanos plateau before flowing onto limestone where it gradually sinks along its course. A tracer, uranine, was injected into the Bela upstream of the village Vrhpolje and hydraulic connection with all the Vipava springs was proved. A dispersion model was used to characterise the tracer breakthrough curve of one of the springs where the highest concentrations were found. The hydrology of the Bela was analysed by measuring the discharge of the stream at 8 different sections and analysing the difference in flow between each section. The conclusion drawn from the analysis was that the Bela stream has a different hydrological response related to whether the majority of recharge comes from the karstic or flysch area of the catchment. A flow separation analysis based on hydrochemical measurements indicated that the hydrological response of the Vipava springs also depends on the recharge source area. Proved connection leads to environmental concern for the water quality of the Vipava springs, which are the main water supply of the area, because untreated wastewater is discharged into the Bela stream.

Rapid karstic bypass flow in the unsaturated zone of the Yorkshire chalk aquifer and implications for contaminant transport, 2007, Allshorn Sjl, Bottrell Sh, West Lj, Odling Ne,
Tracer tests have been performed on the unsaturated zone of the East Yorkshire chalk aquifer, UK. Rapid tracer travel times through significant thicknesses of unsaturated chalk (15-38 m) indicate that bypass flow must occur through fractures. Transport processes in the unsaturated zone of the chalk aquifer thus have similarities to those in the vadose zone of more typically karstic limestone aquifers. Modelling of tracer breakthrough curves indicates that bypass flow is sufficiently rapid to significantly inhibit diffusional loss of tracer into the porous matrix of the chalk. The presence of rapid karstic bypass flow in the unsaturated zone of the chalk will limit the potential for attenuation of groundwater contaminants in this zone

Comparison of Conduit Volumes Obtained from Direct Measurements and Artificial Tracer Tests, 2010, Vojtechovska Anna, Bruthans Jiri, Krejca Frantisek

An isolated phreatic loop in a natural cave was used to test the reliability of artificial-tracer tests for estimating the volume of a flooded karst conduit. The volume of a phreatic tube was measured by filling a drained phreatic loop with a constant inflow over a known time period. The volume of the phreatic loop is 190 6 20 m3, and it was compared to independent calculations of conduit volumes based on values based on tracer breakthrough curves. The best results were for mean transit time, where tracer-test calculations yielded volumes very similar to the volume obtained by direct filling of the loop. On the other hand, using the first-arrival time or peak time in the volume calculation resulted in considerable underestimation of the phreatic tube’s volume, and these methods should be avoided except when breakthrough curves are affected by molecular diffusion. This demonstrates that volume estimation by tracer tests may be quite precise for common natural conduits, but results are strongly affected by the breakthrough-curve parameter chosen by the experimenter

Bench-scale models of dye breakthrough curves, 2013, Anger Cale T. , Alexander Jr. E. Calvin

Fluorescent dye tracer breakthrough curves (TBCs) obtained from quantitative traces in karst flow systems record multiple processes, including advection, dispersion, diffusion, mixing, adsorption, and chemical reaction. In this study, TBCs were recorded from small, bench-scale physical models in an attempt to isolate, understand, and quantify some of these processes under full-pipe flow conditions. Dye traces were conducted through a suite of geometries constructed out of Pyrex glass. These geometries consisted of (1) linear conduits, of varying length and diameter, (2) single and dual mixing chambers, and (3) a single chamber with an immobile region. Each glass system was connected to a constant flow apparatus. Dye was then injected with a syringe, allowed to flow through the system, and be naturally or artificially mixed in the process. Solute breakthrough was recorded in a scanning spectrofluorophotometer and the resulting TBC was analyzed. Independent variables examined in each of the three settings were discharge (Q) and dye concentration (Co). Artificial mixing rates (RM), induced by magnetic stirrers in settings (2) and (3), were also considered. Initial runs varied Q from 0.75 to 1.25 mL/s, with constant RM ranging from 0 to 360 revolutions per minute (rpm). Preliminary data yield realistic-looking breakthrough curves with steeply rising leading edges, a peak, and an asymmetric, exponential tail. Analysis of laboratory variables with respect to hydraulic parameters extracted from each TBC suggests that discharge and mixing rate alone can differentiate conduit complexity at the laboratory scale.


Comparison of discharge, chloride, temperature, uranine, dD, and suspended sediment responses from a multiple tracer test in karst, 2013, Luhmann A. J. , Covington M. D. , Alexander S. C. , Chai S. Y. , Schwartz B. F. , Groten J. T. , Alexander Jr. E. C.

A controlled recharge event with multiple tracers was conducted on August 30, 2010. A pool adjacent to a sinkhole was filled with approximately 13,000 L of water. The water was heated, and salt, deuterium oxide, and uranine were added. The pool was then emptied into the sinkhole, and data were collected at Freiheit Spring approximately 95 m north of the sinkhole to monitor changes in discharge, temperature, conductivity/chloride, dD, uranine, and suspended sediment. This combined trace demonstrated the feasibility and utility of conducting superimposed physical, chemical, and isotopic traces. Flow peaked first at the spring and was followed by a suspended sediment peak; then essentially identical uranine, chloride, and dD peaks; and finally a temperature peak. The initial increase in flow at the spring recorded the time at which the water reached a submerged conduit, sending a pressure pulse to the spring at the speed of sound. The initial increase in uranine, chloride, and dD at the spring recorded the arrival of the recharge water. The initial change in temperature and its peak occurred later than the same parameters in the uranine, chloride, and dD breakthrough curves. As water flowed along this flow path, water temperature interacted with the aquifer, producing a delayed, damped thermal peak at the spring. The combination of conservative and nonconservative tracers illustrates unique pressure, advective, and interactive processes.

A laboratory study of tracer tomography, 2013, Brauchler R. , Bhm G. , Leven P. , Dietrich C. , Sauter M.

A tracer tomographic laboratory study was performed with consolidated fractured rock in three-dimensional space. The investigated fractured sandstone sample was characterized by significant matrix permeability. The laboratory transport experiments were conducted using gas-flow and gas-tracer transport techniques that enable the generation of various flow-field patterns via adjustable boundary conditions within a short experimental time period. In total, 72 gas-tracer (helium) tests were performed by systematically changing the injection and monitoring configuration after each test. For the inversion of the tracer breakthrough curves an inversion scheme was applied, based on the transformation of the governing transport equation into a form of the eikonal equation. The reliability of the inversion results was assessed with singular value decomposition of the trajectory density matrix. The applied inversion technique allowed for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the interstitial velocity with a high resolution. The three-dimensional interstitial velocity distribution shows clearly that the transport is dominated by the matrix while the fractures show no apparent influence on the transport responses.

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