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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That predator is an animal that lives by capturing other animals for food [23]. see also prey.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tree (Keyword) returned 49 results for the whole karstbase:
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The geographical distribution of Australian cave dwelling Chiroptera., 1966, Hamiltonsmith E.
Of the 56 species of bats currently recorded from Australia, 22 are known to occur in caves. The geographical distribution of each of these species is detailed, and from this data, the species are divided into four groups according to their pattern of distribution. Group I comprises those species found only North of 18S latitude, all of which either also occur in New Guinea or are closely related to New Guinea species. Group II, including both endemic Australian genera, occurs over that area North of 28S latitude. This area largely comprises desert or semi-desert terrain, with its characteristics of low humidity and a wide range between extremes of temperature. Group III occurs in the Eastern Coastal Region, with one species extending to a limited degree along both Northern and Southern Coasts. Although temperature is extremely varied over this range, there are common environmental factors of moderate to high humidity and a moderate to low range of temperature variation. Group IV species are all widespread, in many cases over the whole continent, are all members of the Vespertilionidae, and occur in caves only occasionally or only in certain parts of their range. These species are more commonly found in trees or buildings. The possible factors contributing to the origin of these distributional patterns are discussed, and some areas for future investigation suggested.

A Collection of the Bat, Chalinolobus Morio (Gray), From The Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, 1971, Hall, Leslie S.

A collection of 23 live specimens and 26 complete skeletons of the bat, Chalinolobus - (Gray), was taken from two caves on the Nullarbor Plain. Tables of their forearm and skull measurements are presented. A comparison of the forearm measurements of Nullarbor specimens of C. morio with those of eastern Australian specimens of this species revealed a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.01). In Western Australia, C. morio appears to roost and breed in caves, while in eastern Australia, it is generally recognised as a tree dweller. Records of other species of bats collected on the Nullarbor Plain are given.


Biology and ecology of the El Convento cave-spring system (Puerto Rico)., 1974, Nicholas Brother G.
The El Convento Cave-Spring System is located at the head of the Quebrada de Los Cedros, approximately 20 km. west of Ponce, southwestern Puerto Rico. Although situated in an arid environment, the gorge receives sufficient moisture from the cave-spring system to support an abundant flora, with Bucida buceras and Bursera simaruba as the dominant trees. The cave is frequently flooded and possesses a rich nutrient substrate in the form of bat guano. Numerous orthopterans (Aspiduchus cavernicola and Amphiacusta annulipes), decapoda (Macrobrachium carcinus and Epilobocera sinuatifrons), and chiroptera (Brachyphylla cavernarum and Artebius jamaicensis) are present. In addition, approximately a dozen other species of invertebrates are found in lesser abundance throughout the system. None of the forms collected demonstrated specific cavernicolous adaptations. Because of the numerous entrances and frequent flooding the possibility of the presence of troglobites is minimal.

Observations on the biology of Stenasellus virei (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of subterranean waters), 1975, Magniez Guy
St. virei has been bred in the laboratory for many years (1960-1974). Most of the St.v.hussoni were captured in karstic waters, near the Moulis subterranean laboratory. Some St.v.virei from the Padirac sink-hole; St.v.buchneri from Cantabrian caves; St.v.boui and St.v.virei from phreatic waters; and St.buili and St.breuili have also been bred. Since Stenasellids are unable to swim, very low aquariums are used, with a bed of cave clay, some calcareous stones, dead wood and dead elm tree leaves. Little depth of water is necessary. Stenasellus was originally carnivorous, being able to capture and devour living prey, such as Chironomid larvae, but the populations of cave waters have developed a different diet: silt, guano, plant remains..., because they have been often insulated from their original phreatic biocenosis. Nevertheless, the existence of cannibalism among them points out that the predatory behaviour has not completely disappeared. Adult St.virei can be fed with Cerophyl. Some observations on the burrowing activity and on the reactions to light, temperature and salt water have been made. All postmarsupial molts of Stenasellus occur in two steps (isopodian molts). The intramolt is extremely long (from 83 h 30 mi for the first molt of the free young), to 8-12 days, for the adult male and female, 14 days for female reproductive molts and 16-21 days for the molts of aged or senile individuals). The intermolts last from 2 1/2 months (first intermolt of the free young), to 9-12 months (non-reproductive ones of the adult) and 12-18 months (average: 15-16), for reproductive 9 intermolts. The normal lifespan of karstic subspecies of St.virei and related species must be estimated as 12 years (males) and 15 years (females). All these values are 10-20 times longer than these of an epigean Asellid of the same size (Asellus aquaticus). The reproductive cycle has been studied. The adult female is larger than the male. There is no precopulatory pairing ("nuptial ride"d 6-7 years or more, fur the female. In the juvenile male, the morphogenesis of I and Il pleopods takes place normally on intermolts 4-9 and lasts 3 years or more. On intermolt 10, it seems that the male is able to mate.

Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976, Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.


Caractere de l'environnement souterrain de la galerie d'entree de la Grotte de Bedeilhac, Ariege., 1985, Bakalowicz M. , Mangin A. , Rouch R. Et Al.


Drought Damage in a Tasmanian Rainforest on Limestone, 1989, Duncan Fred, Kiernan Kevin

Widespread but patchily distributed drought death of forest trees occurred in early 1988 on a limestone ridge at Mole Creek in Tasmania. A close juxtaposition of damaged and undamaged vegetation probably reflects differences in the speed of soil moisture decline down the length of individual soil-filled solution tubes in which trees are rooted. Possible palaeoecological, geomorphological and sivicultural implications are briefly reviewed.


LIMESTONE QUARRYING AND QUARRY RECLAMATION IN BRITAIN, 1993, Gunn J. , Bailey D. ,
Limestones have been worked for many thousands of years initially for building stone and agricultural lime and more recently for a wide range of construction and industrial uses. In most industrialized countries limestone quarries represent the most visually obvious and, in both process and landform terms, the most dramatic anthropogenic impact on karst terrain. However, quarrying has to date, received surprisingly little attention from karst scientists. Research in the English Peak District suggested that the postexcavation evolution of quarried limestone rock faces was in part a result of the methods used in their excavation, and this led to the development of a technique designed to reduce the visual and environmental impacts of modern quarries by ''Landform replication.'' This involves the use of controlled ''restoration blasting'' techniques on quarried rock slopes to construct a landform sequence similar to that in the surrounding natural landscape. The constructed landforms are then partially revegetated using appropriate wildflower, grass, and/or tree species

Convolution a debit variable a partir des reponses de tracages artificiels; application a un systeme karstique (Causse de Gramat, Lot, France): Convolution in time-dependent system from artificial tra, 1995, Dzikowski M, Delay F, Sauty Jp, Crampon N, De Marsily G,
ResumeLa realisation de tracages artificiels dans des conditions hydrodynamiques differentes sur le systeme karstique de I'Ouysse (Causse de Gamat, France) ainsi que de mesures physicochimiques portant entre autres sur les chlorures, nitrates et matieres en suspension ont permis d'exploiter les possibilites de l'analyse des systemes-tracages dependant du temps. Pour des tracages artificiels realises a des periodes hydrologiques differentes (basses-eaux et hauteseaux), les relations entre les reponses impulsionnelles a l'injection instantanee de traceur et les debits d'ecoulement variables associes sont mises en evidence sur un systeme a deux entrees (pertes de Themines et Theminettes) et une sortie (gouffre de Besaces). Ces relations etablissent une independance entre l'espace occupe par le traceur au cours de son transfert et les conditions hydrodynamiques dans la gamme de debits interessant chaque tracage. Des operations de convolutions d'entrees en chlorures, nitrates et matieres en suspension, basses sur l'hypothese d'un systeme a volume constant dependant du temps ont donc pu etre realisees. Les resultats sont compares au mesures experimentales au point de sortie (Besaces).AbstractArtificial tracer tests conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions on the karst system of Ouysse (Causse de Gramat, France) and chemical measurements have permitted the use of the time-dependent tracer test analysis. For artificial tracer experiments in different hydrologic periods (water rise and high flow), the relationships between the responses to an instantaneous injection are improved in a system defined by two inputs (losses of Themines and Theminettes). They show that the space occupied by the mass of tracer during its transfer can be considered as independent of the discharge according to the range of flow rate in which the tracer experiments have been conducted. Therefore, convolutions on chlorides, nitrates and suspended sediments are simulated under the hypothesis of a constant-volume and time-dependent system. The computed results are compared with the experimental data at the output (cave of Besaces)

The nutritional status of healthy and declining stands of Banksia integrifolia on the Yanakie Isthmus, Victoria, 1997, Bennett Lt, Attiwill Pm,
Banksia integrifolia L.f. has been in decline an calcareous sands of the Yanakie Isthmus, southern Victoria, since early 1980. Early studies indicated that the decline is associated with a particular soil condition possibly a nutritional imbalance involving Fe. However, in foliage samples collected from the three main soil types of the Isthmus, declining trees had similar concentrations of Fe but lower concentrations of Ca than healthy trees. Comparisons were made of seasonal variation in concentrations of macro- and micro-nutrients in foliage and litterfall from healthy trees (to minimise secondary changes associated with decline) within healthy and declining sites on the same soil type. On average, litterfall and the nutrient content of litterfall was greatest within the canopy area of B. integrifolia of the healthy stand. Banksias of the healthy stand also had greater concentrations of N, P, K and Na in fully-expanded leaves, resorbed greater proportions of phloem-mobile nutrients from senescent leaves and accumulated more Ca in senescent leaves. However, there was no evidence of nutritional imbalance in healthy trees within declining stands. It is argued that the lower foliar Ca in declining trees on three soil types and lower nutritional status of healthy trees within declining stands were due to lower productivity and lower water use and were therefore a result or an indication of decline rather than a cause

Signification chrono-climatique de splothmes lamins de Chine du nord, 1998, Ming Tan, Tungsheng Liu, Xiaoguang Qin, Xianfeng Wang
Speleothems from North China show that many of them have very fine microlayer growth. Most of these layers have bi-optical characters that can be observed under fluorescent and transmitted light. Hydrological analysis and radio-isotopic dating demonstrate that those layers are annually laminated. A Holocene stalagmite from Shihua Cave in Southwest Beijing presents thousands of micro-layers which are very similar to tree rings. Based on the measurements of the thickness of annual layers, short-term climatic changes over the last 1,130 years in the Beijing area are discussed.

Land use in the karstic lands in the Mediterranean region, 1999, Atalay Ibrahim
Karstic lands have special importance in terms of soil formation and land-use. Soil appears only on the flat and slightly undulating karstic lands, while soils are found along the cracks and bedding surfaces between the layers on the hilly karst areas although these lands are rocky in appearance. Karstic lands in the hilly area are not conducive to cultivation. But rocky areas create a favourable habitat for the growth of forests except in an arid climate. Because the tree roots easily follow and develop along the cracks in the limestone. As a general rule soil erosion does not occur on sub-horizontal karst surfaces due to the fact that atmospheric waters easily infiltrate along the cracks. Natural generation of vegetation like the maquis-type occurs via the root suckers, but coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, pine through seed dispersal. The clearance of natural vegetation on the karstic lands leads to the formation of bare lands. That is why the slopes of the limestone hillsides have been converted into bare and/or rocky terrains in places where natural vegetation has been completely destroyed.

Comparison of stormwater management in a karst terrane in Springfield, Missouri - case histories, 1999, Barner Wl,
Control of stormwater in sinkhole areas of Springfield, MO has involved the utilization of several standard approaches: concrete-lined channels draining into sinkholes; installation of drainage pipes into the sinkhole 'eyes' (swallow holes); filling of sinkholes; elaborate drains or pumps to remove stormwater from one sinkhole and discharging into another drainage basin or sinkhole; and enlargement of swallow holes by excavation to increase drainage capacity. Past planning considerations and standard engineering approaches have resulted in flooding of sinkholes and drainage areas, including residential, industrial and commercial developments. Having recognized the inadequacy of existing designs to control flooding and the need to accommodate increased runoff from future development, the City of Springfield adopted an ordinance (effective 19 June 1989 and modified in 1990 and 1993) in response to public pressure and concerns over flooding in sinkholes and sinkhole drainage areas. Three sites were analyzed to examine the effectiveness of contrasting design approaches to stormwater management. These sites differ in vegetation, on-site/off-site considerations, and types of development proposed. All three sites are located within the East Cherry Street Sinkhole Area. The first site, a wooded tract with unmodified sinkholes was cleared and developed for residential use. Discharge of stormwater was directed into sinkholes, and erosion control consisted of hydro-mulching and sedimentation fences in sinkhole areas. East of this location are two parcels which differ in removal of vegetation and off-site drainage relationships. Stormwater design in these sites was adapted for modifications made to sinkholes during railroad and highway construction several decades earlier. Sediment fencing, hydro-mulching and detention berms augment infiltration, restrict erosion, retard discharge to sinkholes, and incorporate off-site considerations. Ongoing observations of stormwater behavior indicate problems of flooding and sediment control at the western site but minimal disruptions of existing drainage patterns at the eastern sites. Design calculation for the western site show adequate volume retention in sinkholes, but different design approaches were implemented to 'soften' the impact of stormwater discharging into these sinkholes, allowing for minimal disruptions in the natural drainage network. The lack of recognition of sinkholes as integral parts of dynamic hydrologic systems may result in problems with on-site/off-site drainage. Standard engineering designs for stormwater detention are not appropriate for the hydraulic characteristics of the shallow karst drainage network. While runoff estimations are conservative, the design calculations fall short of adequately addressing actual stormwater runoff characteristics. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing the Climates of the Quaternary, 1999, Bradley R. S.

Raymond S. Bradley provides his readers with a comprehensive and up-to-date review of all of the important methods used in paleoclimatic reconstruction, dating and paleoclimate modeling. Two comprehensive chapters on dating methods provide the foundation for all paleoclimatic studies and are followed by up-to-date coverage of ice core research, continental geological and biological records, pollen analysis, radiocarbon dating, tree rings and historical records. New methods using alkenones in marine sediments and coral studies are also described. Paleoclimatology, Second Edition, is an essential textbook for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students studying climatology, paleoclimatology and paleooceanography worldwide, as well as a valuable reference for lecturers and researchers, appealing to archaeologists and scientists interested in environmental change.* Contains two up-to-date chapters on dating methods* Consists of the latest coverage of ice core research, marine sediment and coral studies, continental geological and biological records, pollen analysis, tree rings, and historical records* Describes the newest methods using alkenones in marine sediments and long continental pollen records* Addresses all important methods used in paleoclimatic reconstruction* Includes an extensive chapter on the use of models in paleoclimatology* Extensive and up-to-date bibliography* Illustrated with numerous comprehensive figure captions


Alpine Karst in Romania, 1999, Dana Tulucan Alina, Niculita Tulucan Tiberio, Beke Laszlo

The article expresses the view, that one may speak about the Alpine karst even in the areas outside the Alps, when special requirements are met, such as presence of carbonate rocks, affected by cryo-nival processes, glacial and periglacial erosion above the tree limit and the presence of superficial and underground karst phenomena.


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