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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That spring, sublacustrine is a spring emerging in the bed of a lake predominantly in karst areas [20]. synonyms: (french.) source sous lacustre; (german.) unterwaberquelle, sublacustre quelle; (greek.) ypovrichios pighi; (italian.) sorgente sublacustre; (russian.) istocnik na dne ozera; (spanish.) fuente sublacustre; (turkish.) golalti kaynagi. see spring, drowned.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for troglobiont (Keyword) returned 28 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 28
On hypogean Roncocreagris (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae) from Portugal, with descriptions of three new species, , Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Zaragoza Juan A. , Gonalves F. , Orom P.

Three new hypogean species of the Iberian genus Roncocreagris Mahnert, 1974 are described from mainland Portugal: R. borgesi sp. nov. and R. gepesi sp. nov. from caves in the Sicó massif, and R. occidentalis sp. nov. from caves in the Montejunto and Cesaredas karst plateau. This brings to nine the number of known hypogean species of the mostly Iberian genus Roncocreagris: five from Portugal and four from Spain. Ecological comments and new localities for some of the previously known species are also included.


Contribution to the study of certain Lithobiidae (Chilopoda) of Romanian caves., 1965, Negrea Stefan
This paper comprises the ecological and zoogeographical data of 21 systematic units of Lithobiidae coming from 100 Romanian caves (Transylvania, Banat, Oltenie and Dobroudja). Initially the author describes in a summarising way the provenance of the studied material, after which he exposes fro every species the results of observations carried out by several authors and by himself. Finally he formulates the conclusions concerning ecology and biogeography resulting from his observations. These data are summarised in a synoptic table in which three species can be considered troglobionts, two of which are blind; these are Harpolithobius oltenicus Negrea; Lithobius decapolitus Matic, Negrea et Prunescu; Lithobius daeicus Matic; The other 18 species found are 5 troglophiles, 12 sub-troglophiles and 1 trogloxene.

An introduction to Japanese groundwater animals with reference to their ecology and hygienic significance., 1976, Matsumoto Koichi
1) Nearly two hundred species of troglobites are known from the groundwaters of Japan. Most of these troglobiontic species, sixteen of seventy-seven genera, and what is more, four of fortyseven families are endemic to Japan. Uchidastygacaridae, Nipponacaridae, and Kantacaridae are endemic acaridan families of Japan. The coleopterous family, Phreatodytidae, is alto endemic to Japan. 2) Though studies on Protozoa, Turbellaria, Annelida, Aschelminthes, and Ostracoda, etc. remain sparse, the interstitial fauna is actively investigated recently and many specimens of Bathynellacea, Ingolfiella, Bogidiella, Microcerberus, Pseudovermis (Opisthobranchia), and Nerillidae, etc. have been collected from freshwater and marine environments. 3) None of the troglobites is known to be directly detrimental to human health and most of them have been collected from well-waters which are regarded as chemically clean in many cases, but they have also been obtained occasionally from bacteriologically contaminated well-waters. 4) Ecological and taxonomic knowledge, of even the limited amount which we possess at present, has enabled us to utilize various animals which occur in well-waters as biological indicators of well-water pollution and to have some insight as to the origin of the pollution.

Population size of Pyrenean troglobiont coleopters (Speonomus species) in a cave in Belgium, 1991, Brouwir Christine, Tercafs Raymond
The population size of three troglobitic species of Speonomus (Coleoptera Bathysciinae) from the Pyrenees, intentionally introduced in 1969-1970 into the "Grotte de Ramioul" cave (Province of Lige, Belgium) has been studied using the mark-recapture technique. It has been shown that the three cave levels possess large Speonomus populations (upper network: 12,718; middle network: 13,902; lower network: 18,249 individuals) and that the superficial underground environment is also colonized, including the schist area. The most abundant species is Speonomus longicornis (relative frequency between 0.73 to 0.89). The two other species are present in the relative frequency between 0.04 and 0.23 for S. diecki, and between 0.03 and 0.11 for S. stygius. The overall Speonomus population size in the cave is estimated at 44,000 individuals.

Sinogammarus troglodytes n. gen. n. sp. A new troglobiont Gammarid from China (Crustacea Amphipoda), 1994, Karaman Gordan, Ruffo Sandro
The authors describe Sinogammarus troglodytes n. gen. n. sp. found in two caves in Sichuan province in China, the first Chinese troglobite of the Gammaridae family (sensu Barnard & Barnard, 1983; 1990). The new genus is discussed and compared with the microphthalmous and anophthalmous genera of Gammaridae, heretofore known in the subterranean waters of the Balkan peninsula and the Caucasus region. The genus Sinogammarus is most closely allied to Gammarus Fabricius and Anopogammarus Derzhavin.

Hotspots of Subterranean Biodiversity in Caves and Wells, 2000, Culver, D. C. , Sket, B.
We documented 18 caves and two karst wells that have 20 or more stygobites and troglobites. Crustacea dominated the aquatic fauna. Taxonomic composition of the terrestrial fauna varied, but Arachnida and Insecta together usually dominated. Geographically, the sites were concentrated in the Dinaric Karst (6 caves). Sites tended to have high primary productivity or rich organic input from the surface, be large caves, or have permanent groundwater (phreatic water). Dokumentirala sva 18 jam in dva kraka vodnjaka, iz katerih je znanih 20 ali vec vrst troglobiontov in stigobiontov. V vodni favni preladujejo raki. Taksonomski sestav kopenske favne je raznolik, vendar pajkovci in zuzelke skupaj navadno prevladujejo. Najvec taknih jam (est) je v Dinarskem krasu. Nadpovprecno so zastopane jame z lastno primarno produkcijo ali bogatim vnosom hrane s povrja, obsezne jame in jame, ki vkljucujejo tudi freatsko plast.

Age estimates for some subterranean taxa and lineages in the Dinaric Karst, 2007, Trontelj P. , Gorič, Ki Š, . , Polak S. , Verovnik R. , Zakš, Ek V. , Sket B.

Using a comparative phylogeographic approach and different independent molecular clocks we propose a timescale for the evolution of troglobionts in the Dinaric Karst that is relatively consistent over a wide taxonomic range. Keystone events seem to belong to two age classes. (1) Major splits within holodinaric taxa are from the mid-Miocene. They present the potential up­per limit for the age of cave invasions. (2) Regional differentia­tion, including speciation, which can at least in part be associ­ated with a subterranean phase, took place from early Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene. We suggest two to five million years as the time when most of the analyzed lineages started invading the Dinaric Karst underground.


Pattern and process: Evolution of troglomorphy in the cave-planthoppers of Australia and Hawaii ‒ Preliminary observations (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Cixiidae), 2007, Wessel A. , Erbe P. , Hoch H.

The evolution of troglobites comprises three distinct problems: cave colonization by an epigean ancestor, the evolution of tro­glomorphies, and intra-cave speciation. The study of cave-dwell­ing planthoppers has contributed much to our understanding of troglobite evolution and provides useful model systems to test various aspects of the theoretic framework developed in re­cent years. Most promising in this respect are taxa with several closely related but independently evolved troglobiontic lineag­es, such as on the Canary Islands, in Queensland/Australia and on the Hawaiian Archipelago. Closely related species often oc­cur in caves with comparable ecological parameters yet differ in their age. Here we use comparative age estimates for Australian and Hawaiian cave cixiids to assess the dynamics of reductive evolutionary trends (evolution of troglomorphy) in these taxa and cave planthoppers in general. We show that the degree of troglomorphy is not correlated with the age of cave lineages. Morphological alteration may not be used to draw conclusions about the phylogenetic age of cave organisms, and hypotheses based on such assumptions should be tested in light of these findings.


The subterranean fauna of a biodiversity hotspot region - Portugal: an overview and its conservation, 2011, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Borges Paulo A. V. , Gonalves Fernando, Serrano Artur R. M. , Orom Pedro

An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature on subterranean Biology of Portugal since the first written record in 1870 until today has been revised. A total of 43 troglobiont and 67 stygobiont species and subspecies from 12 orders have been described so far in these areas, included in the so-called Mediterranean hotspot of biodiversity. The subterranean fauna in Portugal has been considered moderately poor with some endemic relicts and it remains to be demonstrated if this fact is still true after investing in standard surveys in cave environments. The major problems related to the conservation of cave fauna are discussed, but it is clear that the protection of this specialized fauna implies an adequate management of surface habitats.


An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature o, 2011, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Borges Paulo A. V. , Gonalves Fernando, Serrano Artur R. M. , Orom Pedro

An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature on subterranean Biology of Portugal since the first written record in 1870 until today has been revised. A total of 43 troglobiont and 67 stygobiont species and subspecies from 12 orders have been described so far in these areas, included in the so-called Mediterranean hotspot of biodiversity. The subterranean fauna in Portugal has been considered moderately poor with some endemic relicts and it remains to be demonstrated if this fact is still true after investing in standard surveys in cave environments. The major problems related to the conservation of cave fauna are discussed, but it is clear that the protection of this specialized fauna implies an adequate management of surface habitats.


Volcanic caves: priorities for conserving the Azorean endemic troglobiont species, 2012, Borges Paulo A. V. Prof. , Cardoso Pedro, Amorim Isabel R. , Pereira Fernando, Constncia Joo P. , Nunes Joo C. , Barcelos Paulo, Costa Paulino, Gabriel Rosalina, Dapkeviciu Maria L.

Azorean lava-tubes and volcanic pits adequately sampled for arthropod fauna were evaluated for species diversity and rarity. An iterative partial multiple regression analysis was performed to produce a multi-criteria index (Importance Value for Cave Conservation, IV-CC) incorporating arthropod species diversity indices but also including indices qualifying cave geological and management features (e.g., the diversity of geological structures, threats, accessibility). Additionally, we calculated complementarity solutions (irreplaceability and Fraction-of-Spare measures) for each cave with different targets per species, i.e., the minimum number of caves needed for each species to be represented either once or twice. Our results clearly show that to preserve all troglobiont arthropods endemic to the Azores, it is crucial to protect several caves per island. As many as 10 and 15 caves are needed to include one or two occurrences, respectively, per species.


Diversity and community assembly patterns of epigean vs. troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula, 2012, Cardoso, Pedro

Cave-obligate organisms usually have smaller ranges and their assemblages have higher beta diversity than their epigean counterparts. Phylogenetic and functional diversity is usually low in cave communities, leading to taxonomic and functional disharmony, with entire groups missing from the subterranean realm. The objective of this work is to compare range, beta diversity, phylogenetic and functional diversity, taxonomic and functional disharmony of epigean versus troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula.
The median extent of occurrence was found to be 33 times higher for epigean than for cave species. Beta diversity was significantly higher for troglobiont assemblages. Cave assemblages present lower phylogenetic and functional diversities than expected by chance. Taxonomic disharmony was noticeable, with many speciose families, namely Gnaphosidae, Salticidae and Lycosidae, absent in caves. Functional disharmony was equally high, with ambush hunters and sensing web weavers being absent in caves.
The small range and high beta diversity of troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula is typical of many cave-obligate organisms, caused by the fragmentation and isolation of cave systems and the low vagility and high habitat specialization of species. Caves were colonized mainly by pre-adapted lineages, with high proportions of eutroglophile species. Some families no longer occur in surface habitats, possibly since the last glaciations, and currently are restricted to caves in the region. Few hunting strategies and web types are efficient in caves and these dominate among the troglobiont species.
As troglobiont communities are of low alpha diversity, with low functional redundancy, have narrow ranges, present high levels of population fragmentation and are taxonomically unique, they should present higher proportions of imperilled species than epigean spiders in the Iberian Peninsula. Some species are probably endangered and require urgent conservation measures.


Duality of terrestrial subterranean fauna, 2012, Novak T. Perc M. Lipovek S. Janekovič, F.

Terrestrial animals in subterranean habitats are often classified according to their degree of morphological or ecological specialization to the subterranean environment. The commonly held view is that, as distance into a cave increases, the frequency of morphologically specialized, i.e., troglomorphic, species or ecological specialization will increase. We tested this hypothesis for the fauna in 54 caves in Slovenia–the classical land for subterranean biology. We found that there exist two ecologically well separated terrestrial subsurface faunas: one shallow and one deep. 1) The shallow subterranean fauna, adapted to the terrestrial shallow subterranean habitats (SSHs) in the upper 10 m of subsurface strata, is most diverse. It consists of randomly distributed non-troglobionts and a major group of troglobionts adapted to the soil root zone. 2) The deep subterranean fauna is represented by a minor group of troglobionts, adapted to caves. Troglobionts are strictly divided between the two faunas. There is strong evidence that in karstic ecosystems with deep-rooted vegetation this might be a global pattern, or that in these locations only the shallow subterranean fauna exist.


Duality of terrestrial subterranean fauna, 2012, Novak Tone, Matja Perc, Saka Lipovek, Franc Janekovič,

Terrestrial animals in subterranean habitats are often classified according to their degree of morphological or ecological specialization to the subterranean environment. The commonly held view is that, as distance into a cave increases, the frequency of morphologically specialized, i.e., troglomorphic, species or ecological specialization will increase. We tested this hypothesis for the fauna in 54 caves in Slovenia–the classical land for subterranean biology. We found that there exist two ecologically well separated terrestrial subsurface faunas: one shallow and one deep. 1) The shallow subterranean fauna, adapted to the terrestrial shallow subterranean habitats (SSHs) in the upper 10 m of subsurface strata, is most diverse. It consists of randomly distributed non-troglobionts and a major group of troglobionts adapted to the soil root zone. 2) The deep subterranean fauna is represented by a minor group of troglobionts, adapted to caves. Troglobionts are strictly divided between the two faunas. There is strong evidence that in karstic ecosystems with deep-rooted vegetation this might be a global pattern, or that in these locations only the shallow subterranean fauna exist.


The worlds deepest subterranean community - Krubera-Voronja Cave (Western Caucasus), 2012, Sendra Alberto, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S.

Subsurface biota extends over a wide variety of habitats that can be spatially interconnected. The largest communities of this subsurface biota inhabit cavities and are well known mainly in caves where biologists are able to have access. Data about deep subterranean communities and arthropods living under one thousand meters was unknown. An expedition to world’s deepest cave, Krubera-Voronja in Western Caucasus, revealed an interesting subterranean community, living below 2000 meters and represented by more than 12 species of arthropods, including several new species for science. This deep cave biota is composed of troglobionts and also epigean species, that can penetrate until -2140 m. Deep subterranean ecosystems should not be seen only as an evolu- tionary dead end towards the troglomorphic syndrome, but also as a shelter for epigean species populations, especially during long periods of time when surface conditions are severe for their survival. Most of the subsurface biota depends on allochthonous sources of organic carbon coming from: water percolating from the surface, sinking streams that enter caves, and activities of animals mov- ing in and out of caves. The biocoenosis and the vertical distribution of invertebrate fauna of Krubera-Voronja are provided, from its entrance to the remarkable depth of 2140 meters, including the discovery of world’s deepest dwelling arthropod.


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