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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That grain per gallon (gpg) is a common basis for reporting water analyses in the watertreatment industry in the united states and canada. one grain per u.s. gallon equals 17.12 milligrams per liter [6].?

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for troglophiles (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 21
The birth of Biospeleology., 1964, Motas Constantin
Modern biospeleology dates from May 15, 1907, with the publication of Racovitza's "Essai sur les problmes biospologiques." In this paper he posed; if he did not answer; every question raised by life in the subterranean world. He outlined a program of biospeological research, made an analysis of the conditions of existence in the subterranean domain and their influence upon cavernicoles, discussed the evolution of subterranean biota, their geographical distribution, etc. Racovitza modified Schiner's (1854) classification, dividing cavernicoles into troglobites, troglophiles and trogloxenes, terms later adopted by a great number of biospeologists. The "Essai", called "Racovitza's famous manifest" by Vandel, was considered the birth certificate of biospeology by Antipa (1927) and by Jeannel (1948), its fundamental statute. Jeannel also made major contributions to the young science through his extensive and detailed studies. The names of Racovitza and Jeannel will always be linked as the uncontested masters of biospeology, the founders of Biospeologica, and the authors of Enumration des grottes visites. Apart from Schiner, whose ecological classification of cavernicoles was utilized and modified by Racovitza, they had another forerunner in Vir, a passionate speleologist who often accompanied Martel in his subterranean explorations, once meeting with a serious accident in which he was on the brink of death. Vir (1897, 1899) studied subterranean faunas, establishing the world's first underground laboratory, where he carried on unsuccessful or ill-interpreted experiments. We consider Racovitza and Jeannel's criticism of him too severe. Let us be more lenient with our forerunners, since their mistakes have also contributed to the progress of science, as well as exempting us from repeating them.

Remarks on the Japygidae (Insecta, Diplura) reported for the underground environment., 1964, Pages Jean
About 50 japygids, belonging to 29 distinct forms of which 23 are recognizable, have been collected since 1874 in caves all over the world. A list is given, by continent and by countries. Ten species found both in the soil and in caves are called troglophiles to emphasize the sorting which seems to occur among endogenous species. Of the remaining 13 species, all considered troglobites, only 3 show morphological peculiarities which can be ascribed to adaptation to cavernicolous life: (1) Metajapyx moroderi ssp. patrizianus Pags from Sardinia shows a slightly longer l0th urite and cerci than the f. typ.; (2) Kohjapyx lindbergi Pags from Afghanistan is characterized by its very long l0th urite, its relatively slender cerci, and the presence of more than 8 placoid sensillae (maximum basic number in endogenous species) on the apical segment of the antennae; (3) Austrjapyx leleupi Pags from the Lower Congo fits most closely the picture of the true troglobite; almost entirely depigmented, slender, with elongate legs, long setae, and the antennae with two of the trichobothria 4 to 5 times as long as the other typical 11, as well as 14 placoid sensillae on the apical segment. It is noted in the conclusion that, among the Diplura and Myriapoda, the almost exclusively phytophagous or saprophagous Campodeids and millipedes include a large number of true troglobites, in contrast with the carnivorous Japygids and centipedes, which have very few troglobites.

Contribution to the study of certain Lithobiidae (Chilopoda) of Romanian caves., 1965, Negrea Stefan
This paper comprises the ecological and zoogeographical data of 21 systematic units of Lithobiidae coming from 100 Romanian caves (Transylvania, Banat, Oltenie and Dobroudja). Initially the author describes in a summarising way the provenance of the studied material, after which he exposes fro every species the results of observations carried out by several authors and by himself. Finally he formulates the conclusions concerning ecology and biogeography resulting from his observations. These data are summarised in a synoptic table in which three species can be considered troglobionts, two of which are blind; these are Harpolithobius oltenicus Negrea; Lithobius decapolitus Matic, Negrea et Prunescu; Lithobius daeicus Matic; The other 18 species found are 5 troglophiles, 12 sub-troglophiles and 1 trogloxene.

Present-Day Cave Beetle Fauna in Australia A Pointer to Past Climatic Change, 1965, Moore, B. P.

Beetles form an important element of life in caves, where they provide some of the most spectacular examples of adaptation to the environment. The troglobic forms are of greatest interest from the zoogeographical point of view and their present distributions, which are largely limited to the temperate regions of the world, appear to have been determined by the glaciations and later climatic changes of the Quaternary. Troglophiles, which are much more widespread, show little adaptation and are almost certainly recently evolved cavernicoles.


Cockroaches (Blattodea) From Australian Caves, 1967, Richards, Aola M.

Ten species of Australian cockroaches are recorded from Australian caves and mines. Most are troglophiles or guanobia. Only one troglobitic species is known. The distribution of these species is given, and attention is drawn to their absence from south-eastern Australia and Tasmania. It is suggested that climatic changes in the Pleistocene and early Recent may have been responsible for this, and that the fauna found in many cave areas may be of comparatively recent origin.


Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968, Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968, Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

A contribution to the knowledge of the invertebrate cave faunas of Venezuela: lnvertebrate faunas of tropical American caves, part. 4., 1982, Peck Stewart B.
The invertebrate faunas of four caves in northern Venezuela were studied. Three were dry and one was a wet cave; but guano provided the base of the food chain in all four caves. The faunas in each were strikingly different. Of 24 non-accidental species of arthropods, all were judged to be troglophiles. All were scavengers except for 5 predators, one ectoparasite, and one parasitoid.

The Invertebrate Faunas of Tropcal American Caves, Part 6: Jumandi Cave, Ecuador, 1985, Peck Stewart B.
Twenty-two species of invertebrates are reported from Jumandi Cave, Napo Province, Ecuador. Three are probably trogloxenes, and the other 19 are troglophiles. The only troglobite is the catfish Astroblepus pholeter.

Cave Arrhopalites: New to Science, 1996, Christiansen, K. , Bellinger, P.
The Chiquibul Cave System is the longest and largest known network of caves in Central America. Most biological collections and observations in the system were conducted in 1986 in the Cebada Cave segment. Other collections were made in 1984 and 1988. At least 70 invertebrate species are known from the system. Many species await study, and of these, two aquatic and five terrestrial species are apparent troglobites. A zonation survey in the entrance of Cebada Cave showed typical forest litter species in all areas. The fauna of the deep zones of the system included only troglophiles and troglobites. Troglobites were rare and present only in the area farthest from the entrance

The Cave-inhabiting Beetles of Cuba (Insecta: Coleoptera): Diversity, Distribution and Ecology, 1998, Peck, S. B. , Ruizbali, A. E. , Gonzalez, G. F. G.
The known cave-inhabiting beetle fauna of Cuba is summarized. Fifty-three species have been found in 70 low elevation caves in 11 provinces. Distribution of species by family is: Carabidae, 10; Dytiscidae, 4; Gyrinidae, 2; Hydrophilidae, 2; Histeridae, 5; Leiodidae, 2; Ptiliidae, 3; Staphylinidae, 1; Scarabaeidae, 4; Elateridae, 2; Lampyridae, 1; Nitidulidae, 1; Cerylonidae, 1; Tenebrionidae, 12; and Curculionidae, 3. Twenty-four of the species are judged to be accidental cave inhabitants. The remaining 29 species can be placed in the following ecological-evolutionary categories: trogloxenes, 3 species; first-level troglophiles, 21 species; second-level troglophiles (=unmodified neotroglobites), 5 species. No true troglobites are known (i.e., none of the species is morphologically specialized for cave life). About 59% of the non-accidental inhabitants are endemic to Cuba. The taxonomic composition is similar to that in caves in other West Indian Islands, and impoverished when compared to Neotropical continental caves. The abundance of food (bat guano) seems a prime factor preventing selection for cave-specialization in lowland West Indian and continental Neotropical cave beetles.

Invertebrate Cave Fauna of Kartchner Caverns, Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, 1999, Welbourn, W. C.
The invertebrate cave fauna of Kartchner Caverns, Kartchner Caverns State Park, Cochise Co., Arizona, was surveyed between 1989 and 1991. Thirty-eight invertebrate species were recorded during the study, including (11%) troglobites, 19 (50%) troglophiles, 1 trogloxene and 12 (32%) accidentals. Of the remaining, 1 was an obligate parasite and the other a guanophile. Most of the Kartchner Caverns cave fauna depend upon guano deposited by a summer colony of Myotis velifer. The dominant arthropods were mites found in the guano.

The Cave-inhabiting rove beetles of the United States (Coleoptera; Staphylinidae; excluding Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae): Diversity and Distributions, 2003, Peck, S. B. , Thayer, M. K.
A taxonomic listing is given for new records of 66 species of staphylinid beetles (excluding Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae) collected in caves in the contiguous United States. Most species are judged to be either accidentals or infrequent troglophilic inhabitants of caves. Nine species are classed as frequent troglophiles. When added to the 6 frequent troglophile species of aleocharine staphylinids, this yields a total of 15 species of staphylinid beetles (excluding Pselaphinae) frequently found in US cave ecosystems. No troglobitic species are known from US caves. Troglobitic staphylinids (excluding Pselaphinae) elsewhere in the world are few (some 30 species). They are briefly considered and discussed. Worldwide, troglobitic staphylinids are taxonomically, geographically, and geologically concentrated in the Canary Islands (in volcanic lava tube caves) and in nearby Spain and northwestern Africa.

Zoogeography and biodiversity of Missouri caves and karst, 2007, Elliott W. R.
The Missouri Cave Life Database contains 927 species and about 12,500 observation and collection records. About 1,038 (17%) of Missouris 6,200 caves and cave springs are biocaves with at least one species record, but only 491 sites (8%) have five or more species recorded. Missouri has 82 troglobites (67 described, 15 undescribed), including 49 aquatic and 33 terrestrial species. The aquatics include 30 described and six undescribed stygobites, plus 13 described phreatobites. The terrestrials include 24 described and nine undescribed species. Six of the troglobites (four described) may actually be troglophiles, edaphobites or neotroglobites. There are about 215 troglophiles (17 aquatic), 203 trogloxenes (20 aquatic) and 407 accidentals or of uncertain ecological classification (27 aquatic). Karst zoogeographic regions include the broad Springfield and Salem plateaus; the Boone, Hannibal, St. Louis, Jefferson-Ste. Genevieve, and Perryville karsts; and an isolated area, Caney Mountain. Troglobites are currently known from 728Missouri sites, including 597 caves (10% of known caves). Twenty-five troglobites, eight of which are new species, occur at single sites only. Missouri shares 48 troglobites with other states, exhibiting relatively low diversity in terrestrial troglobites compared to areas east of the Mississippi River, but high aquatic biodiversity. Values for species richness (SR), troglobites, site endemism (SE) and biodiversity (B) were derived to rank and compare caves for conservation planning. Many species and biologically important biocaves were added to the Missouri Natural Heritage Database and the Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy, a long-range, statewide conservation plan. Further work should focus on poorly known regions.

A Review of the biospeleology of Meghalaya, India, 2008, Harries D. B. , Ware F. J. , Fischer C. W. , Biswas J. , And Kharprandaly B. D.
This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the biospeleology of the northeast Indian hill state Meghalaya. Since the early 1990s the Meghalayan Adven- turers Association (based in Shillong), in partnership with European speleologists, has conducted a series of projects with the objective of mapping and documenting caves. To date over 320 km of cave passage have been mapped and much more remains to be discovered. The quantity and length of caves in Meghalaya exceeds that of any other known karst region of India. An exhaustive search of historical records yielded one highly detailed biological survey of a single cave in the west of the state and a few records of opportunistic specimen collection from caves at other locations. This data is supplemented by a review of numerous biological observations made during the Meghalayan Adventurers Association cave mapping program. Taxa with pronounced troglomorphic characteristics appear to be relatively common in the Jaintia Hills region of eastern Meghalaya and rare elsewhere in the state. In contrast, taxa with partial troglomorphy are widespread throughout Meghalaya. There is a range of taxa which occur regularly within caves and should be considered as significant components of the cave ecosystem regardless of troglomorphy. In some cases there is evidenceof reproductive activity and opportunity for feeding which indicates that a proportion of the population complete their lifecycle within the caves and can be regarded as troglophiles. Sources of nutrition are primarily composed of flood borne debris, although dense colonies of bats (or cave-nesting swiftlets at some sites) can also contribute. The composition of cavernicole communities is not constant throughout the region and varies due to environmental and geographic factors. A major expansion of the limestone extraction industry is underway in the Jaintia Hills and elsewhere in Meghalaya. This will inevitably cause significant destruction and perturbation of cavernicole habitat. It would be prudent to implement formal studies to document the biospeleology of the region before significant loss or damage occurs.

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