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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That wave karren is wavy karren surfaces that appear similar to corrugated tin. when denuded they are a disposition for the formation of rinnenkarren [3]. see also covered karren; rinnenkarren; root karren.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Your search for upper cave (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
Karst processes on Cayman Brac, a small oceanic carbonate island, PhD Thesis, 1999, Tarhulelips, Rozemarijn Frederike Antoinette

Cayman Brac is a good example of a small oceanic carbonate island which has undergone several periods of submergence and emergence since the Tertiary, resulting in the geological formations being well karstified. This study investigated several karst phenomena on the island including the occurrence and morphology of caves, the water chemistry and microclimate inside the caves, periods of speleothem growth and dissolution, and bell holes. Caves occur throughout the island at various elevations above sea level. Using elevation as a criterion, the caves were divided into Notch caves, located at, or one-two metres above, the Sangamon Notch, and Upper caves, located at varying elevations above the Notch. Analysis of the morphology, age and the relative abundance of speleothem in the caves further supports this division. The close proximity of the Notch and the Notch caves is coincidental: speleothem dating by U-series methods shows that the caves predate the Notch. They are believed to have formed between 1400 and 400 ka, whereas a late Tertiary to Early Quaternary age is assigned to the Upper caves. Speleothem on the island has suffered minor, moderate and major dissolution. Minor dissolution is due to a change in the degree of saturation of the drip water feeding the speleothem, whereas the last two are caused by flooding or condensation corrosion. Many of the speleothems in fact experienced several episodes of dissolution followed by regrowth. The latest episode appears to be caused by condensation corrosion rather than flooding. Eleven speleothems containing growth hiatuses were dated by U-series methods. The results indicate that growth cessation did not occur synchronously. Furthermore, the timing of the hiatuses during the Quaternary is not restricted to glacial or interglacial periods. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analyses of seven of the samples reveal an apparent shift towards a drier and warmer climate around 120 ka. However, more data and further collaborative evidence is desirable. Of six samples with hiatuses, five show a bi-modal distribution of stable isotope values: before and after the hiatus. Oxygen isotope analyses of modern drip water found inter-sample variations of over 2[per thousand]. This is due to cave environmental factors such as evaporation, infiltration velocity and roof thickness. Inside the caves δ 18 O of drip water decreases with increasing distance from the entrance and thus decreasing external climatic influence. This distance-climatic effect is also reflected in the δ18 O calculated for modern calcite: -5.3, -6.5 and -7.6[per thousand] VPDB at 3, 10 and 20 m respectively. The morphology of bell holes, found only in certain Notch caves, was studied in detail. It is proposed that the bell holes are formed by condensation corrosion, probably enhanced by microbiological activity. The study represents a comprehensive and thorough analyses of karst features on a small oceanic island, and provides information useful for climatic reconstruction during the Quaternary


The Kukaiau Cave, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, Created by Water Erosion: A New Hawaiian Cave Type, 2003, Kempe, S. , Werner, M. S.
In 2000 and 2001, two large (each ca. 1000 m long) cave systems have been surveyed on the eastern, heavily eroded, flank of Mauna Kea: The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave and the Kukaiau Cave (at first called ThatCave/ThisCave System). Both caves occur in the Hamakua Volcanics, 200-250 to 65-70 ka old. They are the first substantial caves documented for lavas of Mauna Kea and the first caves on Hawaii showing extensive morphological signs of water erosion. The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave is a lava tube, as attested by the presence of the typical morphological elements of lava tubes, including secondary ceilings, linings, base sheets, stalactites and lava falls. Subsequently, the cave was modified erosionally by a stream which entered upslope and traversed much, but not all, of the cave, leaving waterfalls, waterfall ponds, scallops, gravel, rounded blocks and mud (Kempe et al. 2003). In contrast the Kukaiau Cave a still active stream cave with a vadose and phreatic section - is essentially erosional in origin. This is concluded from the geology of the strata exposed in the cave and from its morphology: At the upper entrance the cave is situated in a thick series of aa and the lower section was created by removing aa and diamict layers, therefore excluding the possibility that the cave developed from a precursor lava tube. Also, in its phreatic section, the cave makes several right angle turns and moves upward through a series of pahoehoe sheets, unlike any lava tube. Furthermore, a base layer can be followed along which the major section of the upper cave has developed. Allophane and halloysite minerals produced by weathering - helped in sealing the primary porosity of this base layer causing a locally perched water table. Water moving along this base layer on a steep hydraulic gradient through the interstices of aa and through small pahoehoe tubes exerted a high pressure on the porous diamict of the lower cave, causing its erosional removal. Our observations of water erosional caves in lavas of Hawaii offer a new perspective on deep-seated water courses in volcanic edifices.

Dental morphology of the Dawenkou Neolithic population in North China: implications for the origin and distribution of Sinodonty, 2003, Manabe Y. , Oyamada J. , Kitagawa Y. , Rokutanda A. , Kato K. , Matsushita T. ,
We compare the incidence of 25 nonmetric dental traits of the people of the Neolithic Dawenkou culture (6300-4500 BP) sites in Shandong Province, North China with those of other East Asian populations. The Dawenkou teeth had an overwhelmingly greater resemblance to the Sinodont pattern typical of Northeast Asia than to the Sundadont pattern typical of Southeast Asia. Multidimensional scaling using Smith's mean measure of divergence (MMD) statistic place the Dawenkou sample near the Amur and the North China-Mongolia populations in the area of the plot indicating typical Sinodonty. The existence of the Sinodont population in Neolithic North China suggests a possible continuity of Sinodonty from the Upper Cave population at Zhoukoudian (about 34,000-10,000 BP) to the modern North Chinese. The presence of Sinodonty in Shandong Province shows that the Japan Sea and East China Sea were strong barriers to gene flow for at least 3000 years, because at this time the Jomonese of Japan were fully Sundadont. In addition, we suggest that the descendants of the Dawenkou population cannot be excluded as one of the source populations that contributed to sinodontification in Japan. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Erfolgreiches Forscherlager des Vereins fr Hhlenkunde in Obersteier im Bereich des Hochkasten., 2004, Seebacher, R.
In August 2003, the VHO (Upper Styria Caving Club) organized the first expedition in the area of the central plateau of the Totes Gebirge. Near the summit of Groer Hochkasten (2389 m), 10 members set up a camp for 9 days. The walk to the camp without luggage takes approximately 5-6 hours. So the whole equipment of the expedition was transported by helicopter. Many cave entrances were found and 25 caves and shafts were surveyed and documented. The total surveyed length was near 2600 m. Remarkable was the first proof of the existence of the Upper cave ruin level in the Totes Gebirge. The most important cave is the Grauer Riese that was surveyed to a total length of 1028 m and a depth of 348 m. Due to the many unexplored caves and open leads, the VHO plans another camp in the Hochkasten area for summer 2004. [Nachweis des "Oberen Hhlenruinenniveaus" fr das Tote Gebirge, Weiengrieshhle (1625/294), Nunatakerhhle (1625/287), Grauer Riese (1625/391)]

The effect of the Messinian Deep Stage on karst development around the Mediterranean Sea. Examples from Southern France, 2004, Audra P, Mocochain L, Camus H, Gilli E, Clauzon G, Bigot Jy,
It is difficult to explain the position and behaviour of the main karst springs of southern France without calling on a drop in the water table below those encountered at the lowest levels of Pleistocene glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The principal karst features around the Mediterranean are probably inherited from the Messinian period ('Salinity crisis') when sea level dropped dramatically due to the closing of the Straight of Gibraltar and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea. Important deep karst systems were formed because the regional ground water dropped and the main valleys were entrenched as canyons. Sea level rise during the Pliocene caused sedimentation in the Messinian canyons and water, under a low hydraulic head, entered the upper cave levels. The powerful submarine spring of Port-Miou is located south of Marseille in a drowned canyon of the Calanques massif. The main water flow comes from a vertical shaft that extends to a depth of more than 147 in bsl. The close shelf margin comprises a submarine karst plateau cut by a deep canyon whose bottom reaches 1,000 in bsl. The canyon ends upstream in a pocket valley without relation to any important continental valley. This canyon was probably excavated by the underground paleoriver of Port-Miou during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Currently, seawater mixes with karst water at depth. The crisis also affected inland karst aquifers. The famous spring of Fontaine de Vaucluse was explored by a ROV (remote observation vehicle) to a depth of 308 in, 224 m below current sea level. Flutes observed on the wall of the shaft indicate the spring was formerly an air-filled shaft connected to a deep underground river flowing towards a deep valley. Outcroppings and seismic data confirm the presence of deep paleo-valleys filled with Pliocene sediments in the current Rhone and Durance valleys. In the Ardeche, several vauclusian springs may also be related to the Messinian Rhone canyon, located at about 200 in below present sea level. A Pliocene base level rise resulted in horizontal dry cave levels. In the hinterland of Gulf of Lion, the Cevennes karst margin was drained toward the hydrologic window opened by the Messinian erosional surface on the continental shelf

Palaeomagnetic and U-series dating of cave sediments in Baradla Cave, Hungary, 2004, Bosá, K Pavel, Hercman Helena, Kadlec Jaroslav, Mó, Ga Já, Nos, Pruner Petr

Fine-grained siliciclastic sediments from the main gallery and upper cave level show nearly uniform composition and sedimentary textures. Palaeomagnetic analysis indicates normal magnetic polarisation of all samples, i.e. the age younger than Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at 780 ka. Flowstone/stalagmite covering siliciclastics in the upper cave level contains reverse polarised samples dated by U-series method to about 114ý115 ka, which can be identified as the Blake Event. The uniform composition of sediments can indicate the infill of the cave during a single event caused by the blockage of drainage routes due to geological (collapse) or palaeoclimatic (ice) changes, which took part before ca 130 to 150 ka as indicating by the oldest U-series data from the whole DomicaýBaradla Cave System.


Erfolgreiches Forscherlager des Vereins fr Hhlenkunde in Obersteier im Bereich des Hochkasten, 2004, Seebacher, R.
In August 2003, the VHO (Upper Styria Caving Club) organized the first expedition in the area of the central plateau of the Totes Gebirge. Near the summit of Groer Hochkasten (2389 m), 10 members set up a camp for 9 days. The walk to the camp without luggage takes approximately 5-6 hours. So the whole equipment of the expedition was transported by helicopter. Many cave entrances were found and 25 caves and shafts were surveyed and documented. The total surveyed length was near 2600 m. Remarkable was the first proof of the existence of the Upper cave ruin level in the Totes Gebirge. The most important cave is the Grauer Riese that was surveyed to a total length of 1028 m and a depth of 348 m. Due to the many unexplored caves and open leads, the VHO plans another camp in the Hochkasten area for summer 2004.

The role of condensation in the evolution of dissolutional forms in gypsum caves: Study case in the karst of Sorbas (SE Spain), 2014, Gazquez F. , Calaforra J. M. , Forti P. , Waele J. D. , Sanna L.

The karst of Sorbas (SE Spain) is one of the most important gypsum areas worldwide. Its underground karst network comprises over 100 km of cave passages. Rounded smooth forms, condensation cupola and pendant-like features appear on the ceiling of the shallower passages as a result of gypsum dissolution by condensation water. Meanwhile, gypsum speleothems formed by capillarity, evaporation and aerosol deposition such as coralloids, gypsum crusts and rims are frequently observed closer to the passages floors. The role of condensation-dissolution mechanisms in the evolution of geomorphological features observed in the upper cave levels has been studied by means of long-term Micro-Erosion Meter (MEM) measurements, direct collection and analysis of condensation waters, and micrometeorological monitoring. Monitoring of erosion at different heights on gypsum walls of the Cueva del Agua reveals that the gypsum surface retreated up to 0.033 mm yr- 1 in MEM stations located in the higher parts of the cave walls. The surface retreat was negligible at the lowest sites, suggesting higher dissolution rates close to the cave ceiling, where warmer and moister air flows. Monitoring of microclimatic parameters and direct measurements of condensation water were performed in the Covadura Cave system in order to estimate seasonal patterns of condensation. Direct measurements of condensation water dripping from a metal plate placed in the central part of the El Bosque Gallery of Covadura Cave indicate that condensation takes place mainly between July and November in coincidence with rainless periods. The estimated gypsum surface lowering due to this condensation water is 0.0026 mm yr- 1. Microclimatic monitoring in the same area shows differences in air temperature and humidity of the lower parts of the galleries (colder and drier) with respect to the cave ceiling (warmer and wetter). This thermal sedimentation controls the intensity of the condensation-evaporation mechanisms at different heights in the cave.


The role of condensation in the evolution of dissolutional forms in gypsum caves: Study case in the karst of Sorbas (SE Spain), 2015, Gazquez Fernando, Calaforra José Maria, Forti Paolo, De Waele Jo, Sanna Laura

The karst of Sorbas (SE Spain) is one of the most important gypsum areas worldwide. Its underground karst network comprises over 100 km of cave passages. Rounded smooth forms, condensation cupola and pendant-like features appear on the ceiling of the shallower passages as a result of gypsum dissolution by condensation water. Meanwhile, gypsum speleothems formed by capillarity, evaporation and aerosol deposition such as coralloids, gypsum crusts and rims are frequently observed closer to the passage floors. The role of condensation–dissolution mechanisms in the evolution of geomorphological features observed in the upper cave levels has been studied by means of long-term micro-erosion meter (MEM) measurements, direct collection and analysis of condensation waters, and micrometeorological monitoring. Monitoring of erosion at different heights on gypsum walls of the Cueva del Agua reveals that the gypsum surface retreated up to 0.033 mm yr−1 in MEM stations located in the higher parts of the cave walls. The surface retreat was negligible at the lowest sites, suggesting higher dissolution rates close to the cave ceiling, where warmer and moister air flows. Monitoring of microclimatic parameters and direct measurements of condensation water were performed in the Covadura Cave system in order to estimate seasonal patterns of condensation. Direct measurements of condensation water dripping from a metal plate placed in the central part of the El Bosque Gallery of Covadura Cave indicate that condensation takes place mainly between July and November in coincidence with rainless periods. The estimated gypsum surface lowering due to this condensation water is 0.0026 mm yr−1. Microclimatic monitoring in the same area shows differences in air temperature and humidity of the lower parts of the galleries (colder and drier) with respect to the cave ceiling (warmer and wetter). This thermal sedimentation controls the intensity of the condensation–evaporation mechanisms at different heights in the cave.


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