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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for upper pleistocene (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 21
Palynostratigraphy and Th/U ages of upper Pleistocene interglacial and interstadial deposits on Cape Breton Island, eastern Canada, 1986, De Vernal A, Causse C, Hillairemarcel C, Mott Rj, Occhietti S,

Le karst pliocne de la rgion de Safi (Maroc atlantique), 1987, Weisrock A. , Lunski S.
POST-PLIOCENE KARST OF SAFI AREA (ATLANTIC MOROCCO) - The karst of Safi area is developed in bioclastic calcarenites of Plio-Moghrebian upon Mesozoic limestones, marls and gypsum. Dolines, uvalas and poljes are found along faults N170-N195, N040-N070, N080-N115, which are mainly " Mesetian " and " Atlasic " tectonic directions of Atlantic Morocco. Two points are developed upon this karst genesis: 1/ the relations between post-pliocene karstic landforms and paleokarst in limestones and gypsum; 2/ the recent karstic developments occur during the periods wetter than today (310 mm/y), for example Upper Pleistocene, as it is showed by dating of charcoal in dolines filling.

Le karst du gypse du centre de la dpression de l'Ebre (Espagne), 1990, Soriano, M. A.
THE GYPSUM KARST OF THE CENTER OF THE EBRE BASSIN (SPAIN) - The central Ebro basin was filled with evaporitic deposits (gypsum and limestones) during the Miocene. During the Quaternary, several alluvial terrace and pediment levels were developed and they overlay the gypsum deposits. A large number of karstic landforms developed on gypsum have been found. The most important reason is its high solubility. We have found different types of microlandforms. The most important are Rillenkarren, solution pits and micro etching. There are also small tumuli. They are active at present. We have differentiated three macrolandforms: paleocollapses, depressions and alluvial dolines. The paleocollapses are very narrow and deep. They are filled with quaternary materials. They are not active and were generated in the Middle or Upper Pleistocene. The depressions were developed by the gypsum dissolution, together with topographical and geomorphologic factors. They do not seem to be active nowadays. The alluvial dolines are developed on the terrace and pediment deposits, which overlay gypsum materials. There is basin, well and pan-shaped dolines and they are especially frequent in the T2 terrace level. From the study of aerial photographs of different years, the variations in the number and size of dolines and their density have been determined. Natural factors (lithology and fractures), together with human activities (irrigation) are the principal causes in their development.

Karstification et volution palogographique du Jura, 1991, Bienfait, P.
KARSTIFICATION AND PALEOGEOGRAPHICAL EVOLUTION OF THE JURA (Fr.) - The karstification started at the beginning of the Tertiary, and the process is still going on today. During the Eocene, modifications brought about under the tropical climate resulted in siderolithic deposits (siliceous sands, ferruginous soils), which can be found in some fossil karsts. In the Oligocene, active tectonics modified the Eocene surface. Erosion during the Miocene levelled the Jura Mountains into a peneplain even though the climate remained tropical. Toward the end of the Miocene, present-day structure and landforms were produced when the main folding, subjected at the same time to powerful erosion, occurred. During the Upper Pleistocene the climate became cooler and wetter. At least two glacial periods have been recognised in the Pleistocene. Present-day karst landforms and most of the caves can be considered as being shaped during the Plio-Quaternary. The karst fillings of the Quaternary provide evidence of the extension of the Wrm and Riss glaciers.

The astronomical theory of climate and the age of the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic reversal, 1994, Bassinot Fc, Labeyrie Ld, Vincent E, Quidelleur X, Shackleton Nj, Lancelot Y,
Below oxygen isotope stage 16, the orbitally derived time-scale developed by Shackleton et al. [1] from ODP site 677 in the equatorial Pacific differs significantly from previous ones [e.g., 2-5], yielding estimated ages for the last Earth magnetic reversals that are 5-7% older than the K/Ar values [6-8] but are in good agreement with recent Ar/Ar dating [9-11]. These results suggest that in the lower Brunhes and upper Matuyama chronozones most deep-sea climatic records retrieved so far apparently missed or misinterpreted several oscillations predicted by the astronomical theory of climate. To test this hypothesis, we studied a high-resolution oxygen isotope record from giant piston core MD900963 (Maldives area, tropical Indian Ocean) in which precession-related oscillations in [delta]18O are particularly well expressed, owing to the superimposition of a local salinity signal on the global ice volume signal [12]. Three additional precession-related cycles are observed in oxygen isotope stages 17 and 18 of core MD900963, compared to the composite curves [4,13], and stage 21 clearly presents three precession oscillations, as predicted by Shackleton et al. [1]. The precession peaks found in the [delta]18O record from core MD900963 are in excellent agreement with climatic oscillations predicted by the astronomical theory of climate. Our [delta]18O record therefore permits the development of an accurate astronomical time-scale. Based on our age model, the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal is dated at 775 10 ka, in good agreement with the age estimate of 780 ka obtained by Shackleton et al. [1] and recent radiochronological Ar/Ar datings on lavas [9-11]. We developed a new low-latitude, Upper Pleistocene [delta]18O reference record by stacking and tuning the [delta]18O records from core MD900963 and site 677 to orbital forcing functions

Observations morphologiques sur le gosystme karstique du Rupt du Puits (Meuse, Lorraine), 1995, Jaillet S. , Gamez P.
The karst system of Rupt-du-Puits is situated east of the Paris basin (Barrois and Perthois), in the Portlandian limestones covered by sands and clays of Lower Cretaceous. It presents 21 km of surveyed passages in several networks (catchment = 13 km2). In this typical covered karst (cryptokarst), we observe two kinds of alimentation: rapid (swallow holes) and slow (wet soils). On the exokarst, the valleys move by retreat of swallow holes and karst stepping. In the endokarst, the variations of the base level determine several stages of stream piracy (elbows of capture). The karst morphology depends on climatic changes and the evolution of the drainage pattern during the Upper Pleistocene.

DISCOVERY OF CONSIDERABLE UPPER PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE FOSSIL FILLINGS IN THE KARST OF OLETTA REGION (CORSICA), 1995, Ferrandini J, Salotti M,
The Oletta cave seems to be one of the largest underground caves in Corsica. The relationship between the organisation of the deforming strata and the karstic network shows that it is a karst of structural origin which has developed above the basic level. The karstification seems old and the speleothemes have to be connected with the phenomena of the climatic break of the Quaternary. Four types of fossiliferous infillings are known. The largest one is the oldest. They express the alternation of phases of sedimentation with different sedimentary dynamics. The most often found fauna is composed of mammals and gasteropoda. At least three faunal groups emerge: an old fauna with Cynotherium sardous, Nesoleipoceros cazioti and Enhydrictis sp. that can be attributed to the Early Wurm or to the limit of the Middle and Upper Pleistocene; a middle fauna to the terminal Wurm and which is characterised here by the absence of the three above mentioned mammals and lastly, a third group where the present fauna appears with, first, it seems, Rattus and Apodemus whereas Prolagus sardus persists for a long time

Decouverte d'importants remplissages fossiliferes d'age pleistocene superieur et holocene dans le karst de la region d'oletta (Haute corse), 1995, Ferrandini J, Salotti M, Bailon Ds, Bonifay Mf, Mourerchauvire C, Realtestud Am,
The Oletta cave seems to be one of the largest underground caves in Corsica. The relationship between the organisation of the deforming strata and the karstic network shows that it is a karst of structural origin which has developed above the basic level. The karstification seems old and the speleothemes have to be connected with the phenomena of the climatic break of the Quaternary. Four types of fossiliferous infillings are known. The largest one is the oldest. They express the alternation of phases of sedimentation with different sedimentary dynamics. The most often found fauna is composed of mammals and gasteropoda. At least three faunal groups emerge: an old fauna with Cynotherium sardous, Nesoleipoceros cazioti and Enhydrictis sp. that can be attributed to the Early Wurm or to the limit of the Middle and Upper Pleistocene; a middle fauna to the terminal Wurm and which is characterised here by the absence of the three above mentioned mammals and lastly, a third group where the present fauna appears with, first, it seems, Rattus and Apodemus whereas Prolagus sardus persists for a long time

The last glacial/interglacial record of rodent remains from the Gigny karst sequence in the French Jura used for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological reconstructions, 1995, Chaline J, Brunetlecomte P, Campy M,
A multidisciplinary approach has produced an exceptional chronological log of climatic patterns for the Upper Pleistocene sequence of Gigny Cave (Jura, France) covering the Pre-Eemian, Eemian Interglacial, Middle Glacial and Upper Pleniglacial, as well as a part of the Holocene. Multivariate analysis (correspondence and component analysis) of rodent associations from the sequence is used here to characterize the different climatic stages in terms of relative temperature, plant cover and moisture. Faunal analysis establishes: (1) positive and negative correlations among the variations of the different species; (2) the significance of axis 1 (component analysis) which, in terms of temperature, opposes cold environments with contrasted continental biotopes; (3a) the significance of axis 2 (component analysis), which reflects vegetation patterns ranging from open to closed habitats; (3b) the significance of axis 3 (component analysis), which expresses trends in moisture; (4) various correlations between faunal and climatic parameters (temperature, plant cover and moisture); (5) evaluation of faunal diversity (Shannon index ranging from 0.74 to 2.27) showing that diversity increases with temperature and the complexity of vegetation, but is not sensitive to moisture. Lastly, the comparison of multivariate methods with the weighted semi-quantitative Hokr method shows the complementarity of the two approaches, the first methods quantifying climatic parameters while the second seems to provide more precise evaluations of the main seasons of rainfall

Remplissages karstiques tectoniss de la rgion de Marseille, 1999, Monteau, Raymond
The paleokarst fillings in the Riou and Frioul archipelagoes, the coastal ranges of MarseiIleveyre (Calanques) Notre Dame de la Garde (the Bay of Marseille) show several examples of various tectonic mechanisms due to compressive stresses. A chronology of the various phases is described: compartment process, overlapping, tilting. These deformations and the several after-episodes observed can be dated between the Lower Eocene and the Upper Pleistocene, but it is still difficult to give a more precise date. The tertiary fillings show the action of local decompression and tilting in some cases. In the detailed study of the karstic lithified deposits two kinds of tectonised sequences are shown in connection with the local tectonics.

Assessing Humidity in an Upper Pleistocene Karst Environment: Palaeoclimates and Palaeomicroenvironments at the cave Divje babe I, Slovenia, 2002, Turk Ivan, Skaberne Dragomir, Blackwell Bonnie A. B. , Dirjec Janez

The article presents a new sedimentary-climatic model for explaining autochthonous clastic sediment in the Upper Pleistocene site, Divje babe I, Slovenia. The sediment analysed here was deposited during Oxygen Isotope Stages 1, 3 and 5 (OIS, OIS 3, OIS 5). The stress is on precipitation, which we explained on the basis of the quantity of authigenic structural aggregates in the sediment. We supported the results with quantitative analysis of clasts with etched surface, which represent corrosion of the cave ceiling, and etched bones, which represent corrosion on the cave ground. We also analysed the relation between climate and cave bears, and Neanderthals and climate, on the basis of mass fossil remains and finds of artefacts. All analyses were made on the basis of three-dimensional sampling, i.e., in horizontal and vertical directions. We sampled 65 profiles over an area of 65 m2. Each profile had 35 arbitrary stratigraphic units (splits) with data on aggregates, etched bones, fossil remains and artefacts. In explaining the sediment characteristics that point to climatic parameters, we consistently took into account the Holocene standards for the site. We found that the climate in OIS 3 was colder and damper than in OIS 1 and OIS 5. People and animals responded to the climatic changes in OIS 3 with more visits to the cave, but not at the same time. The climatic change was presumably reflected in the microlocation of the cave mainly by the longer duration of snow cover.


Der neue Stammbaum der alpinen Hhlenbren., 2004, Rabeder G. , Hofreiter M.
In the Upper Pleistocene the Alps were inhabited by at least three taxa of cave bear (group) which differ in their mitochondrial DNA as well as in metrical and morphological criteria. The possibilities of distinguishing these evolutionary lineages in the fossil record are described and discussed. Two high Alpine dwarf forms are described as possible subspecies of U. spelaeus (U. s.? ladinicus and U. s.? eremus), the third taxon is separated as an independent species (U. ingressus). By means of numerous diagrams an attempt is made to find metrical and morphological differences in the teeth and limb bones in order to distinguish the three Alpine taxa. A new phylogenetic tree is drawn. [Hhlenbren-Forschung in Europa, DNA-Untersuchungen]

Ages et modalits des incursions humaines et animales prhistoriques dans ltage Cathala de la grotte dAldne (Hrault, France). Apport des analyses sdimentologiques et gochronologiques, 2004, Guendon Jeanlouis, Ambert Paul, Quinif Yves, Baumes Bernard, Colomer Albert, Dainat Denis, Galant Philippe, Gruneisen Alain, Gruneisen Nathalie
Chronologies and means of prehistoric human and animal frequentations into Aldne cave, Cathala level (Hrault, France). Sedimentology and geochronology studies - The Aldne cave forms a long network of galleries on four levels. Only the first two of these contain prehistoric vestiges. Superior level (Bousquet storey) presents a Lower Palaeolithic stratigraphy in the porch. It contained also, in the deep areas, a thick filling of clays and speleothems with bear bones, intensively quarried during the 19th and 20th centuries for phosphate ore. These workings allowed to discover the second level (Cathala storey) and, in these news galleries, human footprints trail with sooty marks on the walls, numerous animal paw prints, hyena coprolites, scratches and nests made by bears. After study establishing mesolithic age of human footprints (8 200 130 BP, 7 790 60 BP) and anteriority of animal passages, researches were directed on sedimentological and geochronological study (U/Th dating of speleothem). First, the age of the last animal presence in the second level of Aldne was precised, between 41 500 BP to 25 000 BP. Second, means and chronologies of closing of the prehistoric entrance of Cathala storey were revealed. The actual access in these galleries is only an artificial entrance opened up for phosphate mining. It begins by a cat-flap and shafts about twenty meters high. The access used by prehistoric humans and animals is completely obstructed by a very important boulder choke with speleothems interstratified, situated in North part of Cathala gallery. The studies of this boulder choke showed three principal phases of closing of this primitive access: a first collapse of the roof during Middle Pleistocene; an important bedded rock-fragments produced by frost shattering of primitive entrance porch, which filled principal gallery during periglacial stages of the Upper Pleistocene; and a second roof collapse, during Holocene. The burnt pieces of brand left on the ground allowed to recognise the last narrow passage taken by the Mesolithic humans before this last collapse finally obstructing this entrance.

Der neue Stammbaum der alpinen Hhlenbren, 2004, Rabeder G. , Hofreiter M.
In the Upper Pleistocene the Alps were inhabited by at least three taxa of cave bear (group) which differ in their mitochondrial DNA as well as in metrical and morphological criteria. The possibilities of distinguishing these evolutionary lineages in the fossil record are described and discussed. Two high Alpine dwarf forms are described as possible subspecies of U. spelaeus (U. s.? ladinicus and U. s.? eremus), the third taxon is separated as an independent species (U. ingressus). By means of numerous diagrams an attempt is made to find metrical and morphological differences in the teeth and limb bones in order to distinguish the three Alpine taxa. A new phylogenetic tree is drawn.

Fields of multi-kilometer scale sub-circular depressions in the Carnegie Ridge sedimentary blanket: Effect of underwater carbonate dissolution?, 2005, Michaud F. , Chabert A. , Collot J. Y. , Sallares V. , Flueh E. R. , Charvis P. , Graindorge D. , Gustcher M. A. , Bialas J.

Offshore Ecuador, the Carnegie Ridge is a volcanic ridge with a carbonate sediment drape. During the SALIERI Cruise, multibeam bathymetry was collected across Carnegie Ridge with the Simrad EM120 of the R/V SONNE. The most conspicuous features discovered on the Carnegie Ridge are fields of circular closed depressions widely distributed along the mid-slope of the northern and southern flanks of the ridge between 1500 and 2600 m water depth. These circular depressions are 1–4 km wide and typically 100–400 m deep. Most are flat floored and some are so densely packed that they form a honeycomb pattern. The depressions were carved into the ridge sedimentary blanket, which consists of carbonate sediment and has been dated from upper Miocene to upper Pleistocene. Several hypotheses including pockmark origin, sediment creeping, paleo-topography of the volcanic basement, effects of subbottom currents, and both marine and subaerial karstic origins are discussed. We believe that underwater dissolution process merits the most serious consideration regarding the origin of the closed depression.


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