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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That receiver is that part of a remote measuring system that receives incoming data or impulses [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for upper proterozoic (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
Les gisements de fer de la rgion de Kisanga (Shaba mridional, Zare), colmatages dun palokarst du Protrozoque suprieur, 1993, Buffard R. , Fischer H.
The Kisanga iron caps in Southern Shaba (Zaire), situated in the Kakontwe limestone, results from the filling of an Upper Proterozoic paleokarst. These ancient karstic traces have been related to a local and temporary emergence in the Likasi district caused by the Kipushi rift structuration during the early Lower Kundelungu.

Modeling research in low-medium temperature geothermal field, Tianjin, 2002, Wang K. , Li C. H. ,
The geothermal reservoir in Tianjin can be divided into two parts: the upper one is the porous medium reservoir in the Tertiary system; the lower one includes the basement reservoir in Lower Paleozoic and Middle-Upper Proterozoic. Hot springs are exposed in the northern mountain and confined geothermal water is imbedded in the southern plain. The geothermal reservoir is incised by several fractures. In recent years, TIDS of the geothermal water have gone up along with the production rate increasing, along the eastern fracture zone (Cangdong Fracture and West Baitangkou Fracture). This means that the northern fracture system is the main seepage channel of the deep circulation geothermal water, and the reservoir has good connection in a certain area and definite direction. The isotopic research about hydrogen and carbon chronology indicates that the main recharge period of geothermal water is the Holocene Epoch, the pluvial and chilly period of 20 kaBP. The karst conduits in weathered carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic and the northeast regional fracture system are the main feeding channels of Tianjin geothermal water. Since the Holocene epoch, the geothermal water stayed at a sealed warm period. The tracer test in WR45 doublet system shows that the tracer test is a very effective measure for understanding the reservoir's transport nature and predicting the cooling time and transport velocity during the reinjection. 3-D numerical simulation shows that if the reinjection well keeps a suitable distance from the production well, reinjection will be a highly effective measure to extract more thermal energy from the rock matrix. The cooling of the production well will not be a problem

Solid waste disposal in the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2008, Travassos L. E. P, Sampaio J. L. D, GuimarÃ, Es R. L. , Kohler H. C.

The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has approximately 580,000 sq km. From this total, it?s believed that at about 29,000 sq km are composed by carbonatic rocks.With a total of 853 municipalities and some noticeable environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal. This work is intended to demonstrate the potential pollution of karst aquifers due to leachate?s percolation from improper waste disposal sites. In Brazil, it was established three categories to designate them. From the most environmentally incorrect sites for waste disposal to the better suitable for these activities it is possible to identify the waste dumps (lixões), controlled landfills (aterros controlados) and sanitary landfills (aterros sanitários). In each Brazilian State, around 80% of their municipalities have less than 20,000 inhabitants and no sufficient financial resources required to construct a sanitary landfill. It is also observed a certain degree of lack of political will from some municipal administrations to execute these projects. Unfortunately, some of these areas are located in karst terrains and therefore it is important to observe that an effective environmental control is not always made. The region of Lagoa Santa, State of Minas Gerais, is developed on metasediments of the Bambui Group, Sete Lagoas Formation (Upper Proterozoic). This rock Formation favors the development of expressive superficial and underground karst features. Moreover, the region presents great paleontological, archaeological, historical and speleological potential, which must also be protected from quarrying, pressures from population growth and uncontrolled touristic activities. In 1990 this scenario favored the creation of an Environmental Protected Area (Área de Proteção Ambiental - APA) to preserve local fauna and flora as well the physical environment. However, for many years the APA?s municipalities and its surroundings had installed waste dumps (lixões) since the end of the 70´s.With the State Guideline nº 52 (Deliberação Normativa nº 52) from December 2001, the State Government decreed the adequacy of such irregular dumps. The Guidelines clearly states that the waste must be deposit in a site with soil and/or low permeability rocks, with less than 30% steep angles, a minimum distance of 300m from water sources and 500m distant from core population. Furthermore, the standardization requires the municipalities to implement rainwater drainage systems around the site to reduce water percolation. The Document also obligates the municipality to compact and cover the waste cells at least three times a week, isolating the area to avoid human and animal access. In 2005, the state had registered 25 sanitary landfills, 199 controlled landfills and 549 waste dumps. In February 2007 the State Environmental Agency (FEAM) pointed out the same number of landfills, 207 controlled landfills and still a large amount of waste dumps: 519. Sadly, these inappropriate dumps (lixões) that were controlled in or near karst areas still poses as a threat to the environment since all the contamination comes from at least 25 years ago.


Bare Mountain is an isolated complex of mountain peaks Southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nevada. This small mountain range is located between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the East and the northern Amargosa Desert to the Southwest. The range is built of a folded and complexly faulted, generally northward-dipping sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine rocks. Along the eastern and northern margins of Bare Mountain there are four clusters of Ag-Hg-fluorite deposits from which pipe-like breccia bodies have been reported in the literature. One of these deposits, the Diamond Queen Mine (aka Goldspar Mine; 36°50.4’ N, 116°38.3’ W) was prospected for gold and mined for fluorspar. The age of the mineralization is younger than 12.9±0.4 Ma (according to K/Ar dates of replacement adularia). During our visit in 2010 we observed solutional cavities in the open-pit works of the mine carved in the dolomite of the Cambrian Nopah Formation. The cavities have dimensions of a few meters to tens of meters. Their inner surfaces are smooth and barren. The morphology of the cavities strongly suggests dissolution under phreatic conditions. Cavities are filled with buff-colored clay material containing bands of black to dark-violet to yellow- green to colorless fluorite. Fluid inclusions in the Diamond Queen fluorite yielded homogenization temperatures of ca. 130°C. We measured the δD of the fluid inclusion water in this fluorite and compared them to δD values measured in scalenohedral calcite from the Sterling Mine (Au) located 1.5 km to the north. Isotopic values are remarkably similar: δD = -100±2 ‰ (n = 6). Despite the fact that the analyzed water was derived from hypogene, hydrothermal minerals these isotopic values bear a paleoclimatological significance. This is because according to the currently accepted model, the Au-Hg-fluorite deposits at Bare Mountain owe their existence to the circulation of meteoric water triggered by emplacement of the silicic magma chamber under the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera some 15 km to the north. The Late Miocene meteoric- hydrothermal water is isotopically similar to the modern-day precipitation (-106 to -92 ‰). Between ca. 1.5 and 2.5 Ma the δD values of meteoric water in the area were substantially less negative (-70 to -50 ‰) and then gradually decreased to modern values. Knowledge regarding hypogene karst associated with the epithermal ore deposits in Nevada is limited. In north-central Nevada, post-ore hypogene dissolution, brecciation and mineralization occurred at some of the Carlin Trend deposits at ca. 2 Ma. In contrast, hypogene karst was a preore process at Diamond Queen; it has played a role in creating the ore-bearing structure.

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