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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That soil swelling is the volume increase of soil due to swelling of unsaturated clay particles when in contact with water [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for urban development (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
Sinkhole flooding associated with urban development upon karst terrain: Bowling Green, Kentucky, 1984, Crawford N. C.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology., 1998, Kendall C. , Mcdonnell J. J.
This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigators facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses. More information at:

Highway stormwater runoff in karst areas - preliminary results of baseline monitoring and design of a treatment system for a sinkhole in Knoxville, Tennessee, 1999, Stephenson J. B. , Zhou W. F. , Beck B. F. , Green T. S. ,
Groundwater is vulnerable to contamination in karst areas where highway stormwater runoff may flow directly into karst aquifers with little or no natural attenuation and transport highway-derived contaminants rapidly from sinkholes to locations in the aquifer. The primary goal of this investigation is the development and evaluation of practical remedial measures for treating highway runoff draining into sinkholes. Field testing sites are located in Knoxville, TN, and Frederick, MD. This paper presents a summary of preliminary results of baseline monitoring in Knoxville. Quantitative dye tracing and hydrograph analyses have demonstrated that water draining into the I-40/I-640 sinkhole passes through a phreatic conduit and resurges at Holston Spring ca 128 m (420 ft) from the sinkhole. Stormwater quantity has been monitored continuously for more than 1.5 years, and runoff quality has been monitored during a storm event. For most of the contaminants analyzed, peak contaminant loading at Holston Spring lagged behind the peak at the sinkhole by approximately 1 hour. The movement of stormwater from other sinkholes in the drainage basin to Holston Spring is regulated by partial blockage of the conduit-dominated flow system. Urban development of the karst terrane in eastern Knoxville may be responsible for this observed phenomenon. A pilot-scale stormwater runoff treatment system has been designed using peat, sand, and rock to remove contaminants by sedimentation, filtration, and adsorption. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Gypsum-karst collapse in the Black Hills, South Dakota-Wyoming, USA, 2000, Epstein, Jack B.

Intrastratal dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite in four stratigraphic units of Pennsylvanian to Jurassic age in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming has resulted in many collapse features that have developed primarily in the non-soluble overlying rocks. Subsidence has affected several areas that are undergoing urban development. Subsurface intrastratal dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation has produced a regional collapse breccia, extensive disruption of bedding, many dolines, and breccia pipes and pinnacles, some of which extend upwards more than 300 m into overlying strata. Recent collapse is evidenced by steep-walled dolines more than 20 m deep, collapse in water wells and natural springs resulting in sediment disruption and contamination, and fresh circular scarps surrounding shallow depressions. Many beds of gypsum are contorted because of expansion due to its hydration from anhydrite, and many gypsum veinlets extend downward along random fractures from parent gypsum beds. Several dolines are sites of resurgent springs. As the anhydrite dissolution front in the subsurface Minnelusa moves downdip and radially away from the center of the Black Hills uplift, these resurgent springs will dry up and new ones will form as the geomorphology of the Black Hills evolves. Old dolines and breccia pipes, preserved in cross section on canyon walls, attest to the former position of the dissolution front. Mirror Lake, which is expanding northwestward in a downdip direction, is a local analog of a migrating dissolution front.

The occurrence of sinkholes and subsidence depressions in the far west Rand and Gauteng Province, South Africa, and their engineering implications, 2001, De Bruyn Ia, Bell Fg,
Dewatering associated with mining in the gold-bearing reefs of the Far West Rand, which underlie dolomite and unconsolidated deposits, led to the formation of sinkholes and subsidence depressions. Hence, certain areas became unsafe for occupation and were evacuated. Although sinkholes were initially noticed in the 1950s, the seriousness of the situation was highlighted in December 1962 when a sinkhole engulfed a three-story crusher plant at West Driefontein Mine. Consequently, it became a matter of urgency that the areas at risk of subsidence and the occurrence of sinkholes were delineated. Sink-holes formed concurrently with the lowering of the water table in areas which formerly had been relatively free of sinkholes. In addition, subsidence occurred as a consequence of consolidation taking place in the unconsolidated deposits as the water table was lowered. In the latter case, the degree of subsidence which occurred reflected the thickness and original density of the unconsolidated deposits which were consolidated. These deposits vary laterally in thickness and thereby gave rise to differential subsidence. Subsidence also occurred due to the closure of dewatered voids at the rock-soil interface. The risk of sinkhole and subsidence occurrence is increased by urban development, since interrupted natural surface drainage, increased runoff, and leakage from water-bearing utilities can result in the concentrated ingress of water into the ground. Where the surficial deposits are less permeable, the risk of instability is reduced. In the area underlain by dolomite, which extends around Johannesburg and Pretoria, these problem have been more notable in recent years because of housing development, both low-cost and up-market, and the growth of informal settlements. Residential densities may be very high, especially for low-cost housing, the development of which frequently has proceeded without recognition of the risk posed by karst-related ground instability. The appearance of significant numbers of small sinkholes has been associated with dolomite at shallow depth, that is, occurring at less than 15 m beneath the ground surface. The vulnerability of an area overlying dolomite bedrock at shallow depth is largely dependent on the spacing, width and continuity of grikes. When dolomite is located at depths greater than 15 m, the sinkholes which appear at the surface usually are larger in diameter. The risk of sinkhole occurrence in areas of shallow dolomite in general, may be greater, although the hazard itself is less severe. A classification system for the evaluation of dolomitic land based on the risk of formation of certain sized sinkholes has enabled such land to be zoned for appropriate development. Ongoing monitoring and maintenance of water bearing services, and the implementation of precautionary measures relating to drainage and infiltration of surface water are regarded as essential in developed areas underlain by dolomite. Special types of foundation construction for structures are frequently necessary

Field trip guide, Part 1: environmental problems associated with urban development upon karst, Bowling Green, Kentucky, 2001, Crawford N. C.

Suitability Assessment for New Minia City, Egypt: A GIS Approach to Engineering Geology, 2005, Aly Mh, Giardino Jr, Klein Ag,
Urban development is a high priority in Egypt. New Minia City, located on the eastern bank of the Nile River, approximately 250 km south of Cairo, is one of 16 new development communities. Urban development in New Minia City may encounter several geo-environmental problems. Karst conditions and structural features in the local heterogeneous bedrock limit its suitability for constructional purposes. In this research, suitability of the area for urban development was assessed using a geographic information systems (GIS)-based approach. A weighted GIS model that incorporated land use/cover, types of soil, karst feature distribution, fracture densities, slopes, distances to major faults and streams, road network, and city boundaries was established to create a map of site suitability for the city. Model weights were developed using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach. Current urban land use within New Minia City falls into four classes of suitability. Approximately 7 percent of the area built by 2002 is in the low suitability class, which suggests that the map of site suitability can serve as a reliable base for planning sustainable development in New Minia City. The developed map of site suitability is effective for assessing and revealing ratings of suitability for urban development. Furthermore, the map of suitability provides the foundation for informed decision making in the development of New Minia City

Several sinkholes occurred in 1988 in an urbanized development in Kuwait. The properties of the deep sub-soil and bedrock was investigated through a detailed research program consisted of topographic,, 2005, Abdullah Waleed , Kamal Hasan
Several sinkholes occurred in 1988 in an urbanized development in Kuwait. The properties of the deep sub-soil and bedrock was investigated through a detailed research program consisted of topographic, geological/geotechnical, and geophysical investigations. The study revealed that the geological profile is made of 35.40 m thick sandy overburden soil uncomfortably overlaying a Karst limestone bedrock. The cause of these sinkholes was attributed to the dissolution of the limestone bedrock and the subsequent raveling of the overburden soil cover. New sinkholes occurred in the summer of 2004 in the same area, indicating the need to assess the extent of the Karst Terrain in the area and its surroundings. The investigation documented that the same general geological profile also exists along the eastern coastline of the Arabian Peninsula, which had experienced several cases of sinkholes due to Karst cavities. This paper presents a comprehensive description of the desert karst terrain that exists in the eastern coastline of the Arabian Peninsula in general and in Kuwait in particular. The paper also presents an analysis of the causes of sinkholes that occurred in Kuwait. Discussion of the consequences of the sinkholes incidents on the regulation of the local government in setting guidelines for preliminary investigations for futuristic urban development in similar geological terrains in order to minimize the deleterious effects resulting from ground failure is also presented.

Towards Establishing Effective Protective Boundaries for the Lunan Stone Forest Using an Online Spatial Decision Support System, 2005, Zhang Chuanrong, Li Weidong, Day Michael

The Lunan Stone Forest is the World's premier pinnacle karst landscape, and was established as a national park in 1982. The existing boundaries are essentially arbitrary, based on notional scenic value, and take into consideration neither the physical landscape nor the existing pattern of urban development. Moreover, the location of the boundaries is not clear to the local community, rendering them largely ineffective. Developing an online Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) potentially provides a way to establish protective boundaries that are meaningful from the perspective of karst science, yet also readily identifiable by the local community within the context of the existing urban fabric. The 7km2 "core area" of the Stone Forest Park is used to illustrate the use of the SDSS.

Approximately 33% of China is karstic. The most extensive karst areas are in southwestern China and cover approximately 540,000 km2. Southwestern China hosts some of the most typical karst landforms in the world and has important high-quality karst water resources. Due to the rapid development of China, karst waters are threatened by various types of contamination. Detail field and laboratory investigations in five provinces including several cities in southwestern China were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Eightythree springs and underground rivers were surveyed and water samples collected from each for laboratory analyses for major ions. Four main types of karst aquifer contamination were identified based on contaminant sources: rural and agricultural pollution, pollution from urban development and industry, pollution from mining, and accidental groundwater pollution. Several representative instances for each type of contamination and their impacts on the environment are discussed in more detail. Contamination countermeasures of karst waters and a framework for overall management of karst water resources in southwestern China are provided.

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