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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That radionuclide retardation is the process or processes that cause the time required for a given-radionuclide to move between two locations to be greater than the ground-water travel time, because of physical and chemical interactions between the radionuclide and the geohydrologic unit through which the radionuclide travels [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for uvala (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 26
Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976, Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.


Les karsts du gypse dans la dpression de l'Ebre, 1985, Guttierez M. , Ibanez M. J. , Pena J. L. , Rodriguez J. , Soriano M. A.
A FEW EXAMPLES OF GYPSUM KARSTS IN THE EBRO DEPRESSION (SPAIN) - Three areas where dissolution processes in gypsum formations have taken place, are studied. They show different geologic arrangements, one of them being folded, another in a flat--lying strata, and the third one covered by a thick unit of alluvials of the Ebro river. The climatic conditions are similar for these areas. Several kinds of dolines morphology, uvalas and large depressions similar to poljes can be distinguished. It seems to be established in the origin of some of these landforms, an interrelation between the fluvial processes and the dissolution ones.

Karst and Caves of the Nam Lang - Nam Khong Region, North Thailand, 1985, Dunkley, John

The Nam Lang - Nam Khong Karst Region, located in a thinly populated, remote part of Mae Hong Son Province, north-west Thailand, comprises about 1,000km2 of massive Permian limestone. Over much of the area is developed a characteristic polygonal karst dominated by over 3,000 depressions, with an assemblage of forms including dolines, uvalas, poljes, streamsinks, through caves, springs and blind valleys. Speleological exploration commenced only in 1983 and the major discovery is the Tham Nam Lang, the longest cave reported on the mainland of south-east Asia with nearly 7km of passages. Cave development is strongly influenced by regional strike and fault orientation and by base level incision into impermeable sediments underlying the limestone. The largest caves are formed where aggressive water collects on impervious rocks before entering the limestone. Elsewhere cave development is limited. Several caves are important archaeological sites, and a number have tourist potential.


Le karst pliocne de la rgion de Safi (Maroc atlantique), 1987, Weisrock A. , Lunski S.
POST-PLIOCENE KARST OF SAFI AREA (ATLANTIC MOROCCO) - The karst of Safi area is developed in bioclastic calcarenites of Plio-Moghrebian upon Mesozoic limestones, marls and gypsum. Dolines, uvalas and poljes are found along faults N170-N195, N040-N070, N080-N115, which are mainly " Mesetian " and " Atlasic " tectonic directions of Atlantic Morocco. Two points are developed upon this karst genesis: 1/ the relations between post-pliocene karstic landforms and paleokarst in limestones and gypsum; 2/ the recent karstic developments occur during the periods wetter than today (310 mm/y), for example Upper Pleistocene, as it is showed by dating of charcoal in dolines filling.

THE SOUTH-EAST KARST PROVINCE OF SOUTH-AUSTRALIA, 1994, Grimes K. G. ,
The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic-involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology-in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient

Karst and hydrogeology of Lebanon, 1997, Edgell Hs,
Karst is very well-developed in Lebanon in thick, exposed, fractured and folded Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene carbonates, as well as in localized, coastal Miocene limestones. This karstification not only results from the predominant calcareous lithology, but is also caused by the high, northerly trending ranges of he country, which cause abundant precipitation, as heavy rain and thick snow, to fall on Mt. Lebanon, Jabal Barouk, Jabal Niha, and Mt. Hermon. Lesser amounts fall on the Anti-Lebanon, Beqa'a Valley and the coastal hills of the country. Some 80% of precipitation occurs from November through February. The karst water emerges from five first-magnitude springs (Ain ez Zarqa (11 m(3)/sec), Ain Anjar (max. 10m(3)/sec), Nabaa Ouazzani (max. 6m(3)/sec), Nabaa Arbaain (mau. 3 m(3)/sec) and Nabaa Barouk (max. 3m(3)/sec), plus hundreds of second-and third-magnitude springs, and thousands of smaller springs. The large springs are all karstic and contribute to 13 perennial springs in the main Lebanese ranges, and 2 in the Anti-Lebanon. These include major rivers, such as the Nahr el Litani, Nahr el Assi (Orontes) and Nabr el Hasbani (upper Jordan River). More than two-thirds of the area of Lebanon (i.e. 6900 km(2)) is karstified and includes surface karst features, such as poljes, uvalas, dolines, blind valleys, natural bridges, and ponors, as well as smaller features, like karren and hoodoos. Subsurface karst features include many types of solutional shafts and galleries, grottoes, subsurface lakes and rivers and most types of speleothems. There are at least 15 aquifers in Lebanon, of which 14 are in karstified carbonate strata. The 1700m thick limestone/dolomite core of the ranges and over 2000m thickness of flanking, or overlying, Cretaceous limestones provide the majority of these aquifers, while significant aquifers are also found in thick Eocene limestones. High transmissivity values (T = or > 1.83 x 10(-1) m(2)) occur in these karstic aquifers, as is shown by the rapid decline in spring flow over the dry summer and autumn months, and their very quick recharge by winter and spring rains and heavy snow on the Lebanese ranges

Role of public awareness in groundwater protection, 1997, Ekmekci M, Gunay G,
Scarcity of water, particularly in towns situated along the Mediterranean coast where the main aquifers are in karstic carbonate rocks, necessitates more thoroughness in exploiting and protecting the groundwater resources. Geomorphological and hydrogeological studies have revealed large quantities of the input and throughput features, such as sinkholes, dolines, uvalas and poljes in the recharge areas of many karst aquifers in Turkey. Naturally, recharge areas are generally located at higher elevations and regions remote from the urbanized areas. These features lead the local authorities and persons to utilize the karst features for their own purposes. Dolines and ponors are commonly utilized as injection points for wastewater, while uvalas and poljes are used as solid waste disposal sites. When doing this, the people are unconscious of the connection of such sites with the wells or springs that provide water for their supply. A number of occurrences in Turkey have demonstrated that, no matter how perfect the efficiency of the technical work, protection of the water resources-is primarily related to the consciousness of the local authorities. They must either take proper measures to protect the resources or to educate the public in this issue. To achieve this aim, it is very important to involve the public administrative sector and the technical sector in preparing guidelines for integrated environmental evaluation of karst water resources. The main phase of a study should include locating appropriate sites for disposal of wastewater and various liquid and solid wastes that will satisfy requirements by the administrators as well as providing a water supply of good quality for the public. This paper discusses the issue of how to overcome the public awareness problem. Some examples demonstrate how the technical, achievements failed to be effective and applicable due to the lack of contribution on the part of the local authorities and the public. Some suggestions are made concerning a revision of the currently insufficient regulations

Sur lorigine des karsts du bassin de Iulliminden au Niger, 1998, Bouzoumoussa Ibrahim, Schoeneich Philippe
The carbonated and cuirass areas of the Julliminden basin plateaus show many closed-in, circular or oval depressions. Though noticed early by geologists, they have been described only recently. These depressions are similar to the known karstic forms such as dolines, ouvalas and poljes. Some of them, such as the valleys with bayonet-shaped lines and the karst with residual hillocks, are typical. The lithologic differences that characterize these plateaus make it possible to make assumptions on the origin of these pseudo-karstic forms: dissolution of limestones, sandstones (Continental terminal) and weathered rocks of the basement, and withdrawing.

Karst landforms on the eastern slopes of Davras Dagi (western Taurus): karren, sinkholes and uvalas, 1999, Dayan E, Bilgin A, Hancer M,
A characteristic of the study area is the low frequency of gully and rill karren. By length, width and depth they are not comparable with the same type of karren in the alpine karst, as they have attained only insignificant dimensions. This difference in size cannot primarily be attributed to differences of annual precipitation, but rather to the fact that they are only 2-3000 years old. Their formation started with anthropogenic forest destruction and concomitant soil stripping. As gully and rill karren depend on bare rock surfaces for their formation, they cannot have formed before that time. Joint-oriented and cavernous karren, in conrast, are widely spread in the study area. As the formation of these two types of karren is related to the existence of joints, their frequency is explained by severe fracturing of the limestone during recent tectonic movements. Although cavernous karren may also form on bare rock surfaces, Lest conditions for their development exist underneath a soil cover. As this no longer exists, the formation of cavernous karren has become much reduced in the historical era. Sinkholes are frequent in the planation surfaces of Mid- to Upper Miocene age and are of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The uvalas are also not very old, as many of them contain terra rossa

Karst and caves in salt diapirs, SE Zagros Mts. (Iran), 1999, Bosá, K Pavel, Bruthans Jirí, , Filippi Michal, Svoboda Tomá, š, , Š, Mí, D Jakub

About 200 salt diapirs (plugs) have been known in the region of the Persian Gulf. numerous are still active. Karst rocks are represented by a rock salt, less frequently by gypsum and anhydrite. Karst developed especially in relics of planated surfaces. Karst forms are completely comparable with karsts in classical carbonate rocks. Different forms can be distinguished: karren, solution pipes, solution dolines, solution-collapse dolines, uvala-like to polje-like depressions, blind valleys, canyon-like forms, ponors, springs and caves. Two World longest caves in salt were discovered and explored here. Long caves are developed especially in a watertable, large ones in plugs near the seacoast. Caves are often outlets of closed depressions (polje-like). Some caves at bottoms of collapse-solution dolines or swallow holes are subvertical. Karst processes are caused dominantly by dissolution of salt, less frequently of gypsum. The process of subrosion of halite under gypcretes plays the main role. Deep circulation of meteoric waters was proved in some plugs.


Some geological observations in Slovačka jama cave (-1268m) in Velebit mountain, Croatia, 1999, Lacković, Damir, Š, Mida Branislav, Horvatinč, Ić, Nada, Tibljaš, Darko

During three speleological expeditions the Slovačka jama cave has been explored to the depth of 1268m. In the cave there are several channels with phreatic forms. The highest relict phreatic channel is probably due to sinkholes formed on the karst uvala Veliki Lubenovac at the time of uvala formation. Lower, recent and subrecent, phreatic horizons at the cave bottom are probably a part of the underground route of the Lika river which sinks on the north-eastern side of Velebit mountain and flows through the mountain to the submarine springs in the Adriatic sea. Other channels are mostly shafts and channels with meandering vadose forms. 14C isotope analysis of speleothems shows that the oldest are situated in both ancient and subrecent phreatic channels, while younger ones are found in the vadose meandering channel.


Histoire gologique et enregistrement karstique : exemple du massif de Siou Blanc et de ses abords (Var), 2001, Blanc, Jeanjoseph
Presentation about a middle-elevated karst (625-650 m) in a temperate mediterranean climate excaved into an important limestone and dolomitic sequence (500 m to 900 m), from Bathonian to Coniacian. Tectonic and pedological factors induced the deep drainages, dolines and ouvalas alignments, vertical vadose networks. The observations applied to doline fields give a discrimination of several epikarstic morphologies: little conic- shaped dolines, lobate, bucket, circular or elliptical dolines pits, asymetrical-falling dolines, collapsed-dolines, ouvalas elongated along the fault lines and megadolines. These states are the results of various processes from the Upper Miocene to actual time. Suspended and disconnected poljes (Limate, Valbelle) were at the origin induced by paleo-networks with an orientation from East to West, at the Miocene; then, these formations were slightly shifted by the reactivation of the fault displacement (Messinian) in relation to a volcanic event (Evenos). The karstification of Siou Blanc massif and its environments, after the bauxitic paleo-karst (Albian), shows an exceptional polygenic evolution in relation to the dynamic of the mediterranean margins.

Effects of the tectonic movements on the karstification in Anatolia, Turkey, 2003, Atalay, Ibrahim

Turkey has several types of karstic land-forms containing lapies (karren), caves, dolines, uvalas and poljes. Karstification is related also to the tectonic movements. Well-developed karstic features such as wide poljes, ground water and cave system are widespread in/on the Mesozoic comprehensive limestone in the Taurus Mountains. Karstification begun to develop towards the end of the Mesozoic by the uplift movements of the Taurus Mountains in general. Some large poljes were occupied by the Neogene lakes in which lime and clay accumulated. The fresh water lakes such as Lake Beyeehir and Egirdir are found in the tectonic-karstic depressions. Underground river systems are found between the Lake Region (western Taurus) and Mediterranean coast. These river systems have been shifted towards the deeper parts of the limestone as the result of the progress of karstification and the vertical uplift of the Taurus Mountains (upper Tertiary, Early Quaternary). Caves formed as the result of vertical tectonic movements. These movements caused the lowering of the base level. So the karstification process have shifted from the upper level to deeper parts of the Taurus.


Geomorphology of karst depressions: polje or uvala - a case study of Lučki dol, 2003, Frelih, Martina

Lučki dol is a small depression, mentioned in the scarce literature about the karst of Dolenjsko and about the wider area between the Basin of Grosuplje and the valley of river Krka. It has been characterised very differently regarding the karstic form. So it has been named uvala, dry valley, blind valley and also karst polje. Among many definitions of karst polje the author has chosen the one stated by Gams. Although it is sometimes difficult to make a clear difference between uvala and karst polje, has the author made a conclusion, based on the geological, geomorphological and hydrological characteristics which were compared with definition of Gams, that Lučki dol is a small karst polje in the piezometric level.


The role of epikarst in the morphogenesis of the karstic forms, especially hollow forms in Greece, 2004, Papadopoulouvrynioti, Kyriaki

The role of epikarst in the morphogenesis of the subcutaneous karren and the karstic hollow forms is different. Cavernous karren and subcutaneous kluftkarren, are covered with terra rossa and show the activity of water. They are developed in the epikarstic zone due to the diffused corrosion on the joints through a capillary aquifer, situated in the high vadose zone. The rounded tops and the cavities of those subcutaneous karren are formed due to the continuous and uniform corrosion, acting by soil moisture in the high part of the epikarstic zone. Karstic hollowforms are developed in carbonate layers only, and also on the contact of karstified and non-karstified but easily erodable rocks. In this case, a lot of material is produced for the formation of soils that fill these landforms. Uvalas and poljes usually develop in sites of old valleys or tectonic depressions through the process of widening of the joints in the subcutaneous zone and the lowering of the latter zone. Simultaneously there occurs the gradual impermeability of the zone and the reinforcement of the lateral corrosion. These forms are mostly formed above the piezometric level. The poljes - periodical lakes are created due to the development when they temporary reach epikarstic water table.


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