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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That effective diameter is a 10 percentile size (i.e. 10% diameter smaller than this diameter) [16].?

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for vaterite (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
Microbial communities associated with hydromagnesite and needle-fiber aragonite deposits in a karstic cave (Altamira, northern Spain), 1999, Canaveras Jc, Hoyos M, Sanchezmoral S, Sanzrubio E, Bedoya J, Soler V, Groth I, Schumann P, Laiz L, Gonzalez I, Sainzjimenez C,
Microbial communities, where Streptomyces species predominate, were found in association with hydromagnesite, Mg-5(CO3)(4)(OH)(2). 4H(2)O, and needle-fiber aragonite deposits in an Altamira cave. The ability to precipitate calcium carbonate in laboratory cultures suggests that these and other bacteria present in the cave may play a role in the formation of moonmilk deposits

Cave Aragonites of New South Wales [abstract], 2006, Rowling Jill
Aragonite is unstable in fresh water and usually reverts to calcite, but it is actively depositing as a secondary mineral in the vadose zone of some caves in New South Wales. Aragonite deposits were examined to determine whether the material is or is not aragonite. Substrates to the aragonite were examined, as was the nature of the bedrock. The physical, climatic, chemical and mineralogical influences on calcium carbonate deposition in the caves were investigated. The study sites are all located in Palaeozoic rocks within the Lachlan Fold Belt tectonic region of New South Wales. Several factors were found to be associated with the deposition of aragonite instead of calcite speleothems. They included the presence of ferroan dolomite, calcite-inhibitors (in particular ions of magnesium, manganese, phosphate, sulfate and heavy metals), and both air movement and humidity. Chemical inhibitors work by physically blocking the positions on the calcite crystal lattice which would have otherwise allowed calcite to develop into a larger crystal. Often an inhibitor for calcite has no effect on the aragonite crystal lattice, thus aragonite may deposit where calcite deposition is inhibited. Another association with aragonite in some NSW caves appears to be high evaporation rates allowing calcite, aragonite and vaterite to deposit. Vaterite is another unstable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which reverts to aragonite and calcite over time. Vaterite, aragonite and calcite were found together in cave sediments in areas with low humidity.

Extended Abstract: Cave Aragonites of New South Wales, 2006, Rowling, Jill

Aragonite is unstable in fresh water and usually reverts to calcite, but it is actively depositing as a secondary mineral in the vadose zone of some caves in New South Wales. Aragonite deposits were examined to determine whether the material is or is not aragonite. Substrates to the aragonite were examined, as was the nature of the bedrock. The physical, climatic, chemical and mineralogical influences on calcium carbonate deposition in the caves were investigated. The study sites are all located in Palaeozoic rocks within the Lachlan Fold Belt tectonic region of New South Wales. Several factors were found to be associated with the deposition of aragonite instead of calcite speleothems. They included the presence of ferroan dolomite, calcite-inhibitors (in particular ions of magnesium, manganese, phosphate, sulfate and heavy metals), and both air movement and humidity. Chemical inhibitors work by physically blocking the positions on the calcite crystal lattice which would have otherwise allowed calcite to develop into a larger crystal. Often an inhibitor for calcite has no effect on the aragonite crystal lattice, thus aragonite may deposit where calcite deposition is inhibited. Another association with aragonite in some NSW caves appears to be high evaporation rates allowing calcite, aragonite and vaterite to deposit. Vaterite is another unstable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which reverts to aragonite and calcite over time. Vaterite, aragonite and calcite were found together in cave sediments in areas with low humidity.


Formation of seasonal ice bodies and associated cryogenic carbonates in Caverne de lOurs, Que bec, Canada: Kinetic isotope effects and pseudo-biogenic crystal structures, 2009, Lacelle D. , Lauriol B. , And Clark I. D.
This study examines the kinetics of formation of seasonal cave ice formations (stalagmites, stalactites, hoar, curtain, and floor ice) and the associated cryogenic calcite powders in Caverne de lOurs (QC, Canada), a shallow, thermally-responsive cave. The seasonal ice formations, which either formed by the: (1) freezing of dripping water (ice stalagmite and stalactite); (2) freezing of stagnant or slow moving water (floor ice and curtain ice) and; (3) condensation of water vapor (hoar ice), all (except floor ice) showed kinetic isotope effects associated with the rapid freezing of calcium bicarbonate water. This was made evident in the dD, d18 O and d (deuterium excess) compositions of the formed ice where they plot along a kinetic freezing line. The cryogenic calcite powders, which are found on the surface of the seasonal ice formations, also show kinetic isotope effects. Their d13 C and d18 O values are among the highest measured in cold-climate carbonates and are caused by the rapid rate of freezing, which results in strong C-O disequilibrium between the water, dissolved C species in the water, and precipitating calcite. Although the cryogenic calcite precipitated as powders, diverse crystal habits were observed under scanning electron microscope, which included rhombs, aggregated rhombs, spheres, needles, and aggregated structures. The rhomb crystal habits were observed in samples stored and observed at room temperature, whereas the sphere and needle structures were observed in the samples kept and observed under cryogenic conditions. Considering that the formation of cryogenic calcite is purely abiotic (freezing of calcium bicarbonate water), the presence of spherical structures, commonly associated with biotic processes, might represent vaterite, a polymorph of calcite stable only at low temperatures. It is therefore suggested that care should be taken before suggesting biological origin to calcite precipitates based solely on crystal habits because they might represent pseudo-biogenic structures formed through abiotic processes.

Microbial Communities and Associated Mineral Fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain., 2009, Cuezva S. , Sanchezmoral S. , Saizjimenez C. And Caaveras J. C.
Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, both on walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. The colonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes. Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of rhombohedral calcite crystals, and spheroid to hemispheroid CaCO3 elements. Colonies distribution seems to be controlled by microenvironmental conditions inside the cavity. The areas of the cave showing higher temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration fluctuations presented a minor biomineralization capability.

Microbial Communities and Associated Mineral Fabrics in Altamira Cave, Spain., 2009, Cuezva S. , Sanchezmoral S. , Saizjimenez C. , Caaveras J. C.

Evidences of microbial colonizations were observed in Altamira Cave, Spain. These consisted of distinct small coloured colonies, both on walls and ceiling, mainly located in the area near the cave entrance, which progressed until reaching the Polychromes Hall. The colonizations were characterized by a high morphological and microstructural variability and related to biomineralization processes. Two main types of CaCO3 deposits were related to the colonies: rosette- or nest-like aggregates of rhombohedral calcite crystals, and spheroid to hemispheroid CaCO3 elements. Colonies distribution seems to be controlled by microenvironmental conditions inside the cavity. The areas of the cave showing higher temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration fluctuations presented a minor biomineralization capability.


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