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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That conduit; karst conduit is relatively large dissolutional voids, including enlarged fissures and tubular tunnels; in some usage the term is restricted to voids that are water-filled. conduits may include all voids greater than 10mm in diameter, but another classification scheme places them between arbitrary limits of 100mm to 10m. whichever value is accepted in a particular context, smaller voids are commonly termed sub-conduits [9]. synonyms: (french.) conduite forcee; (german.) druckleitung (leitung); (greek.) siphon; (italian.) condotta forzata; (spanish.) conducto saturado; (turkish.) yeraltisu yolu, mecra. see also pressure flow tube; stream tube; siphon.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for water catchment (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
Origin and Development of ''Positive'' Water Catchment Basins, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, 1951, Black, Donald M.

A ground water catchment was instrumented as a karst hydrology and water quality laboratory to develop long-term flow and water quality data. This catchment located in Woodford and Jessamine Counties in the Inner Bluegrass, Central Kentucky encompasses approximately 1620 ha, 40 water wells, over 400 sinkholes, 2 karst windows, and 1 sinking stream. The land uses consist of approximately 59% beef pasture, horse farm, and golf course; 16% row crops; 6% orchard; 13%forest; and 6% residential. The instrumentation consisted of a recording rain gage, an H-flume, a water stage recorder, and an automated water sampler. Flow data for 312 days were analyzed, and a peak flow rate prediction equation, specific to this catchment, was developed Recession curves were analyzed and found to be of two distinct mathematical forms, log curves and exponential curves. Prediction equations were good for the log-type recession curve and fair for the exponential-type recession curve. For the exponential recessions, the peak flow rate was found to be bimodally distributed The recession events were classified as either high flow or low flow, with the point of separation at 113 L/s. It was hypothesized that the flow system was controlled by pipe flow above 113 L/s and by open channel flow below 113 L/s. Subsequent analysis resulted in adequate prediction for the low flow events. Explained variation associated with the high flow events was low and attributed to storage in the karst system that was not incorporated into the predictor equation

A morphological analysis of Tibetan limestone pinnacles: Are they remnants of tropical karst towers and cones?, 1996, Zhang D. A. ,
Limestone pinnacles on mountain slopes in Tibet were measured for morphological analysis and the results were compared with those from tropical towers and cones on karst mountain slopes of Shuicheng, southwest China. In the form analyses, the symmetric products (P) of Tibetan pinnacles present large differences between individual pinnacles. The plan forms, represented by long/short axes ratios (R(L/S)), are mostly irregular and scattered and the diameter/height ratios (R(dfh)) reveal that the Tibetan I features could belong to any three cone or tower karat types, according to Balaze's classification of karst towers. The direction of pinnacle development seems to be primarily related to slope aspect and to geological structure. The morphological structure and orientation analyses show that pinnacle development is largely controlled by lithological and stratigraphic conditions. The closed water catchment structure, which is a basic feature in karat areas, has not been found in the limestone pinnacle areas of Tibet. The results of the form and structure analyses for the Tibetan pinnacles differ from those for tropical and subtropical karst areas. Further analysis indicates that Tibetan limestone pinnacles were formed by strong physical weathering under periglacial conditions. Four kinds of morphogenesis of the pinnacles are suggested

Agricultural chemicals at the outlet of a shallow carbonate aquifer, 1996, Felton Gk,
A groundwater catchment, located in Woodford and Jessamine Counties in the Inner Bluegrass of Kentucky, was instrumented to develop long-term flow and water quality data. The land uses on this 1 620-ha catchment consist of approximately 59% in grasses consisting of beef farms, horse farms, and a golf course; 16% row crops; 6% orchard; 13% forest; and 6% residential. Water samples were analyzed twice a week for, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl-, HCO3-, SO4=, NO3-, total solids, suspended solids, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and triazines. Flow rate and average ambient temperature were also recorded. No strong linear relationship was developed between chemical concentrations and other parameters. The transient nature of the system was emphasized by one event that drastically deviated from others. Pesticide data were summarized and the ''flushing'' phenomena accredited to karst systems was discussed. The total solids content in the spring was consistent at approximately 2.06 mg/L. Fecal bacteria contamination was well above drinking water limits (fecal coliform and fecal streptococci averages were 1 700 and 4 300 colony-forming-units/100 mL, respectively) and the temporal variation in bacterial contamination was not linked to any other variable

Results of a study about tracing tests transfer functions variability in karst environment, 1997, Doerfliger N.
Artificial tracing tests are often used to simulate migration of a point-source contaminant under various hydrological conditions in karst hydrogeological impact assessment or to define groundwater protection zones. Due to economic reasons, it is rather difficult to carry out adequate tracing tests to determine what are the possible recovery curves over range of discharges at the outlet, are the tracer test results representative of the spring watercatchment being protected ? Our objective was to characterize the tracing-systems in a karst environment by a mean transfer function; such transfer function may be used to predict the breakthrough curve of a point-source contaminant taking into account an error factor. A Jura mean transfer function with + and -95% interval confidence functions can be established and differentiated from the Alps mean transfer function. The use of this transfer function to predict the response of a point-source contaminant requires considerations of water catchment size, thickness or the aquifer and discharge at the outlet. The results of this variability analysis confirm that the transfer functions by themselves may not be used to protect the whole karst spring water catchment, as this one is affected by the heterogeneity of the physical parameters. At the scale of a water catchment, transfer functions are not the major tool to protect the groundwater. But with a multiattribute approach of vulnerability mapping, transfer functions contribute to the development of groundwater protection strategy.

Lutilisation des rserves hydrauliques karstiques : lexemple de la commune de Penne-de-Tarn, 1999, Bou, Claude
Water collecting in the commune of Penne was meant to offer an option to the polluted and scarce water resources of the liasic limestone aquifer layer through a planned and reasonable exploitation of the Jurassic reserves. Three underground streams actually supply the whole commune territory - the largest in the Tarn department - with good water which does not suffer any summer depletion. The civil engineering work, the electro-mechanical fittings, the proper fixtures which followed the preliminary surveys were made by unpaid amateur cavers from several clubs of the caving district committee gathered in the ATEK (Association Tarnaise d'Etudes Karstiques). Different methods and techniques have been used to collect water on the following three sites: - the underground stream of Cabeou and the building of a storage dam of 500 m3 which was put into service in 1984 on the limestone plateau of the Garrigue; - the undergroung stream of Amiel where a 25 meter deep well was drilled through hard rock and which has supplied the village with water since 1985; - and the underground stream of Madeleine whose pumping station protected by a dam has increased the water resources of the right bank of the Aveyron river since 1989.

Water vulnerability assessment in karst environments: a new method of defining protection areas using a multi-attribute approach and GIS tools (EPIK method), 1999, Doerfliger N, Jeannin Py, Zwahlen F,
Groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a major role in the water supply in karst areas in the world, such as in Switzerland. Defining groundwater protection zones in karst environment is frequently not founded on a solid hydrogeological basis. Protection zones are often inadequate and as a result they may be ineffective. In order to improve this situation, the Federal Office for Environment, Forests and Landscape with the Swiss National Hydrological and Geological Survey contracted the Centre of Hydrogeology of the Neuchatel University to develop a new groundwater protection-zones strategy in karst environment. This approach is based on the vulnerability mapping of the catchment areas of water supplies provided by springs or boreholes. Vulnerability is here defined as the intrinsic geological and hydrogeological characteristics which determine the sensitivity of groundwater to contamination by human activities. The EPIK method is a multi-attribute method for vulnerability mapping which takes into consideration the specific hydrogeological behaviour of karst aquifers. EPIK is based on a conceptual model of karst hydrological systems, which suggests considering four karst aquifer attributes: (1) Epikarst, (2) Protective cover, (3) Infiltration conditions and (4) Karst network development. Each of these four attributes is subdivided into classes which are mapped over the whole water catchment. The attributes and their classes are then weighted. Attribute maps are overlain in order to obtain a final vulnerability map. From the vulnerability map, the groundwater protection zones are defined precisely. This method was applied at several sites in Switzerland where agriculture contamination problems have frequently occurred. These applications resulted in recommend new boundaries for the karst water supplies protection-zones

Hydrogeological overview of the Bure plateau, Ajoie, Switzerland, 2003, Kovacs A. , Jeannin P. Y. ,
This study presents a hydrogeological synthesis of the most recent data from the Bure plateau in Ajoie, canton Jura, NW Switzerland. Included is a complete reappraisal of aquifer geometry and aquifer boundaries, the delineation of catchment areas based on tracing experiments, and the evaluation of the hydraulic role of different hydrostratigraphic units. Furthermore, it presents GIS-based calculations on the mean piezometric surface, the thickness of the unsaturated zone and on the thickness of the minimum and mean saturated zones. The spatial extension of the shallow karst zone is also evaluated. A coherent conceptual model and the two-dimensional steady-state combined discrete channel and continuum type numerical model of the aquifer has been constructed. The research site is 83 km(2) in area and is underlain by slightly folded layers of Mesozoic limestones and marls. The Bure plateau is dissected by normal faults, which form a succession of elongated horst and graben structures. The main aquifer consists of Maim limestones, with thicknesses varying between zero (eastern border) and 320 m (south-eastern regions). The aquifer is bounded from below by the Oxfordian Marls. The underlying sediments of Middle Jurassic age are considered to be hydraulically independent. The surface topography of the Oxfordian Marls reveals the periclinal termination of a wide anticline over the plateau and a syncline in the southern parts. The aquifer contains three marly intercalations. Tracing experiments prove that marl layers do not act as regional aquicludes. These experiments also allow for the division of the aquifer surface into several water catchments. Based on tracing tests and piezometric data a NW-SE oriented groundwater divide seems to extend in the regions of Porrentruy-Bure-Croix. Calculations of the average (matrix flow) and minimum (conduit flow) water tables indicate an extended shallow karst zone in the region of Boncourt-Buix-St-Dizier. The thickness of the saturated zone increases towards the extremities of the research site, being thickest in the South. The thickness of the unsaturated zone shows a large variation, reaching its maximum in the central areas. Numerical model calculations roughly reproduce the observed hydraulic heads and mean spring discharges, they confirm current ideas about hydraulic parameters and suggest the existence of extended karst subsystems throughout the model domain

Estimation of denitrification potential in a karst aquifer using the N-15 and O-18 isotopes of NO3-, 2005, Einsiedl F, Maloszewski P, Stichler W,
A confined aquifer in the Malm Karst of the Franconian Alb, South Germany was investigated in order to understand the role of the vadose zone in denitrifiaction processes. The concentrations of chemical tracers Sr2 and Cl- and concentrations of stable isotope O-18 were measured in spring water and precipitation during storm events. Based on these measurements a conceptual model for runoff was constructed. The results indicate that pre-event water, already stored in the system at the beginning of the event, flows downslope on vertical and lateral preferential flow paths. Chemical tracers used in a mixing model for hydrograph separation have shown that the pre-event water contribution is up to 30%. Applying this information to a conceptual runoff generation model, the values of delta(15)N and delta(18)O in nitrate could be calculated. Field observations showed the occurence of significant microbial denitrification processes above the soil/ bedrock interface before nitrate percolates through to the deeper horizon of the vadose zone. The source of nitrate could be determined and denitrification processes were calculated. Assuming that the nitrate reduction follows a Rayleigh process one could approximate a nitrate input concentration of about 170 mg/l and a residual nitrate concentration of only about 15%. The results of the chemical and isotopic tracers postulate fertilizers as nitrate source with some influence of atmospheric nitrate. The combined application of hydrograph separation and determination of isotope values in delta(15)N and delta(18)O of nitrate lead to an improved understanding of microbial processes (nitrification, denitrification) in dynamic systems

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