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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That projected section is the result of projecting a section composed of several parts with differing directions onto a single plane. usually the plane is vertical along the general trend of the cave. the horizontal distance apart of points is not correct, only the vertical, so that slopes are distorted [25].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for water geochemistry (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
The Aggitis karst system, Eastern Macedonia, Greece: Hydrologic functioning and development of the karst structure, , Novel Jean Paul, Dimadi Agoro, Zervopoulou Anna, Bakalowicz Michel,
SummaryThe Aggitis karst system developed in the marbles of the Rhodope massif. The conditions of the development of its karst drainage network are determined from the geological and geomorphologic settings by means of a microstructural analysis, following Eraso's method. This analysis shows that the karst conduit network intensely developed in the western part of the mountain Falakro where the majority of the open fractures oriented in the same direction as the hydraulic gradient, while the two directions are perpendicular in its eastern part drained by the spring of Drama.The behaviour of the system was analysed by means of hydrodynamic and water geochemical techniques. Despite the extension of the cave system and of the favourable development conditions of conduits, the functioning appears complex, with a significant storage, and a slow infiltration as well as an easy drainage. On the contrary the Drama karst system, characterised by a low variability in its hydrological and geochemical characteristics does not show any karst functioning.In the Aggitis karst system the initial groundwater flow conditions in combination with the aperture planes of which the directions are in agreement with the hydraulic gradient, favoured the rapid development of a drainage network system. The recharge from a large surface catchment area on non-karstic rocks, through swallow holes in a wide polje contributed to increase the groundwater flow through the karst part of the system, facilitating the development of the conduits

Preliminary Results on the Ground-Water Geochemistry of the Sierra de El Abra Region, North-Central Mexico, 1971, Harmon, Russell S.

Preliminary Results on the Groundwater Geochemistry of the Sierra de El Abra Region, North Central Mexico. Discussion, 1972, Fish John, Russell William

Preliminary Results on the Groundwater Geochemistry of the Sierra de El Abra Region, North Central Mexico. Reply, 1972, Harmon, Russell S.

Ground Water Geochemistry of the Burnsville Cove Area, Virginia, 1982, Harmon Russell S. , Hess John W.

Groundwater Geochemistry in Warm River Cave, Virginia, 1986, Herman Janet S. , Lorah Michelle M.

Petrography of the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group, both in deeply-buried subsurface cores and in outcrops which have never been deeply buried, documents five generations of dolomite, three generations of microquartz chert, and one generation of megaquartz. Regional periods of karstification serve to subdivide the dolomite into 'early-stage', which predates pre-Middle Ordovician karstification, and 'late-stage', which postdates pre-Middle Ordovician karstification and predates pre-Permian karstification. Approximately 10% of the dolomite in the Ellenburger Group is 'late-stage'. The earliest generation of late-stage dolomite, Dolomite-L1, is interpreted as a precursor to regional Dolomite-L2. L1 has been replaced by L2 and has similar trace element, O, C, and Sr isotopic signatures, and similar cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron images. It is possible to differentiate L1 from L2 only where cross-cutting relationships with chert are observed. Replacement Dolomite-L2 is associated with the grainstone, subarkose, and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies, and with karst breccias. The distribution of L2 is related to porosity and permeability which focused the flow of reactive fluids within the Ellenburger. Fluid inclusion data from megaquartz, interpreted to be cogenetic with Dolomite-L2, yield a mean temperature of homogenization of 85 6-degrees-C. On the basis of temperature/delta-O-18-water plots, temperatures of dolomitization ranged from approximately 60 to 110-degrees-C. Given estimates of maximum burial of the Ellenburger Group, these temperatures cannot be due to burial alone and are interpreted to be the result of migration of hot fluids into the area. A contour map of delta-O-18 from replacement Dolomite-L2 suggests a regional trend consistent with derivation of fluids from the Ouachita Orogenic Belt. The timing and direction of fluid migration associated with the Ouachita Orogeny are consistent with the timing and distribution of late-stage dolomite. Post-dating Dolomite-L2 are two generations of dolomite cement (C1 and C2) that are most abundant in karst breccias and are also associated with fractures, subarkoses and grainstones. Sr-87/Sr-86 data from L2, C1, and C2 suggest rock-buffering relative to Sr within Dolomite-L2 (and a retention of a Lower Ordovician seawater signature), while cements C1 and C2 became increasingly radiogenic. It is hypothesized that reactive fluids were Pennsylvanian pore fluids derived from basinal siliciclastics. The precipitating fluid evolved relative to Sr-87/Sr-86 from an initial Pennsylvanian seawater signature to radiogenic values; this evolution is due to increasing temperature and a concomitant evolution in pore-water geochemistry in the dominantly siliciclastic Pennsylvanian section. A possible source of Mg for late-stage dolomite is interpreted to be from the dissolution of early-stage dolomite by reactive basinal fluids

Analyses of 441 water samples from 15 sample sites, mainly springs and sinking creeks in the southcentral Kentucky karst, were used to determine hardness, P(CO2), and state of saturation with respect to calcite and dolomite. Most of the waters are undersaturated with respect to calcite and more undersaturated with respect to dolomite, in agreement with recent kinetic models. Time series data revealed chemical fluctuations on both weekly and seasonal time scales. Much of the short-term variation and some of the seasonal variation in the hardness and saturation index parameters can be accounted for by dilution effects from storm and seasonal runoff. Seasonal cycles in CO2 partial pressure arise from a dependence of soil CO2 on temperature and the growing season. Waters from different locations in the aquifer system are chemically distinct and fit into the concept of a hydrochemical facies

Groundwater Geochemistry of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, 1998, Wicks C. M. , Troester Jo. W.
In this study, we explore the differences between the hydrogeochemical processes observed in a setting that is open to input from the land surface and in a setting that is closed with respect to input from the land surface. The closed setting was a water-filled passage in a cave. Samples of groundwater and of a solid that appeared to be suspended in the relatively fresh region of saline-freshwater mixing zone were collected. The solid was determined to be aragonite. Based on the analyses of the composition and saturation state of the groundwater, the mixing of fresh and saline water and precipitation of aragonite are the controlling geochemical processes in this mixing zone. We found no evidence of sulfate reduction. Thus, this mixing zone is similar to that observed in Caleta Xel Ha, Quintana Roo, also a system that is closed with respect to input from the land surface.The open setting was an unconfined aquifer underlying the coastal plain along which four hand-dug wells are located. Two wells are at the downgradient ends of inferred flowpaths and one is along a flowpath. The composition of the groundwater in the downgradient wells is sulfide-rich and brackish. In contrast, at the well located along a flow line, the groundwater is oxygenated and brackish. All groundwater is oversaturated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite. The composition is attributed to mixing of fresh and saline groundwater, CO2 outgassing, and sulfate reduction. This mixing zone is geochemically similar to that observed in blue holes and cenotes.

Controls on the geochemistry of speleothem-forming karstic drip waters, PhD thesis, 2000, Tooth, A.

Research was performed at Crag Cave, Castleisland, southwest Ireland, and P8 Cave, Castleton, Derbyshire, in order to determine the main factors responsible for modifying rainwater geochemistry during flow through soil and karstic aquifer zones. Monitoring was performed on a daily basis in summer and winter at Crag Cave, and on a monthly basis over one year at P8 Cave. At both sites, biannual peaks in karst system Ca2+ concentrations occurred due to: (i) promotion of microbial CO2 production by increased summer temperatures, and (ii) retardation of gaseous exchange by ponding of elevated winter rainfall input leading to an unseasonable build up in soil zone CO2. Therefore, speleothems at both sites may form biannual bands in hydrological years subject to elevated winter rainfall input.

In addition to variations in carbonate weathering due to fluctuations in CO2 levels, cation yields in Crag Cave matrix soil water were controlled by dolomite dissolution (Mg2+), plant uptake (K+), and evapotranspiration balanced by enhanced winter marine aerosol input (Na+). Strontium isotope analysis indicates that Sr2+ was derived from a 50:50 silicate/carbonate mixture, whereas the relatively light ?13C signal was related to direct evolution of CO2 into the aqueous phase in water-logged pores.

Within the Crag Cave aquifer variations in karst water geochemistry were controlled by dilution, flow switching, prior precipitation of calcite, and dolomite dissolution along the flow path. Strontium isotope analysis indicates that dissolution in the aquifer dominated, with Sr2+ being sourced from a 25:75 silicate/carbonate mixture. Light karst water 13C values were constrained by the supply of light soil gas to the aquifer.

Elevation in the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in the Crag Cave speleothem record compared to present day analogues indicates that the former Holocene climate was drier, whereas heavier 87Sr/86Sr ratios and 13C values suggest variation in soil hydrology over time.

The hydrogeochemistry of the karst aquifer system of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, 2002, Perry E. , Velazquezoliman G. , Marin L. ,
Based on groundwater geochemistry, stratigraphy, and surficial and tectonic characteristics, the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, a possible analog for ancient carbonate platforms, is divided into six hydrogeochemical/physiographic regions: (1) Chicxulub Sedimentary Basin, a Tertiary basin within the Chicxulub impact crater; (2) Cenote Ring, a semicircular region of sinkholes; (3) Pockmarked Terrain, a region of mature karst; (4) Ticul fault zone; (5) Holbox Fracture Zone-Xel-Ha Zone; and (6) Evaporite Region. Regional characteristics result from tectonics, rock type, and patterns of sedimentation, erosion, and rainfall. The Cenote Ring, characterized by high groundwater flow, outlines the Chicxulub Basin. Most groundwater approaches saturation in calcite and dolomite but is undersaturated in gypsum. Important groundwater parameters are: SO4/Cl ratios related to seawater mixing and sulfate dissolution; Sr correlation with SO4, and saturation of Lake Chichancanab water with celestite. indicating celestite as a major source of Sr; high Sr in deep water of cenotes, indicating deep circulation and contact of groundwater with evaporite; and correlation of Ca, Mg, and SO4, probably related to gypsum dissolution and dedolomitization. Based on geochemistry we propose: (1) a fault between Lake Chichancanab and Cenote Azul; (2) deep seaward movement of groundwater near Cenote Azul; and (3) contribution of evaporite dissolution to karst development in the Pockmarked Terrain. Chemical erosion by mixing-zone dissolution is important in formation of Estuario Celestun and other estuaries, but is perhaps inhibited at Lake Bacalar where groundwater dissolves gypsum, is high in Ca, low in CO3, and does not become undersaturated in calcite when mixed with seawater

Cave air control on dripwater geochemistry, Obir Caves (Austria): Implications for speleothem deposition in dynamically ventilated caves, 2005, Spotl C. , Fairchild I. J. , Tooth A. F. ,
There are very few process studies that demonstrate the annual variation in cave environments depositing speleothems. Accordingly, we initiated a monitoring program at the Obir Caves, an Austrian dripstone cave system characterized by a seasonally changing air flow that results in a predictable pattern of high pCO(2), during summer and low pCO(2), in winter. Although similar seasonal changes in Soil pCO(2) occur, they are not directly connected with the changes in the subsurface since the dripwaters are fed from a well-mixed source showing little seasonal variation. Cold season flushing by relatively CO2-poor air enhances degassing of CO2 in the cave and leads to a high degree of supersaturation of dripwater with regard to calcite. Forced calcite deposition during the cold season also gives rise to a pronounced pattern of synchronous seasonal variations in electrical conductivity, alkalinity, pH, Ca and delta(13)C(DIC) which parallel variations recorded in delta(13)C(cave air). Chemical components unaffected by calcite precipitation (e.g., delta D,delta(18)O,SiO2,SO4) lack a seasonal signal attesting to a long residence in the karst aquifer. Modeling shows that degassing of CO2 from seepage waters results in kinetically-enhanced C isotopic fractionation, which contrasts with the equilibrium degassing shown from the Soreq cave in Israel. The Obir Caves may serve as a case example of a dripstone cave whose seepage waters (and speleothems) show intra-annual geochemical variability that is primarily due to chemical modification of the groundwater by a dynamic, bidirectional subsurface air circulation. Copyright (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd

Climate influence on geochemistry parameters of waters from Santana?Pérolas cave system, Brazil, 2007, Karmann Ivo, Cruz Francisco W. Jr. , Viana Oduvaldo Jr. , Burnsb Stephen J.
A four-year study of water geochemistry and hydrology was performed in a relatively deep cave system (overlying bedrock thickness varies from 100 to 300 m) as part of two monitoring programs, from June 1990 to February 1992 and from March 2000 to March 2002. The pH, saturation index for calcite, Ca and SO4 concentrations, and elemental ratios of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca were measured in surface, well and drip waters throughout the system. Despite local hydrological and geological differences among sampling sites, the monitoring revealed significant synchronous intersite variations in these parameters that are related to seasonal changes in rainfall recharge, suggesting that element ratios of speleothems formed in deep caves are capable of recording short-term climate variations. Groundwater residence time appears to be the main factor affecting the water composition in the epikarst. Epikarstic waters are always undersaturated with respect to calcite but both saturation index (S.I.) and dissolved solids content increase substantially during drier periods because of longer residence times and longer interaction between meteoric water and limestone. By contrast, results from cave drips and rimstone pools indicate constant supersaturation for calcite and demonstrate that a major control on trace element ratios of waters in the deep vadose zone is the degree of prior calcite precipitation. This mechanism is more effective during drier periods when higher Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values are observed in all drip and pool sites. However, variations do occur independently of the general trend of drip discharge, which suggest non-linear features in cave seepage water geochemistry. In addition, synchronous variations in SO4 and Cl concentration indicate high connectivity between different water flow pathways characterized by similar response to interseasonal changes in vadose water level. Fluctuations in trace element ratios of cave streams appear to reflect increased contribution of waters flushed from the vadose fissure aquifer during very wet periods by a piston flow mechanism. Flushing episodes are also responsible for maintaining more positive saturation indices in streams even during periods of high river discharge. Our results suggest that trace elements are a potential proxy for past rainfall changes but they also reveal different scenarios for interpreting trace elements ratios of speleothems and freshwater tufa deposited in a deep cave systems located in tropical humid areas.

Environmental Monitoring in the Mechara caves, Southeastern Ethiopia: Implications for Speleothem Palaeoclimate Studies, 2008, Asrat A. , Baker A. , Leng M. J. , Gunn J. And Umer M.
The interpretation of palaeoclimate records in speleothems depends on the understanding of the modern climate of the region, the geology, the hydrology above the caves, and the within-cave climate. Monitoring within-cave climate variability, geochemistry of speleothem-forming drip waters, and associated surface and groundwater, provides a modern baseline for interpretation of speleothem palaeohydrological and palaeoclimate records. Here, we present results of such monitoring of the Mechara caves in southeastern Ethiopia, conducted between 2004 and 2007. Results show nearly constant within-cave climate (temperature and humidity) in all caves, which generally reflects the surface climate. Groundwater and surface water geochemistry is similar across the region (except slight modification by local lithological variations) and modern drip water isotope data fall close to regional Meteoric Water Line, but speleothems further from equilibrium. Holocene and modern speleothems from these caves give high-resolution climate records, implying that the Mechara caves provide a suitable setting for the deposition of annually laminated speleothems that could record surface climate variability in a region where rainfall is sensitive to both the strength of the intertropical convergence zone as well as Indian Monsoon variability.

Mixed, classical and hydrothermal karstification in a carbonate aquifer: Hydrogeological consequences. The case of the Saida aquifer system, Algeria, 2008, Djidi Kaddour, Bakalowicz Michel, Abdel Majid Benali

In the Saida area, Algeria, a regional aquifer has formed in Jurassic carbonate rocks. Recharged by direct infiltration and swallow holes on horsts, it discharges into the Saida graben. Geochemical and isotope contents show deep groundwater flow at temperatures of around 100 °C at depth and CO2 of deep origin, developing a hydrothermal karst interconnected with the shallow, classical karst. This particular type of karst aquifer, mixing hydrothermal karst conduits in the phreatic zone and classical karst features in the infiltration zone occurs preferably in active tectonic regions. Such a situation is favourable to productive well boring, consequently to groundwater withdrawal and deterioration of water quality. Still badly known in general, this type of complex aquifer should be studied in depth for an efficient and proper exploitation and protection of the groundwater resource.

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