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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That non-point source is 1. any source, other than a point source, which discharges pollutants into air or water [22]. 2. source originating over broad areas, such as areas of fertilizer and pesticide application and leaking sewer systems, rather than from discrete points [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for western-australia (Keyword) returned 11 results for the whole karstbase:
HALITE SALTERN IN THE CANNING BASIN, WESTERN-AUSTRALIA - A SEDIMENTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DRILL CORE FROM THE ORDOVICIAN-SILURIAN MALLOWA SALT, 1992, Cathro Dl, Warren Jk, Williams Ge,
The Late Ordovician-Early Silurian Mallowa Salt of the Carribuddy Group, Canning Basin, north-west Australia, is the largest halite deposit known in Australia, attaining thicknesses of 800 m or more within an area of approximately 200 000 km2. Study of 675 m of drill core from BHP-Utah Minerals' Brooke No. 1 well in the Willara Sub-basin indicates that the Mallowa Salt accumulated within a saltern (dominantly subaqueous evaporite water body) that was subject to recurrent freshening, desiccation and exposure. Textures and bromine signatures imply a shallow water to ephemeral hypersaline environment typified by increasing salinity and shallowing into evaporitic mudflat conditions toward the top of halite-mudstone cycles (Type 2) and the less common dolomite/anhydrite-halite-mudstone cycles (Type 1). The borate mineral priceite occurs in the capping mudstones of some cycles, reinforcing the idea of an increasing continental influence toward the top of mudstone-capped halite cycles. The rock salt in both Type 1 and Type 2 cycles typically comprises a mosaic of large, randomly orientated, interlocking halite crystals that formed during early diagenesis. It only partially preserves a primary sedimentary fabric of vertically elongate crystals, some with remnant aligned chevrons. Intraformational hiati, halite karst tubes and solution pits attest to episodic dissolution. Stacked Type 2 cycles dominate; occasional major recharges of less saline, perhaps marine, waters in the same area produced Type 1 cycles. The envisaged saltern conditions were comparable in many ways to those prevailing during the deposition of halite cycles of the Permian Salado Formation in New Mexico and the Permian San Andres Formation of the Palo Duro Basin area in Texas. However, in the Canning Basin the cycles are characterized by a much lower proportion of anhydrite, implying perhaps a greater degree of continental restriction to the basin. The moderately high level of bromine in the Mallowa Salt (156.5 43.5 ppm Br for primary halite, 146.1 54.7 ppm Br for secondary halite) accords with evolved continental brines, although highly evaporative minerals such as polyhalite and magnesite are absent. The bromine levels suggest little or no dissolution/reprecipitation of primary halite and yet, paradoxically, there is little preservation of the primary depositional fabric. The preservation of early halite cements and replacement textures supports the idea of an early shutdown of brine flow paths, probably at burial depths of no more than a few metres, and the resultant preservation of primary bromine values in the secondary halite

Evaporites, brines and base metals: What is an evaporite? Defining the rock matrix, 1996, Warren J. K. ,
This paper, the first of three reviews on the evaporite-base-metal association, defines the characteristic features of evaporites in surface and subsurface settings. An evaporite is a rock that was originally precipitated from a saturated surface or near-surface brine in hydrological systems driven by solar evaporation. Evaporite minerals, especially the sulfates such as anhydrite and gypsum, are commonly found near base-metal deposits. Primary evaporites are defined as those salts formed directly via solar evaporation of hypersaline waters at the earth's surface. They include beds of evaporitic carbonates (laminites, pisolites, tepees, stromatolites and other organic rich sediment), bottom nucleated salts (e.g. chevron halite and swallow-tail gypsum crusts), and mechanically reworked salts (such as rafts, cumulates, cross-bedded gypsarenites, turbidites, gypsolites and halolites). Secondary evaporites encompass the diagenetically altered evaporite salts, such as sabkha anhydrites, syndepositional halite and gypsum karst, anhydritic gypsum ghosts, and more enigmatic burial associations such as mosaic halite and limpid dolomite, and nodular anhydrite formed during deep burial. The latter group, the burial salts, were precipitated under the higher temperatures of burial and form subsurface cements and replacements often in a non-evaporite matrix. Typically they formed from subsurface brines derived by dissolution of an adjacent evaporitic bed. Because of their proximity to 'true' evaporite beds, most authors consider them a form of 'true' evaporite. Under the classification of this paper they are a burial form of secondary evaporites. Tertiary evaporites form in the subsurface from saturated brines created by partial bed dissolution during re-entry into the zone of active phreatic circulation. The process is often driven by basin uplift and erosion. They include fibrous halite and gypsum often in shale hosts, as well as alabastrine gypsum and porphyroblastic gypsum crystals in an anhydritic host. In addition to these 'true' evaporites, there is another group of salts composed of CaSO4 or halite. These are the hydrothermal salts. Hydrothermal salts, especially hydrothermal anhydrite, form by the subsurface cooling or mixing of CaSO4- saturated hydrothermal waters or by the ejection of hot hydrothermal water into a standing body of seawater or brine. Hydrothermal salts are poorly studied but often intimately intermixed with sulfides in areas of base-metal accumulations such as the Kuroko ores in Japan or the exhalative brine deeps in the Red Sea. In ancient sediments and metasediments, especially in hydrothermally influenced active rifts and compressional belts, the distinction of this group of salts from 'true' evaporites is difficult and at times impossible. After a discussion of hydrologies and 'the evaporite that was' in the second review, modes and associations of the hydrothermal salts will be discussed more fully in the third review

Rillenkarren in the British Isles, 1996, Vincent P. ,
This paper presents the first descriptions of rillenkarren in the British Isles. Rillenkarren are widely developed at two 'classic' karst locations, namely: the Burren coast of Co. Clare, Ireland, and the Morecambe Bay area of north west England. Rillenkarren are also found on hard Cretaceous chalks of Northern Ireland and Carboniferous limestones on the Anglesey coast, north Wales. The limestones at all sires are very hard, extremely pure and dolomite poor. A logit regression model is developed, based on published rillenkarren data from the Napier Range, Western Australia. The model suggests that the two rock properties, % calcite in the rock fabric and % calcite in the micrite cement are key variables in explaining the presence of rillenkarren. Within the context of the model, these two explanatory variables define a feasible domain for the development of rillenkarren. British rillenkarren data satisfy the conditions of this model

Paleokarst in an Upper Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia, 1997, George Ad, Powell Cm,

Fault and stratigraphic controls on volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits in the Strelley Belt, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, 1998, Vearncombe S. , Vearncombe J. R. , Barley M. E. ,
Early Archaean, Fe-Zn-Cu volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits of the Strelley Belt, Pilbara Craton. occur at the top of a volcanic dominated sequence, at the interface of felsic volcanic rucks and siliceous laminites, beneath an unconformity overlain by elastic sedimentary rocks. The structure of the Sulphur Springs and Kangaroo Caves VMS deposits is relatively simple, with the present morphology reflecting original deposition rather than significant structural modification. The rocks have been tilted giving an oblique cross-sectional view of discordant high-angle, deep penetrating faults in the footwall, which splay close to the zones of voltcanogenic massive sulphide mineralization. Faults do not extend far into the overlying sedimentary cover, indicating their syn-volcanic and syn-mineralization timing. Both the Sulphur Springs and Kangaroo Caves sulphide deposits are located within elevated grabens in a setting similar to massive sulphide mineralization in modern back-are environments. Mineralization at Sulphur Springs and Kangaroo Caves is located at the edge of the grabens, at the site of intersecting syn-volcanic extensional faults.

Iron oxide-rich filaments: Possible fossil bacteria in Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, 2001, Provencio P. P. , Polyak V. J. ,
Reddish filaments in two fragments of unusual iron oxide bearing stalactites, 'the Rusticles' from Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, are found only within the central canals of the Rusticles. The curved, helical, and/or vibrioidal filaments vary from 1 to 6 mum in outer diameter and 10 to >50 mum in length. SEM and TEM show the filaments have 0.5-mum diameter central tubes, with goethite crystals radiating outwardly along their lengths. The diameter of the central tubes is consistent with the diameter of many iron-oxidizing filamentous bacteria. Although most iron oxide depositing bacteria do not deposit well-crystallized radiating goethite, we propose thick hydrous iron oxide was slowly crystallized from amorphous material to goethite, in place, over a relatively long period of time. From the gross morphology and the particular setting, we suggest this represents an occurrence of fossilized, acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria

Relationships between morphology, genetics and geography in the cave fruit bat Eonycteris spelaea (Dobson, 1871) from Indonesia, 2003, Maharadatunkamsi, Hisheh S. , Kitchener D. J. , Schmitt L. H. ,
Morphological and genetic analyses of Eonycteris spelaea from 15 islands along the Banda Arc, from Sumatra to Timor and including Kalimantan and Sulawesi, revealed considerable divergence between islands and geographical patterning. On the basis of both morphology and genetics, the populations on the large islands of Greater Sunda (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi) are generally distinct from one another and from those on the islands in Nusa Tenggara (Lombok to Timor), which form a more cohesive cluster. These differences may be the result of the Nusa Tenggara populations having been colonized more recently than those on the Greater Sunda, and probably from a single source. All biological measures of the relationships between island populations are positively associated with the extent of the sea-crossing between them, indicating the sea is an important barrier to movement. Multivariate analyses show the presence of a marked trend for body size to increase from west to east. However, individuals from Kalimantan are not consistent with this trend, being smaller than predicted, and on the two outer Banda Are islands of Sumba and Timor animals are a little larger than predicted from the longitudinal trend. These differences could be due to the relative isolation of these populations or differing environmental conditions. There is also a negative relationship between body size and island area, but this is confounded by the longitudinal trend. No significant longitudinal trends in the genetic data were detected and the trend in body size may be an adaptive response to an environmental cline that is known to occur in this region. (C) 2003 The Linnean Society of London

Hydrothermal mixing, carbonate dissolution and sulfide precipitation in Mississippi Valley-type deposits, 2004, Corbella M, Ayora C, Cardellach E,
A large number of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) deposits are located within dissolution zones in carbonate host rocks. Some genetic models propose the existence of cavities generated by an earlier event such as a shallow karstification, that were subsequently filled with hydrothermal minerals. Alternative models propose carbonate dissolution caused by the simultaneous precipitation of sulfides. These models fail to explain either the deep geological setting of the cavities, or the observational features which suggest that the dissolution of carbonates and the precipitation of minerals filling the cavities are not strictly coeval. We present a genetic model inspired by the textural characteristics of MVT deposits that accounts for both the dissolution of carbonate and precipitation of sulfides and later carbonates in variable volumes. The model is based on the mixing of two hydrothermal fluids with a different chemistry. Depending on the proportion of the end members, the mixture dissolves and precipitates carbonates even though the two mixing solutions are both independently saturated in carbonates. We perform reactive transport simulations of mixing of a regional groundwater and brine ascending through a fracture, both saturated in calcite, but with different overall chemistries (Ca and carbonate concentrations, pH, etc). As a result of the intrinsic effects of chemical mixing, a carbonate dissolution zone, which is enhanced by acid brines, appears above the fracture, and another zone of calcite precipitation builds up between the cavity and the surrounding rock. Sulfide forms near the fracture and occupies a volume smaller than the cavity. A decline of the fluid flux in the fracture would cause the precipitation of calcite within the previously formed cavities. Therefore, dissolution of carbonate host rock, sulfide precipitation within the forming cavity, and later filling by carbonates may be part of the same overall process of mixing of fluids in the carbonate host rock

Sequence Biostratigraphy of Prograding Clinoforms, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia: A Proxy for Variations in Oligocene to Pliocene Global Sea Level?, 2004, Moss Graham D. , Cathro Donna L. , Austin James A. Jr. ,
Sequence biostratigraphic analyses from five industry wells in the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), Western Australia, are tied to seismic stratigraphic interpretations from a set of 3D and 2D seismic data. Distribution patterns of [~]286 benthic and 73 planktonic foraminiferal taxa in sidewall cores and ditch cuttings from Eocene to Pliocene intervals are documented and supplemented with observations of other fossil groups (e.g., fragments of ostracodes, bryozoans, corals, and mollusks) and lithological components such as calcite cement and quartz sand. Preservation of foraminiferal assemblages is extremely variable in latest Eocene to Pliocene stratigraphy, depending upon the location of wells and the interval investigated. Nonetheless, consistent, detectable faunal signals correlate between wells and with prominent seismic horizons and sequences. The late Oligocene to middle Miocene is characterized by deeper-water benthic assemblages dominated by infaunal taxa and a high planktonic abundance. Stratigraphic events in the middle Miocene, including turnover in benthic foraminifera, are interpreted to record a regional flooding event (equivalent to cycle Tejas B (TB) 2.3) at the beginning of the mid-Miocene climatic optimum ([~]16-14.5 Ma). Following this event, seismically defined geomorphic features include karstification on the shelf and incision on the clinoform front. All wells show a major transition to shallow-water, warm conditions on the shelf in the middle and late Miocene, with benthic assemblages dominated by larger foraminifera. This transition appears higher in more-basinward wells and appears to be a result of progradation. Geomorphic features in the late middle Miocene ([~]12 Ma) identified from 3D seismic analyses show an intensification of earlier gully formation, resulting in the development of submarine canyons. Detailed analyses of faunal patterns also provide evidence of higher-frequency sea-level fluctuations (0.5-3 Ma), not detected in the seismic stratigraphic patterns

Aquifers: the ultimate groundwater-dependent ecosystems, 2006, Humphreys W. F. ,
Australian aquifers support diverse metazoan faunas comprising obligate groundwater inhabitants, largely crustaceans but also including insects, worms, gastropods, mites and fish. They typically comprise short-range endemics, often of relictual lineages and sometimes widely vicariant from their closest relatives. They have been confined to subterranean environments from a range of geological eras and may contain information on the deep history of aquifers. Obligate groundwater fauna ( stygobites) occurs in the void spaces in karst, alluvial and fractured rock aquifers. They have convergent morphologies ( reduction or loss of eyes, pigment, enhanced nonoptic senses, vermiform body form) and depend on energy imported from the surface except in special cases of in situ chemoautotrophic energy fixation. In Australia, many stygofaunas in arid areas occur in brackish to saline waters, although they contain taxa from lineages generally restricted to freshwater systems. They may occur alongside species belonging to taxa considered typical of the marine littoral although far removed in space and time from marine influence. The ecological attributes of stygofauna makes them vulnerable to changes in habitat, which, combined with their taxonomic affinities, makes them a significant issue to biodiversity conservation. The interaction of vegetation and groundwater ecosystems is discussed and, in places, there are conservation issues common to both

The Genesis of the Hope Downs Iron Ore Deposit, Hamersley Province, Western Australia, 2006, Lascelles Desmond F. ,
The banded iron formation (BIF)-hosted Hope Downs high-grade hematite ore deposits are situated within the Marra Mamba Iron Formation with subsidiary deposits in the Brockman Iron Formation of the Archean to Proterozoic Hamersley Group of Western Australia. The main orebody extends to 260 m below the surface and is unusually rich in martite (pseudomorphous hematite after magnetite) and poor in limonite and goethite compared to other ore deposits of the Marra Mamba Iron Formation. The high-grade hematite ore is mainly within the Newman Member but also occurs in parts of the Nammuldi Member together with low-grade limonitic ore that becomes high grade after calcining. Karst erosion of the overlying Wittenoom Formation has produced steep-sided buried valleys adjacent to the in situ orebodies that contain thick deposits (<160 m) of goethitic and sideritic sediments, including remnants of Robe Pisolite Formation, bedded siderite, hematite gravels, red ochreous detrital material, and enriched scree deposits that are additional sources of ore. The ore consists of low phosphorous martite-limonite-goethite derived from chert-free BIF by supergene weathering. No evidence of the complete carbonate replacement of chert has been found at Hope Downs nor were any traces of preexisting chert bands seen in the ore, despite the abundance of chert bands in BIF elsewhere. A variety of textures and composition shown by cherty BIF adjacent to the orebodies is described from which the origin of the chert-free BIF is inferred, including sedimentary structures consistent with density-current deposition. A model is presented for the origin of the host iron formation and the ore deposits, in which density currents transported reworked iron silicates and hydroxides in colloidal suspension onto an unstable sea floor. The amorphous silica produced during diagenesis of Al-poor iron silicates formed the characteristic chert bands of BIF but some of the hydrous amorphous silica was lost prior to lithification to form chert-free BIF. Weathering of the chert-free BIF produced the high-grade hematite ore that is exposed today

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