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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That alternative is adjective used to designate an intake or resurgence operating only during rainy seasons; in some areas reversible; equivalent to intermittent. also used as a noun [10].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for yucatan peninsula (Keyword) returned 24 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 24
Hydrogeologic Constraints on Yucatan's Development, 1974, Doehring Do, Butler Jh,
The Republic of Mexico has an ambitious and effective national water program. The Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos (SRH), whose director has cabinet rank in the federal government, is one of the most professionally distinguished government agencies of its kind in the Americas. Resources for the Future, Inc., has been assisting the World Bank with a water planning study which the Bank is undertaking jointly with the Mexican government. The study is intended to provide guidelines for the development of government policies and projects designed to bring about the most efficient use of Mexico's water resources. However, to date, their study has not been directed toward the growing problems of the northern Yucataan Peninsula which are discussed here.LeGrand (13) suggested that man has inherited a harsh environment in carbonate terranes. In the case of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, the physical environment creates a set of hydrogeologic constraints to future economic and social development. Planning for intermediate and long-range land use on the peninsula must be related directly to the limited and fragile groundwater source. Continued contamination will make future aquifer management a difficult challenge for federal, state, and territorial agencies. We conclude that any strategy for long-range land use in the study area should include establishment of a regional aquifermonitoring network for long-term measurements of key hydrogeologic parameters, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, water table elevations, and water quality. Information from this network would flow into a central facility for storage, interpretation, and analysis. At present the SRH is collecting some of these data. Expansion of the existing program to provide sound information for regional planning will greatly benefit present as well as future generations. If such a program is implemented, it will represent a model for regional planning in other tropical and subtropical karstic terrains

Role of groundwater in shaping the Eastern Coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, 1984, Back W. , Hanshaw B. B. , Van Driel J. N.

HYDROGEOLOGY OF GRAND CAYMAN, BRITISH-WEST-INDIES - A KARSTIC DOLOSTONE AQUIFER, 1992, Ng K. C. , Jones B. , Beswick R. ,
On Grand Cayman, freshwater bodies present in the Bluff Formation are typically small and occur as thin lenses floating on top of dense saline water. Evaluation of the water resource potential of these freshwater lenses is difficult because of their variable hydrological conditions, complex paleohydrogeology and aquifer heterogeneity. Secondary porosity created by preferential dissolution of aragonitic fossil components is common. Open fissures and joints developed under tectonic stress and karst development associated with sea-level fluctuations are, however, the two most important causes of porosity and permeability in the aquifers on Grand Cayman. Fracture and karst porosity control the lens occurrence by: (1) acting as avenues for the intrusion of seawater or upward migration of saline water; (2) acting as recharge focal points; (3) enhancing hydrodynamic dispersion; (4) defining lens geometry; (5) facilitating carbonate dissolution along joints and fissures. A clear understanding of the hydrological and geological conditions is important in developing small lenses in a setting similar to that on Grand Cayman. This pragmatic approach can help identify the optimum location of the well field and avoid areas particularly susceptible to saline water intrusion

THE OCCURRENCE AND EFFECT OF SULFATE REDUCTION AND SULFIDE OXIDATION ON COASTAL LIMESTONE DISSOLUTION IN YUCATAN CENOTES, 1993, Stoessell R. K. , Moore Y. H. , Coke J. G. ,
Dissolution of carbonate minerals in the coastal halocline is taking place in the karst terrain along the northeastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The dissolution is being accelerated in cenotes (sinkholes) where sulfate reduction and oxidation of the produced sulfide is occurring. Hydrogen-sulfide concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 4 mmolal within the halocline in two sinkholes. Relative to concentrations expected by conservative mixing, fluids with high hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were correlated with low sulfate concentrations, high alkalinities, low pH values, and heavy sulfur isotope values for sulfate. Hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were less than those predicted from sulfate reduction, calculated from deficiencies in measured sulfate concentrations, indicating mobility and loss of aqueous sulfide. Fluids with low hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were correlated with very high calcium concentrations, high strontium and sulfate concentrations, slightly elevated alkalinities, low pH values, and sea-water sulfur isotope values for sulfate. Gypsum dissolution is supported by the sulfur isotopes as the major process producing high sulfate concentrations. However, oxidation of aqueous sulfide to sulfuric acid, resulting in carbonate-mineral dissolution is needed to explain the calcium concentrations, low pH values, and only slightly elevated alkalinities. The halocline may trap hydrogen sulfide that has been stripped from the underlying anoxic salt water. The halocline can act as a stable, physical boundary, holding some of the hydrogen sulfide until it is oxidized back to sulfuric acid through interaction with the overlying, oxygenated fresh water or through the activity of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria

La plate-forme du Yucatn (Mexique), 1995, Heraudpia, M. A.
The Platform of the Yucatan peninsula, south of Mexico, is constituted by a tertiary carbonated series (Eocene to Pliocene). The karst landforms are a "Kuppenkarst" whose positive reliefs are more conspicuous in the centre because of greater altitude (0 to 400 m). Most caves are developed under the base level. The cenote corres-ponds to drowned pits which can be 100 m deep or more. The flooded caves, like Nohoch Nah Chich (40km long), are the longest in the world. The history of karstification began during the Tertiary, between the end of Eocene to Pliocene in relation with uplift. The crypto-dissolution occurs under an alte-ritic cover which comes from a former silicated detritic cover (south peninsula crystalline massif). Speleogenesis depends on the halocline i.e. mixing corrosion zone (salt water/fresh water) and the fluctuations of the sea level.

DAMPENING OF TRANSVERSE DISPERSION IN THE HALOCLINE IN KARST LIMESTONE IN THE NORTHEASTERN YUCATAN PENINSULA, 1995, Stoessell R. K. ,
A range of hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients was estimated for fracture-fluid and combined fracture and pore-fluid now within the halocline of the limestone aquifer forming the surface of the northern Yucatan Peninsula. The coefficients are fit parameters in a model reproducing observed halocline profiles in a sinkhole and in a borehole near the northeastern coast. Fitted coefficients range from 10(-7) to 10(-4) cm(2)/sec, of which molecular diffusion, without transverse (vertical) dispersion, can account for 10(-7) to 10(-5) cm(2)/sec. The mechanical stability of the vertical density gradient in the halocline dampens transverse dispersion in pore fluids and in fracture fluids that are transitional between laminar and turbulent flow. The dampening is proportional to the ratio of the energy needed for the fluid to rise and displace a less dense fluid to the vertical component of the kinetic energy of the fluid. The ratio of these two energies is at a maximum during the initial stage of development of a halocline and decreases as the halocline widens

Hydrogeological investigations in northwestern Yucatan, Mexico, using resistivity surveys, 1996, Steinich B. , Marin L. E. ,
Eight Schlumberger soundings and four Wenner anisotropy measurements were conducted in the northwestern section of the Yucatan Peninsula for hydrogeological investigations of a karst aquifer. This system is influenced by a circular high permeability zone (Ring of Cenotes) probably related to the Chicxulub Impact Crater. Schlumberger soundings and Wenner anisotropy measurements show that the karst aquifer can be modeled as an electrically anisotropic medium. Anisotropy is related to preferential permeability directions channeling ground-water flow within the aquifer. Directions of maximum permeability were determined using Wenner anisotropy measurements. Electrical soundings were conducted at different sites near the Ring of Cenotes. Resistivity values decrease toward the Ring of Cenotes supporting the hypothesis that selected segments of the Ring have high permeability. Several soundings were conducted in order to study lateral permeability variations along the Ring. A high permeability section can be identified by low resistivity models and is related to a zone of high cenote density. A low permeability section of the Ring was found showing high resistivity models. This zone overlaps with an area of low cenote density. Electrical soundings were used to determine the depth of the fresh-water lens; the interface was detected along two profiles perpendicular and parallel to the Ring of Cenotes resulting in a depth that ranged from 18 m near the coast up to 110 m in the southeastern part of the study area. The predicted depths of the interface using electrical methods showed a good correlation with Ghyben-Herzberg and measured interface depths at some sites. Discrepancies between calculated and interpreted interface depths at two sites may be explained by horizontal-to-vertical permeability anisotropy

Aspects hydrogologiques du Yucatan (Mexique), 1999, Thomas, Christian
The submersed karsts also know as plain karsts are highly developed in the Yucatan peninsula. Cave diving explo_rations, physical and chemical measu_rements (water discharge, chemical analysis of the water, water table altitu_de, a.s.o) allow an indirect estimation of the main hydrogeological parameters of these karsts: infiltration ratio, fresh water reserves, pollution by the salty water, tide influence, karstic erosion... Comparisons are given with other karsts: Lifou (French New-Caledonia) and Nullarbor.

Conduit hydrogeology of a tropical coastal carbonate aquifer. MSc thesis, 1999, Beddows, P. A

The aim of this study is to investigate the hydrogeology of the submerged conduit systems of a coastal carbonate aquifer (Caribbean coast, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico), and thereby better understand their significance as large permeability heterogeneities. A complex spatial trend in conduit flow rates (determined by quantitative fluorescent dye tracing initiated 6 km inland) was found, including significant velocity variation between consecutive conduit segments. Elevated coastal velocities under low tide conditions are shown by salinity profiling, to be induced by the volumetric increase of discharging water from mixing with marine water. Semi-diurnal micro-tidal loading is sufficient to induce flooding from the sea into the conduits at one coastal discharge point, and significantly reduce flow rates at another. Furthermore, a network of four observation sites extending 5 km inland indicates efficient propagation of the ~0.30 m tidal signal through the Nohoch Nah Chich conduit system, a distance several time greater than previously appreciated in this environment. The field results clearly indicate that the hydrogeological flux is dominated by cavernous porosity, and that the aquifer is dynamically responsive to the high-frequency low-magnitude tidal loading to a significant distance inland. Conventional coastal groundwater models such as the Ghyben-Herzberg lens model, assume isotropic homogeneous equivalent-porous-medium conditions. Because the corollaries of the conventional models are inconsistent with the field evidence, they are inapplicable in this environment. It is hoped that these results will aid future modelling efforts, and improve our capacity to manage the valuable groundwater resources which represents the unique source of potable water to the local population.


Symposium Abstract: Hydrodynamics of the density stratified carbonate aquifer of the Yucatan peninsular, Mexico, 2001, Beddows P. A. , Smart P. L. , Whitaker F. F. , Smith S. L.

Spaceborne imaging radar-C (SIR-C) observations of groundwater discharge and wetlands associated with the Chicxulub impact crater, northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, 2001, Pope Kevin O. , Rejmankova Eliska, Paris Jack F. ,
Analyses of spaceborne imaging radar-C (SIR-C) data and field data from the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, demonstrate that spaceborne multifrequency polarimetric radars are excellent tools for characterizing patterns of wetland flooding. Seasonal flooding can be detected in most types of forest and marsh in the radar backscatter magnitude and phase data of both L and C band. Field observations made in the wet and dry seasons concurrent with the space missions and chemical analyses of floodwaters confirm that flooding is the product of discharge from the Yucatan aquifer, which consists of a fresh-water lens floating on seawater. This discharge controls the distribution of wetlands. Therefore, vegetation and flooding patterns, mapped with SIR-C imagery, provide valuable information on the hydrogeology of the region. Radar-image maps of wetlands and flooding indicate that there are three major zones of groundwater discharge that correlate with structures of the buried Chicxulub crater--zone 1 with the peak ring, zone 2 with the crater rim, and zone 3 with the exterior ring. Zone 1 has sulfate-poor discharge, unlike the sulfate-rich discharge in zones 2 and 3. The highest discharge is in zone 3, where the buried crater is closest to the surface. This groundwater-discharge pattern can be explained by tidal pumping of fresh water to the surface through high permeability zones developed in the Tertiary carbonates overlying crater faults and escarpments

Designation of protected karstlands in Central America: A regional assessment, 2002, Kueny, J. A. , Day, M. J.
The IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas has recognized karst landscapes as important targets for designation as protected areas, and this study is a regional inventory of the Central American karst conservation situation. Central America is a significant international carbonate karst landscape, covering ~154,000 km2, roughly a quarter of the regional land area. The karstlands exhibit considerable topographic diversity, including cockpit and tower styles, together with extensive dry valleys, cave systems and springs. Some of the karst areas are well known, but others have yet to receive detailed scientific attention. Many of them have archaeological, historical, cultural, biological, aesthetic and recreational significance, but human impacts have been considerable. Conservation and protection legislation is variable in nature and effectiveness, and enforcement is problematic. About 18% of the Central American karst landscape has been afforded nominal protection through designation as protected areas. Regional levels of karstland protection are highly variable, with significant protection in the Yucatan peninsula, Honduras, and Belize; intermediate protection in Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama; and, as yet, no protected areas in Nicaragua or El Salvador. The situation remains fluid and the future of the Central American karstlands uncertain.

Groundwater-flow modeling in the Yucatan karstic aquifer, Mexico, 2002, Gonzalezherrera R. , Pinto I. , Gamboavargas J. ,
The current conceptual model of the unconfined karstic aquifer in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, is that a fresh-water lens floats above denser saline water that penetrates more than 40 km inland. The transmissivity of the aquifer is very high so the hydraulic gradient is very low, ranging from 7-10 mm/km through most of the northern part of the peninsula. The computer modeling program AQUIFER was used to investigate the regional groundwater flow in the aquifer. The karstified zone was modeled using the assumption that it acts hydraulically similar to a granular, porous medium. As part of the calibration, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) karstic features play an important role in the groundwater-flow system; (2) a ring or belt of sinkholes in the area is a manifestation of a zone of high transmissivity that facilitates the channeling of groundwater toward the Gulf of Mexico; and (3) the geologic features in the southern part of Yucatan influence the groundwater-flow system. The model shows that the Sierrita de Ticul fault, in the southwestern part of the study area, acts as a flow barrier and head values decline toward the northeast. The modeling also shows that the regional flow-system dynamics have not been altered despite the large number of pumping wells because the volume of water pumped is small compared with the volume of recharge, and the well-developed karst system of the region has a very high hydraulic conductivity

The hydrogeochemistry of the karst aquifer system of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, 2002, Perry E. , Velazquezoliman G. , Marin L. ,
Based on groundwater geochemistry, stratigraphy, and surficial and tectonic characteristics, the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, a possible analog for ancient carbonate platforms, is divided into six hydrogeochemical/physiographic regions: (1) Chicxulub Sedimentary Basin, a Tertiary basin within the Chicxulub impact crater; (2) Cenote Ring, a semicircular region of sinkholes; (3) Pockmarked Terrain, a region of mature karst; (4) Ticul fault zone; (5) Holbox Fracture Zone-Xel-Ha Zone; and (6) Evaporite Region. Regional characteristics result from tectonics, rock type, and patterns of sedimentation, erosion, and rainfall. The Cenote Ring, characterized by high groundwater flow, outlines the Chicxulub Basin. Most groundwater approaches saturation in calcite and dolomite but is undersaturated in gypsum. Important groundwater parameters are: SO4/Cl ratios related to seawater mixing and sulfate dissolution; Sr correlation with SO4, and saturation of Lake Chichancanab water with celestite. indicating celestite as a major source of Sr; high Sr in deep water of cenotes, indicating deep circulation and contact of groundwater with evaporite; and correlation of Ca, Mg, and SO4, probably related to gypsum dissolution and dedolomitization. Based on geochemistry we propose: (1) a fault between Lake Chichancanab and Cenote Azul; (2) deep seaward movement of groundwater near Cenote Azul; and (3) contribution of evaporite dissolution to karst development in the Pockmarked Terrain. Chemical erosion by mixing-zone dissolution is important in formation of Estuario Celestun and other estuaries, but is perhaps inhibited at Lake Bacalar where groundwater dissolves gypsum, is high in Ca, low in CO3, and does not become undersaturated in calcite when mixed with seawater

Density stratified groundwater circulation on the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, 2002, Beddows P. A. , Smart P. L. , Whitaker F. F. , Smith S. L.

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